Information on EC 2.7.1.17 - xylulokinase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.7.1.17
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
xylulokinase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
ATP + D-xylulose = ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
phospho group transfer
-
-
-
-
Phosphorylation
-
-
Phosphorylation
-
-
Phosphorylation
Scheffersomyces stipitis FPL-YS30
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
D-arabitol degradation
-
Metabolic pathways
-
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
-
xylitol degradation
-
xylose degradation I
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
ATP:D-xylulose 5-phosphotransferase
-
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
1-deoxy-D-xylulokinase
-
-
D-xylulokinase
-
-
-
-
D-xylulokinase
Q4JHR4
-
D-xylulokinase
Q4JHR4
-
-
D-xylulokinase
-
-
D-xylulokinase
O75191
-
D-xylulokinase
F6JVF3
-
D-xylulokinase
Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777
F6JVF3
-
-
D-xylulokinase
Saccharomyces cerevisiae L2612
-
-
-
D-xylulose kinase
-
-
kinase (phosphorylating), xylulo
-
-
-
-
kinase, xylulo- (phosphorylating)
-
-
-
-
XK
-
-
-
-
XKS1
Saccharomyces cerevisiae L2612
-
-
-
XYL3
Q4JHR4
-
XYL3
Q4JHR4
-
-
XYL3
F6JVF3
gene name
XYL3
Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777
F6JVF3
gene name
-
xylokinase(phosphorylating)
-
-
-
-
xylulokinase
-
-
-
-
xylulokinase
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9030-58-4
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
expression in Escherichia coli
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
calf
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Xu316
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Xu316
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expressed as constitutive enzyme in Escherichia coli K12 construct strain NC260
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DELTAxylB mutant strain (PC07) with introduced xyl3 from Pichia stipitis, xylB encodes XK in Escherichia coli
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
DELTAxylB mutant strain (PC07), xylB encodes XK in Escherichia coli
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
His-tagged enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DH5alpha
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli DH5alpha
strain DH5alpha
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. aerogenes 1033, formerly Aerobacter aerogenes 1033, mutant strain KAY2026
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 124-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus pentosus 124-2
strain 124-2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
endogenous XYL3 gene
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS4732, thermotolerant, recombinant Hansenula polymorpha strain overexpressing the modified XR (K341R N343D) together with native XDH and XK on a DELTAxyl1 background; strain XRm/XDH/XK, overexpression of XK, thermotolerant; strain XRn/XDH/XK, overexpression of XK, thermotolerant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ogataea angusta XRm/XDH/XK
strain XRm/XDH/XK, overexpression of XK, thermotolerant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ogataea angusta XRn/XDH/XK
strain XRn/XDH/XK, overexpression of XK, thermotolerant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 8066
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain D452-2 D-XR/ARSdR; strain D452-2 D-XR/ARSdR/XK; strain D452-2 D-XR/XDH; strain D452-2 D-XR/XDH/XK
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain L2612
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TMB 3399 and mutant strain TMB 3400 derived from TMB399 and displaying improved ability to utilize xylose with higher expression of xylulokinase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS 8066
strain CBS 8066
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 D-XR/ARSdR
strain D452-2 D-XR/ARSdR
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 D-XR/ARSdR/XK
strain D452-2 D-XR/ARSdR/XK
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 D-XR/XDH
strain D452-2 D-XR/XDH
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 D-XR/XDH/XK
strain D452-2 D-XR/XDH/XK
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae L2612
strain L2612
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1B
W303-1B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain FPL-YS30
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Scheffersomyces stipitis FPL-YS30
strain FPL-YS30
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
over-expression onf enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
F6JVF3, -
disruption of XYL3 results in both loss of xylitol utilization and marked decrease in xylose utilization
malfunction
Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777
-
disruption of XYL3 results in both loss of xylitol utilization and marked decrease in xylose utilization
-
metabolism
-
the enzyme catalyses the last step of the glucuronate-xylulose pathway
metabolism
F6JVF3, -
the enzyme is critical for xylose and xylitol utilization
metabolism
Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777
-
the enzyme is critical for xylose and xylitol utilization
-
physiological function
-
engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae overexpressing GRE3, XYL2, and XYL3 can ferment xylose as well as a mixture of glucose and xylose with higher ethanol yields and productivities than those of an isogenic strain overexpressing XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 under oxygen-limited conditions
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose
ADP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose
ADP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose
ADP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the reaction constitutes a potential salvage pathway for the generation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate from exogenous or endogenous 1-deoxy-D-xylulose as starting material for the biosynthesis of terpenoids, thiamine and pyridoxal
-
?
ATP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose
ADP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli DH5alpha
-
-, the reaction constitutes a potential salvage pathway for the generation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate from exogenous or endogenous 1-deoxy-D-xylulose as starting material for the biosynthesis of terpenoids, thiamine and pyridoxal
-
?
ATP + D(+)-arabitol
ADP + D(+)-arabitol 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
76% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + D(+)-arabitol
ADP + D(+)-arabitol 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
76% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + D(-)-arabinose
ADP + D(-)arabinose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
97% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + D(-)-arabinose
ADP + D(-)arabinose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
97% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + D-arabitol
ADP + D-arabitol 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P09099
-
-
-
?
ATP + D-fructose
ADP + D-fructose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
F6JVF3, -
-
-
-
?
ATP + D-fructose
ADP + D-fructose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777
F6JVF3
-
-
-
?
ATP + D-glucose
ADP + D-glucose 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
100% activity
-
-
?
ATP + D-glucose
ADP + D-glucose 6-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
100% activity
-
-
?
ATP + D-ribose
ADP + D-ribose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
85% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + D-ribose
ADP + D-ribose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
85% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + D-ribulose
ADP + D-ribulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P09099
-
-
-
?
ATP + D-ribulose
ADP + D-ribulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1B
-
60% of the activity with D-xylulose
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylitol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
121% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylitol
ADP + D-xylitol-1-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
analyzed with 31P NMR spectrum
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylitol
ADP + D-xylitol-5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
analyzed with 31P NMR spectrum
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylose
ADP + D-xylose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
85% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme of ribitol catabolism, inducible by ribitol
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme of ribitol catabolism, inducible by ribitol
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
overexpression of xylulokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is detrimental to cell growth on xylulose but not on glucose
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
overexpression of xylulokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is detrimental to cell growth on xylulose but not on glucose
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
xylulokinase activity is absent during glucose metabolism but is detectable during simultaneous utilization of xylulose and glucose
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
expression level of xylulokinase can limit xylulose metabolism, although other factors are also likely to have a role
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in one of the initial steps of xylose utilization
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1B
-
expression level of xylulokinase can limit xylulose metabolism, although other factors are also likely to have a role
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P09099
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
P42826
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
O75191
-
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
F6JVF3, -
-
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for D-isomer
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for D-isomer
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
specific for D-isomer
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Lactobacillus pentosus 124-2
-
specific for D-isomer
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli DH5alpha
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli DH5alpha
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Ogataea angusta XRn/XDH/XK
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777
F6JVF3
-
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 D-XR/XDH/XK
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Scheffersomyces stipitis FPL-YS30
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Ogataea angusta XRm/XDH/XK
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae L2612
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 D-XR/ARSdR/XK, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 D-XR/XDH, Saccharomyces cerevisiae D452-2 D-XR/ARSdR
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1B
-
-
-
r
ATP + L(-)-arabitol
ADP + L(-)-arabitol 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
93% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + L-arabinose
ADP + L-arabinose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
96% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + L-erythrulose
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at 30% the rate of D-xylulose
-
-
?
ATP + ribitol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
41% relative activity compared to D-glucose
-
-
?
ATP + xylitol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
P09099
-
-
-
?
ATP + xylitol
ADP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
-
-
?
CTP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose
CDP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli DH5alpha
-
18% of the activity with ATP
-
?
D-xylulose + ATP
D-xylulose 5-phosphate + ADP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose
GDP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
38% of the activity with ATP
-
?
GTP + D-xylulose
GDP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
GTP + D-xylulose
GDP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at 25% the rate of ATP
-
-
?
ITP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose
IDP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
26% of the activity with ATP
-
?
ITP + D-xylulose
IDP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at 25% the rate of ATP
-
-
?
UTP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose
UDP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli DH5alpha
-
8% of the activity with ATP
-
?
UTP + D-xylulose
UDP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
UTP + D-xylulose
UDP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
15% of the activity with ATP
-
-
?
UTP + D-xylulose
UDP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
phosphorylation at 14% the rate of ATP
-
-
?
L-ribulose + ATP
L-ribulose 5-phosphate + ADP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is constitutively expressed
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme expression is not rate-limiting for xylose metabolism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O75191
D-ribulose is not a substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
F6JVF3, -
no activity with D-xylose
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Kluyveromyces marxianus NBRC1777
F6JVF3
no activity with D-xylose
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
ATP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose
ADP + 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli DH5alpha
-
the reaction constitutes a potential salvage pathway for the generation of 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate from exogenous or endogenous 1-deoxy-D-xylulose as starting material for the biosynthesis of terpenoids, thiamine and pyridoxal
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme of ribitol catabolism, inducible by ribitol
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme of ribitol catabolism, inducible by ribitol
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
overexpression of xylulokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is detrimental to cell growth on xylulose but not on glucose
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
overexpression of xylulokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is detrimental to cell growth on xylulose but not on glucose
-
-
?
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
xylulokinase activity is absent during glucose metabolism but is detectable during simultaneous utilization of xylulose and glucose
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
expression level of xylulokinase can limit xylulose metabolism, although other factors are also likely to have a role
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in one of the initial steps of xylose utilization
-
-
-
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
ADP + D-xylulose 5-phosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q4JHR4
-
-
-
r
ATP + D-xylulose
?
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1B
-
expression level of xylulokinase can limit xylulose metabolism, although other factors are also likely to have a role
-
-
-
D-xylulose + ATP
D-xylulose 5-phosphate + ADP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-ribulose + ATP
L-ribulose 5-phosphate + ADP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is constitutively expressed
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme expression is not rate-limiting for xylose metabolism
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Fe2+
-
no activation
Fe2+
-
activation, better than Mg2+
Mg2+
-
MgCl2 required, optimal concentration: 0.05 mM
Mg2+
-
requirement, Mg2+/ATP ratio of at least 1
Mg2+
-
activation, equally effective as Mn2+ or Zn2+
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
required
Mg2+
-
included in assay medium
Mn2+
-
90% as effective as Mg2+ in activation
Mn2+
-
activation is as effective as with Mg2+, equally effective as Zn2+ or Mg2+
Mn2+
-
35% of the activation with Mg2+
Ni2+
-
activation, half as effective as Mg2+
Zn2+
-
no activation
Zn2+
-
activation, equally effective as Mg2+ or Mn2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5-deoxy-5-fluoro-D-xylulose
O75191
-
-
5-fluoro-xylulose
P09099
0.18 mM, strong inhibition of the ATPase activity of xylulokinase
ADP
-
product inhibition
AMPPNP
P09099
-
ATP
-
additional Mg2+ reverses
PCMB
-
cysteine reverses
Mg2+
-
above 0.08 mM
additional information
-
no inhibition by F- or iodoacetate
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
DTT
-
enzyme is inactive in absence either EDTA or a thiol such as reduced monosodium glutathione or dithiothreitol
EDTA
-
enzyme is inactive in absence either EDTA or a thiol such as reduced monosodium glutathione or dithiothreitol
Monosodium glutathione
-
enzyme is inactive in absence either EDTA or a thiol such as reduced monosodium glutathione or dithiothreitol
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.28
-
ADP
-
pH 6.5, 30C
1.55
-
ATP
-
pH 6.5, 30C
8.2
-
ATP
P09099
mutant D233A
141
-
D-Arabitol
P09099
wild type enzyme
14
-
D-ribulose
P09099
wild type enzyme
0.024
-
D-xylulose
O75191
in 50 mM NH4HCO3, pH 8.0, 10% (v/v) D2O, 10 mM MgCl2 at 25C
0.29
-
D-xylulose
P09099
wild type enzyme
0.3
-
D-xylulose
-
37C, pH 8.0
0.31
-
D-xylulose
-
pH 6.5, 30C
0.52
-
D-xylulose
-
-
0.8
-
D-xylulose
-
-
1.3
-
D-xylulose 5-phosphate
-
pH 6.5, 30C
127
-
xylitol
P09099
wild type enzyme
0.09
-
xylulose
-
pH 8.0, 25C
0.16
-
MgATP2-
-
pH 8.0, 25C
additional information
-
additional information
-
radiometric system for measurement of enzyme activity in crude cell extracts
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0038
-
ATP
P09099
mutant D6A
0.13
-
ATP
P09099
mutant D233A
0.5
-
ATP
-
pH 6.5, 30C
105
-
D-Arabitol
P09099
wild type enzyme
235
-
D-ribulose
P09099
wild type enzyme
0.64
-
D-xylulose
-
pH 6.5, 30C
35
-
D-xylulose
O75191
in 50 mM NH4HCO3, pH 8.0, 10% (v/v) D2O, 10 mM MgCl2 at 25C
255
-
D-xylulose
P09099
wild type enzyme
6600
-
D-xylulose
-
37C, pH 8.0
237
-
xylitol
P09099
wild type enzyme
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1500
-
D-xylulose
O75191
in 50 mM NH4HCO3, pH 8.0, 10% (v/v) D2O, 10 mM MgCl2 at 25C
9406
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.025
-
5-deoxy-5-fluoro-D-xylulose
O75191
in 50 mM NH4HCO3, pH 8.0, 10% (v/v) D2O, 10 mM MgCl2 at 25C
-
0.026
-
5-fluoro-xylulose
P09099
in the presence of 5 mM ATP
0.15
-
5-fluoro-xylulose
P09099
in the presence of 0.167 mM ATP
0.71
-
AMPPNP
P09099
in the presence of 4.25 mM xylulose
1.1
-
AMPPNP
P09099
in the presence of 0.28 mM xylulose
1.9
-
AMPPNP
P09099
in the presence of 0.167 mM ATP
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.07
-
-, Q4JHR4
-
0.134
-
-
Pseudomonas putida S12 strain xylAB containing xylose isomerase and xylulokinase gene from Escherichia coli
1.6
-
-
reaction with 1-deoxy-D-xylulose
4.1
-
-
-
23.5
-
F6JVF3, -
using D-xylulose as substrate, 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5), at 25C
46
-
F6JVF3, -
using D-fructose as substrate, 50 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.5), at 25C
51
-
-
reaction with D-xylulose
additional information
-
-
0.07 units/mg, at 37C, in Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.5) 100 mM, MgCl2 10 mM, NADH 0.15 mM, sorbitol dehydrogenase 2 units, and xylose 500 mM
additional information
-
-
0.144 +/-0.008 U/mg protein, the transformant grown in YNB medium with 4% D-xylose showes 2-fold higher XK activity as compared to that of the wild-type strain, activity in cell extracts is determined spectrophotometrically at 37C, assay mixture: Tris-HCl (pH 7.8) 50 mM, MgCl2 5 mM, NADH 0.2 mM, phosphoenolpyruvate 1 mM, D-xylulose 8.5 mM, lactate dehydrogenase 10 U, pyruvate kinase 0.05 U, ATP 2 mM
additional information
-
-
20.6 +/-0.3 Unit/mg at 25C, approx. 3 mM D-xylulose 5-phosphate could be produced over 10 min at 25C from 5 mM xylulose with 0.004 mg purified xylulokinase. With 2.5 mM xylulose, about 80% of conversion occur.
additional information
-
-
0.034 +/-0.002 U/mg, more than 2fold higher values than D-XR/XDH and D-XR/ARSdR, XK reaction forming ADP coupled with pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reactions, activity is measured by monitoring the oxidation of NADH at 340 nm in reaction mixture, one unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme that reduces or oxidizes 1 micromol NAD(P)+ or NAD(P)H per minute.; strain D452-2 D-XR/ARSdR, 0.013 +/-0.001 U/mg, reaction forming ADP coupled with pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reactions, activity is measured by monitoring the oxidation of NADH at 340 nm in reaction mixture, one unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme that reduces or oxidizes 1 micromol NAD(P)+ or NAD(P)H per minute.; strain D452-2 D-XR/XDH, 0.014 +/-0.002 U/mg, reaction forming ADP coupled with pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reactions, activity is measured by monitoring the oxidation of NADH at 340 nm in reaction mixture, one unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme that reduces or oxidizes 1 micromol NAD(P)+ or NAD(P)H per minute.; strain D-XR/ARSdR/XK, 0.030 +/-0.002 U/mg, more than two-fold higher values than D-XR/XDH and D-XR/ARSdR, reaction forming ADP coupled with pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reactions, activity is measured by monitoring the oxidation of NADH at 340 nm in reaction mixture, one unit of enzyme activity is defined as the amount of enzyme that reduces or oxidizes 1 micromol NAD(P)+ or NAD(P)H per minute.
additional information
-
-
3.1 U/mg protein (native substrate 5 mM xylulose), with 0.14 U/mg protein activity when using 75 mM xylitol as substrate (activity in range of background level), activities measured from cell lysates by monitoring NADH depletion, using an assay in which pentulokinase activity is coupled to pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, reaction mixture (final concentrations indicated): 71 mM TrisHCl pH 7.5, 7.1 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EDTA, 50 mM KCl, 7.1 mM KF, 5 mM KCN, 1.4 mM ATP, 1 mM phosphoenolpyruvic acid, 0.3 mM NADH, 0.7 U/ml pyruvate kinase, 1 U/ml lactate dehydrogenase, and 5 mM D-xylulose or 75 mM xylitol
additional information
-
-
3.8 U/mg protein (native substrate 5 mM xylulose), 0.76 U/mg protein (substrate 75 mM xylitol), activities measured from cell lysates by monitoring NADH depletion, using an assay in which pentulokinase activity is coupled to pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, reaction mixture (final concentrations indicated): 71 mM TrisHCl pH 7.5, 7.1 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EDTA, 50 mM KCl, 7.1 mM KF, 5 mM KCN, 1.4 mM ATP, 1 mM phosphoenolpyruvic acid, 0.3 mM NADH, 0.7 U/ml pyruvate kinase, 1 U/ml lactate dehydrogenase, and 5 mM D-xylulose or 75 mM xylitol
additional information
-
-
0.366 +/-0.019 U/mg protein, up to 2.4-fold increase in specific activity of XK as compared to wild type strain CBS4732, XK activity in cell extracts is determined spectrophotometrically at 37C, XK assay mixture containes Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.8) 50 mM, MgCl2 5 mM, NADH 0.2 mM, phosphoenolpyruvate 1 mM, D-xylulose 8.5 mM, lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) 10 U, pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) 0.05 U, and ATP 2 mM, reaction is started with addition of cell extract, blank without pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase is used to minimize interference of XDH activity in Hansenula polymorpha.; strain CBS4732, 0.156 +/-0.009 U/mg protein; strain XRn/XDH/XK, 0.375 +/-0.021 U/mg protein, up to 2.4-fold increase in specific activity of XK as compared to wild type strain CBS4732, activity in cell extracts is determined spectrophotometrically at 37C, assay mixture containes Tris-HCl buffer (pH 7.8) 50 mM, MgCl2 5 mM, NADH 0.2 mM, phosphoenolpyruvate 1 mM, D-xylulose 8.5 mM, lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27) 10 U, pyruvate kinase (EC 2.7.1.40) 0.05 U, and ATP 2 mM. The reaction is started with addition of cell extract, blank without pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase is used to minimize interference of XDH activity in Hansenula polymorpha.
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7.5
-
-
assay at
8
-
-
-
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
10
-
about half-maximal activity at pH 6 and 10
6.7
9
-
pH 6.7: about 50% of maximal activity, pH 9.0: about 75% of maximal activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
-
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
10
40
-
steady increase up to 30C, rapid loss above, with 60% of maximal activity at 40C
30
77
-
30C: about 50% of maximal activity, 77C: about 65% of maximal activity
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
Pseudomonas strain S12 containing xylose isomerase gene and xylulokinase gene from Escherichia coli strain DH5 alpha
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
xylulokinase activity is absent during glucose metabolism but is detectable during simultaneous utilization of xylulose and glucose
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Chromobacterium violaceum (strain ATCC 12472 / DSM 30191 / JCM 1249 / NBRC 12614 / NCIMB 9131 / NCTC 9757)
Chromobacterium violaceum (strain ATCC 12472 / DSM 30191 / JCM 1249 / NBRC 12614 / NCIMB 9131 / NCTC 9757)
Cryptosporidium parvum (strain Iowa II)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Rhodospirillum rubrum (strain ATCC 11170 / NCIB 8255)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
61830
-
-
calculated from amino acid sequence
68000
-
-
SDS-PAGE
68890
-
-, Q4JHR4
calculated from amino acid sequence
110000
115000
-
gel filtration
110000
-
-
gel filtration
110000
-
P09099
dynamic light scattering
120000
130000
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 51783, calculation from nucleotide sequence
?
-
x * 42000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 58400, calculated from amino acid sequence
?
Escherichia coli DH5alpha
-
x * 42000, SDS-PAGE
-
dimer
-
2 * 54000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 71000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 54000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
P09099
2 * 55000, dynamic light scattering
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
hanging drop vapour diffusion method using 1.5 M ammonium sulfate, 50 mM sodium citrate, pH 6, 1% (w/v) t-butanol and 25% (v/v) ethylene glycol, at 25C
P09099
hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using 200 mM MES-KOH pH 6.0, 16% (w/v) PEG 6000
-
sitting drop vapor diffusion method, using 200 mM MES-KOH, pH 6.0, 16% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000, 0.3 mM NaN3
O75191
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.4
-
-
5 min, 26% loss of activity at 53C, inactivation at 60C
5.7
-
-
5 min, 30% loss of activity at 53C
6.2
-
-
5 min, 50% loss of activity at 53C
7
-
-
5 min, 60% loss of activity at 53C
8
-
-
5 min, 66% loss of activity at 53C
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4
-
-
inactivation, only partially reversible by incubation at 37C
10
50
-
more than 50% of the optimum activity between 10C and 50C
53
-
-
5 min, 66%, 60%, 50%, 30% or 26% loss of activity at pH 8, pH 7, pH 6.2, pH 5.7 and pH 5.4, respectively
60
-
-
5 min, inactivation at pH 5.4
65
-
-
30 min, Tris buffer, stable up to
70
-
-
30 min, 50% loss of activity
75
-
-
8 mM xylulose, 55% loss of activity after 30 min, 15% loss of activity after 5 min
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
repeated freeze-thawing inactivates, sulfhydryl compounds do not stabilize
-
D-xylulose, ATP, glycerol and EDTA stabilize
-
EDTA and MgCl2 partially stabilize
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-12C, ammonium sulfate precipitate, over 1 month
-
enzyme preparations are generally very unstable and lose their activity within a few days
-
-20C, about 30% of original activity retained after 4 years
-
0C, several months
-
4C, 1 mg protein/ml in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7, 2 mM MgCl2, 0.1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mM PMSF, 10 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 90% loss of activity within 18 h
-
-80C, 50 mM Tris/HCl, pH 7.8, 12.5% (w/v) glycerol, 1 month
-
-20C, 1 month stable and 20% of original activity retained after 8 months
-
4C, inactivation within 24 h
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
partial purification using Sepharose-Q column chromatography
-
recombinant enzyme
-
apo-enzyme and in complex with D-xylulose, ATP plus D-xylulose or 5-deoxy-5-fluoro-D-xylulose, nickel affinity column chromatography and Superdex 200 gel filtration
O75191
nickel affinity column chromatography and Superdex 200 gel filtration
-
Ni-NTA column chromatography and Sephacryl S200 gel filtration
F6JVF3, -
harvested cells resuspended in 50 mM Tris/HCl pH 7.8, solution after ultrasonically disruption centrifuged at 10000 *g for 30 min at 4C, supernatant passed through immobilized metal affinity chromatography (5 ml) using the His-tag introduced into the C-terminal region of XK, purified enzyme dialyzed against 50 mM Tris/Hcl (pH 7.8) containing 12.5% (w/v) glycerol
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expressed in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain W303-1B and Escherichia coli strain TOP10
-, Q4JHR4
expressed in Escherichia coli K12 strain NC260 harbouring multi-copy lambdaprbt-101 dal-201 prophage
-
cloning and functional expression of enzymes from Escherichia coli in Pseudomonas putida
-
expressed in Escherichia coli strain PC07 with deleted xylB-gene and introduced plasmid with Escherichia coli xylB gene
-
expressed in Escherichia coli strain PC07, xyl3 gene from Pichia stipitis
-
expressed in Hansenula polymorpha strain CBS4732s leu2-2
-
expressed in Zymobacter palmae
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
xylB gene expressed in Escherichia coli K12
-
expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
F6JVF3, -
expressed in Hansenula polymorpha strain CBS4732 double mutant with deleted genes of both XR (xylose reductase) and XDH (NAD-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase), expression driven by the Hansenula polymorpha glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter
-
recombinant XYL3 gene driven by the HpGAP promotor transformed into the recipient strain Hansenula polymorpha; recombinant XYL3 gene driven by the HpGAP promotor transformed into the recipient strain H. polymorpha
-
expressed in Escherichia coli strain XL1-Blue (Stratagene)
-
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D452-2, DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C, strain D-XR/ARSdR with naturally occuring XK-activity; expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D452-2, DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C, strain D-XR/ARSdR/XK with upegulated XK-activity, entire coding sequence of XK with PGK promoter and terminator inserted into pAUR101 shuttle vector (Takara Bio, Kyoto) integrating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D452-2; expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D452-2, DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C, strain D-XR/XDH with naturally occuring enzyme-activity; expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D452-2, DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C, strain D-XR/XDH/XK with upegulated XK-activity, entire coding sequence of XK with PGK promoter and terminator inserted into pAUR101 shuttle vector integrating in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain D452-2
-
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the control of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter and terminator
-
overexpression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
overexpression of the gene on Saccharomyces cerevisiae H158 and CEN-PK also expressing xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase. Effect on fermentation of xylose and lignocellulosic hydrolysate
P42826
overexpression of xylulokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is detrimental to cell growth on xylulose but not on glucose
-
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain DX23
-
expression in Escherichia coli. Expression of XYL3 using its Pichia stipitis promoter increase Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-xylulose consumption 3fold and enables the transformants to produce ethanol from a mixture of xylulose and xylose, whereas the parental strain only accumulates xylitol. In vitro, D-xylulokinase activity in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is sixfold higher with a multicopy than with a single-copy XYL3 plasmid, but ethanol production decreases with increased copy number
-
overexpression of xylulokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is detrimental to cell growth on xylulose but not on glucose
-
use of Pichia stipitis strain FPL-YS30 without D-xylulokinase-activity cause in the deletion of gene xyl3
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
D233A
P09099
loss of activity
DELTAxyl3
Scheffersomyces stipitis FPL-YS30
-
strain FPL-YS30, D-xylulokinase mutant with deletion of gene xyl3, proposal of an alternative pathway mediating xylose assimilation via arabinitol and ribulose-5-phosphate that bypasses the xylulokinase step
-
additional information
-
solubility of highly expressed mutant enzymes increased 8- to 77fold after introduction of GroEL-GroES into Escherichia coli
D6A
P09099
19fold decreased ATPase activity compared to the wild type enzyme
additional information
-
Pichia stipitis xylulokinase gene (XYL3) is PCR-amplified from Pichia stipitis (strain UC7) genomic DNA, genes of interest are cloned downstream of a tac promoter and upstream of a transcription termination sequence into the medium copy vector pLOI3809, transforming plasmid into a DELTAxylB mutant Escherichia coli strain (PC07), determine whether an alternative xylulokinase (one not expected to act on xylitol) could functionally replace XylB in Escherichia coli, Xyl3 shares only 23% amino acid sequence identity with Escherichia coli XylB
additional information
-
Escherichia coli xylulokinase gene xylB is PCR-amplified from Escherichia coli genomic DNA, genes of interest are cloned downstream of a tac promoter and upstream of a transcription termination sequence into the medium copy vector pLOI3809, transforming plasmid into a DELTAxylB mutant E. coli strain (PC07)
DELTAxyl3
-
strain FPL-YS30, D-xylulokinase mutant with deletion of gene xyl3, proposal of an alternative pathway mediating xylose assimilation via arabinitol and ribulose-5-phosphate that bypasses the xylulokinase step
additional information
-
enzyme disruption mutant, produces under aerobic as well as oxygen-limited conditions a negligible amount of ethanol and converts xylose mainly to xylitol. Xylose consumption increases 5fold under aerobic compared with oxygen-limited conditions, reaching a production of 26g/l of xylitonl
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
synthesis
-
commercial production of bioethanol from xylose using enzyme mutants with improved solubility expressed in presence of chaperonins GroEL-GroES
biotechnology
-
putative use of lignocellulosic biomass as feedstock for the chemical industry
synthesis
-
an effective conversion of xylulose to xylulose 5-phosphate catalyzed by the xylulokinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is considered to be essential for the development of an efficient and accelerated ethanol fermentation process from xylulose
synthesis
-
overexpression of enzyme, 3fold higher expression does not result in any increase in rate of growth or xylose metabolism