Information on EC 2.7.11.27 - [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] kinase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Euarchontoglires

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.7.11.27
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
[acetyl-CoA carboxylase] kinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] = ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
phospho group transfer
-
-
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP:[acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphotransferase
Phosphorylates and inactivates EC 6.4.1.2, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which can be dephosphorylated and reactivated by EC 3.1.3.17, [phosphorylase] phosphatase. The enzyme is more active towards the dimeric form of acetyl-CoA carboxylase than the polymeric form [5]. Phosphorylates serine residues.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase kinase (phosphorylating)
-
-
-
-
acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase
-
-
-
-
acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase (cAMP-independent)
-
-
-
-
acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase-2
-
-
-
-
acetyl-CoA carboxylase kinase-3 (AMP-activated)
-
-
-
-
acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase kinase
-
-
-
-
ACK2
-
-
-
-
ACK3
-
-
-
-
AMPK
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
77000-06-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
lean and obese Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Holtzman rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male sprague-dawley rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Wistar Hannover rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
response to 24 h starvation and high fat feeding
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + ATP-citrate lyase
ADP + (ATP-citrate lyase) phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + casein
ADP + phosphocasein
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + glycogen synthase
ADP + (glycogen synthase) phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + histone
ADP + phosphohistone
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + histone
ADP + phosphohistone
show the reaction diagram
-
histone H1 and H2B, very high activity with histone H2B
-
-
?
ATP + phosphorylase kinase
ADP + (phosphorylase kinase) phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
-
?
ATP + phosvitin
ADP + phosvitin phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + protamine
ADP + protamine phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + pyruvate kinase L
ADP + (pyruvate kinase L) phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
very poor substrate
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no increase in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no increase in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates Ser77 and Ser1200
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inactivation of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
incorporates 0.6 mol phosphate per mol of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
incorporates 0.6 mol phosphate per mol of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
incorporates 1.5 mol phosphate per mol of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
incorporates 0.45 mol phosphate per mol of carboxylase
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in insulin dependent regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in vivo
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
acetyl-CoA carboxylase bound kinase involved in regulation in vivo
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
most likely candidate for acetyl-CoA carboxylase inactivation in vivo
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
ACK3 and not ACK2 appears to be responsible for acetyl-CoA carboxylase inactivation in lactating mammary gland
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in muscle at metabolic stress conditions
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in muscle at metabolic stress conditions
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
acetyl-CoA carboxylase from skeletal muscle is more potently inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA after having been phosphorylated by AMPK. This may contribute to low muscle malonyl-CoA values and increasing fatty acid oxidation rates during long-term exercise when plasma fatty acid concentrations are elevated
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
AMPK causes phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which reduces the production of malonyl-CoA
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
AMPKalpha negatively regulates activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and hepatic lipid content
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
changes in activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase could be coordinated by AMPK
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
covalent activation of heart AMP-activated protein kinase in response to physiological concentrations of long-chain fatty acids, activation by an unknown fatty acid-driven signalling process
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase, i.e. AMPK/ACC, pathway plays an important role in the control of food intake and energy expenditure, overview
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with phosphorylase b and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with phosphorylase b
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
leptin stimulates fatty acid oxidation via the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Obesity is associated with resistance to the effects of leptin, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the ezyme activity in liver is associated to insulin signal transduction, overview
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in insulin dependent regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in vivo
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylates and inactivates acetyl-CoA carboxylase, (EC 6.4.1.2), and is therefore involved in regulation of long chain fatty acid synthesis
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
acetyl-CoA carboxylase bound kinase involved in regulation in vivo
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
most likely candidate for acetyl-CoA carboxylase inactivation in vivo
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
ACK3 and not ACK2 appears to be responsible for acetyl-CoA carboxylase inactivation in lactating mammary gland
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in muscle at metabolic stress conditions
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
regulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in muscle at metabolic stress conditions
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
acetyl-CoA carboxylase from skeletal muscle is more potently inhibited by palmitoyl-CoA after having been phosphorylated by AMPK. This may contribute to low muscle malonyl-CoA values and increasing fatty acid oxidation rates during long-term exercise when plasma fatty acid concentrations are elevated
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
AMPK causes phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which reduces the production of malonyl-CoA
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
AMPKalpha negatively regulates activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and hepatic lipid content
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
changes in activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase could be coordinated by AMPK
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
covalent activation of heart AMP-activated protein kinase in response to physiological concentrations of long-chain fatty acids, activation by an unknown fatty acid-driven signalling process
-
-
?
ATP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase]
ADP + [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase, i.e. AMPK/ACC, pathway plays an important role in the control of food intake and energy expenditure, overview
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
leptin stimulates fatty acid oxidation via the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Obesity is associated with resistance to the effects of leptin, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the ezyme activity in liver is associated to insulin signal transduction, overview
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Mg2+
-
required
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate
-
-
alpha-glycerophosphate
-
-
AMP
-
7% inhibition at 0.8 mM
ARA-A
-
a competitive inhibitor of AMPK
beta-Glycerophosphate
-
-
citrate
-
strong inhibitor of the hypothalamic and the hepatic enzyme after intracerebroventricular injection and during fasting, rats treated with citrate present improved insulin signal transduction in liver, skeletal muscle, and epididymal fat pad, overview, no influence on enzyme expression
CoA
-
16% inhibition at 0.1 mM
Insulin
-
-
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
AMP
-
activates ACK3, no effect on ACK2
AMP
-
activation of ACK3 with Ka: 0.5 mM
AMP
-
no effect
ATP
-
required
cAMP-dependent protein kinase
-
phosphorylates and activates carboxylase kinase
-
CoA
-
most effective at 0.1 mM
CoA
-
required, activates exclusively activity towards acetyl-CoA carboxylase, Ka: 0.025 mM, binds to carboxylase not to kinase
CoA
-
required
CoA
-
inhibitory
CoA
-
no effect
Deamino-CoA
-
-
dephospho-CoA
-
-
Oxidized CoA
-
-
leptin
-
stimulates fatty acid oxidation via the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the stimulation by leptin is muscle fibre type-dependent and fails in diet-induced obesity
-
additional information
-
cAMP independent
-
additional information
-
covalent activation of heart AMP-activated protein kinase in response to physiological concentrations of long-chain fatty acids, activation by an unknown fatty acid-driven signalling process
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.000045
acetyl-CoA carboxylase
-
phosphorylated enzyme
-
0.00009
acetyl-CoA carboxylase
-
-
-
0.000093
acetyl-CoA carboxylase
-
-
-
0.0003
acetyl-CoA carboxylase
-
-
-
0.02
ATP
-
-
0.03
ATP
-
-
0.005
histone
-
-
0.0008
protamine
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
30
alpha-D-glucose 6-phosphate
-
-
20
alpha-glycerophosphate
-
-
10
beta-Glycerophosphate
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.008
-
purified enzyme
0.5
-
purified enzyme
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
40000
-
SDS-PAGE
640771
53000
-
SDS-PAGE, two bands
640772, 640775
65000
-
SDS-PAGE, two bands
640772, 640775
76000
-
gel filtration
640767
76000
-
ACK2; gel filtration
640769
90000
-
SDS-PAGE, two lighter bands at 40000 and 60000 Da detected
134902
105000
-
gel filtration ACK3
640769
130000
-
gel filtration
640775
160000 - 200000
-
gel filtration
134902
170000
-
SDS-PAGE
640764
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-
high molecular weight aggregates, gel filtration
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20°C, 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7, 2 mM EDTA, 10 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 20% glycerol, 4 weeks, no loss of activity
-
-70°C, partially purified kinase preparation, stable for several months, highly purified kinase is very labile and loses activity within 5 days
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
partial purification of ACK2 and ACK3
-