Information on EC 2.5.1.29 - geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase

Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Mark a special word or phrase in this record:
Select one or more organisms in this record:
Show additional data
Do not include text mining results
Include (text mining) results (more...)
Include results (AMENDA + additional results, but less precise; more...)


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Archaea, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.5.1.29
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
ordered-sequential bi bi mechanism
-
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
reaction mechanism and residues involved in substrate specificity and product chain lengt determination, overview
-
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
ordered-sequential bi bi mechanism
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate = diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
alkenyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
fusicoccins biosynthesis
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthesis
-
Metabolic pathways
-
plaunotol biosynthesis
-
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate:isopentenyl-diphosphate farnesyltranstransferase
Some forms of this enzyme will also use geranyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate as donors; it will not use larger prenyl diphosphates as efficient donors.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
CcGGDPS1
-
-
CcGGDPS2
-
-
CrtE
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous CBS6938, ATCC96594
-
gene name
-
farnesyl diphosphate/geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
Q76CZ2
bifunctional enzyme EC2.5.1.29/EC2.5.1.10
farnesyl-diphosphate/geranylgeranyldiphosphate
Q197X6
bifunctional enzyme
farnesyltransferase
-
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
-
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
O95749
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
-
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
-
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous CBS6938, ATCC96594
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
Q548K3
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase
-
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia, Vitis vinifera x Vitis vinifera
-
-
geranylgeranyl-PP synthetase
-
-
-
-
geranylgeranyl-pyrophosphate synthase
-
-
GGPP synthase
Q9V305
-
GGPP synthase
-
-
GGPP synthase
D4P8I4
-
GGPP synthase
-
-
GGPP synthase
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0
-
GGPP synthase
-
-
GGPP synthase
-
-
GGPP synthase
E9RFD4
-
GGPP synthase
-
-
GGPP synthase
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0
-
GGPP synthase
-
-
GGPP synthase
P39464
-
GGPP synthase
P39464
-
-
GGPP synthase
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous CBS6938, ATCC96594
-
-
-
GGPP-S
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia, Vitis vinifera x Vitis vinifera
-
-
GGPPS
-
-
GGPPS
O95749
-
GGPPS
D4P8I4
-
GGPPS
D7F2D7
-
GGPPS
-
-
GGPPS
Q548K3
-
GGSP1
-
-
gps
Q9V305
gene name
isoprenyl diphosphate synthase
D2IT07
-
Saci_0092
P39464
locus name
Saci_0092
P39464
locus name
-
short-chain type-III GGPP
-
-
synthetase, geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate
-
-
-
-
TgFPPS
Q197X6
-
trans-prenyl diphosphate synthase
Q76CZ2
-
type II geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
-
-
type-III geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
-
-
leaf-specific geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0
-
additional information
-
the enzyme belongs to the FPP synthase family
additional information
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0
the enzyme belongs to a group of short-chain prenyltransferases
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9032-58-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
ssp. creticus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pumpkin
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; recombinant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Korean women
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
large subunit
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
small subunit
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
MF730-N6
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
SF-4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
the activities of EC 2.5.1.1 and EC 2.5.1.29 may be a mixture of 2 enzymes or a single enzyme with two independent catalytic sites, see EC 2.5.1.1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene GGPPS1, isozyme A; gene Nts19-1, or GGPPS1, three splicing variant isozymes A, B, and C
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene GGPPS1, isozyme B; gene Nts19-1, or GGPPS1, three splicing variant isozymes A, B, and C
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene GGPPS1, isozyme C; gene Nts19-1, or GGPPS1, three splicing variant isozymes A, B, and C
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
overexpressed in Escherichia coli
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type II enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bifunctional geranyl diphosphate synthase and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene PVX_092040
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two populations collected in Japan, gene RsGGPPS
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type III enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mustard
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GGPPS1; cv. Castlemart, genes/isozymes GGPS1 and GGPS2
Q1A7T0
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GGPPS2; cv. Castlemart, genes/isozymes GGPS1 and GGPS2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type I enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
canadian yew
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Vitis vinifera x Vitis vinifera
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
a basidiomycetous yeast, the sexual state of Phaffia rhodozyma, gene crtE
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous CBS6938, ATCC96594
a basidiomycetous yeast, the sexual state of Phaffia rhodozyma, gene crtE
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. B73
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
evolution
D4P8I4
Jc-GGPPS is a member of the polyprenyltransferases with two highly conserved aspartate-rich motifs, and shows high homology to other plant GGPPSs, phylogenetic analysis, overview. Jc-GGPPS has closer relationship with angiosperm plant GGPPSs
evolution
-, Q42698
the enzyme from Catharanthus roseus is a plant type II GGPS belonging to the short-chain prenyltransferase subfamily
malfunction
-
depletion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate by inhibitor statins leads to accumulation of farnesyl diphosphate, which activates nuclear hormone receptors stimulating osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Statins directly inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the first step of the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway
metabolism
D4P8I4
GGPP is one of the key precursors in the biosynthesis of biologically significant isoprenoid compounds
metabolism
D7F2D7
role of SmGGPPS involved in the tanshinones biosynthesis pathway, overview
metabolism
-
CrtE catalyzes one of the first steps in the carotenogenic pathway, overview
metabolism
-, Q42698
the enzyme geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from Catharanthus roseus catalyses the formation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate via three successive condensation reactions, exhibiting the activities of EC 2.5.1.1, EC 2.5.1.10, and EC 2.5.1.29
physiological function
-
influence on plaunotol biosynthesis
physiological function
-
isoform PaxG is required for paxilline biosynthesis
physiological function
Vitis vinifera x Vitis riparia, Vitis vinifera x Vitis vinifera
-
involved in terpenoid metabolism
physiological function
E9RFD4, -
geranylgeranyl diphosphate is synthesized as diterpene defensive secretion used as chemical weapon of termite soldiers. GGPP is also used for various other essential cellular roles in animals. It plays an essential role in various processes such as electron transport (e.g., ubiquinones), glycosylation (e.g., dolichols), and membrane association (prenylation of proteins: e.g., geranylgeranylated proteins), as well as in secondary metabolites such as carotenoids
physiological function
D7F2D7
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase catalyzes the biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, which is a key precursor for diterpenes including tanshinone. SmGGPPS is elicitor-responsive
physiological function
-
the primary cellular use of geranylgeranyl diphosphate in humans is post-translational incorporation into proteins, a process known as geranylgeranylation. proteins modified post-translationally by geranylgeranylation are implicated in numerous cellular processes related to human disease, e.g. geranylgeranylation of Rab27B is required for the formation of xenograft tumors in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Isoprenoids regulate geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthesis through several feedback mechanisms, overview
physiological function
P39464
biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a precursor for the ether-linked lipids
physiological function
-
the enzyme is required for synthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate which is required for e.g. Rap1a geranylgeranylation
physiological function
-
biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a precursor for the ether-linked lipids
-
metabolism
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous CBS6938, ATCC96594
-
CrtE catalyzes one of the first steps in the carotenogenic pathway, overview
-
additional information
D4P8I4
GGPPS gene can be a good model to study the regulatory mechanisms controlling phorbol esters accumulation at the transcriptional level
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2-octenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
62% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
-
?
(2E)-3-methyl-2,6-heptadienyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
24% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
-
?
(2E)-3-methyl-2-butenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
21.5% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
-
?
(2E)-3-methyl-2-hexenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
95% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
-
?
(2E)-3-methyl-2-pentenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
63% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q42698
-
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P39464
biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a precursor for the ether-linked lipids, (2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate is not a substrate. Dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, and (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are good substrates, with maximal activity for dimethylallyl diphosphate, dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, and (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are, in decreasing order of activity, acceptable as allylic substrates to produce geranylgeranyl diphosphate. When dimethylallyl diphosphate or geranyl diphosphate are the allylic substrates, a significant amount of mixture of the products is shorter than geranylgeranyl diphosphate. (2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate is not a substrate
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the wild-type enzyme produces mostly 87% geranylgeranyl diphosphate. The mutant enzymes F77G, F77G/H114A, F77G/H114G, H114A, and H114G give C30, C45, C50, C30 and C40 as the main long product, respectively
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P39464
biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a precursor for the ether-linked lipids
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9V305
-
-
-
?
(E)-3-methyl-2-dodecenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
(2E,5E)-3,6-dimethylpentadeca-2,5-dien-1-yl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E)-3-methyl-2-dodecenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
(2E,5E)-3,6-dimethylpentadeca-2,5-dien-1-yl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
45% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q94ID7
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q94ID7
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8W1R9
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8W1R9
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
exclusive product
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
66% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
66% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred allylic substrate
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred allylic substrate
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme regulates taxane biosynthesis
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q76CZ2, -
bifunctional enzyme EC2.5.1.29/EC2.5.1.10, the FPP/GGPP product ratio increases with the rise of the reaction temperature. The enzyme contributes to adjust the membrane composition to the cell growth temperature modulating its substrate and product specificities
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q76CZ2, -
bifunctional enzyme EC2.5.1.29/EC2.5.1.10, the FPP/GGPP product ratio increases with the rise of the reaction temperature
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q6F596
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
D2YZE2, -
-
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
mutants L138A and H139A synthesize larger products
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inducible by methyl jasmonate. The product geranylgeranyl diphosphate is a key precursor for diterpenes and, in particular, Taxol, one of the most potent antitumor drugs
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q6F596
the expression level of the active GGPS is at least regulated through the splicing of intron 4b of its gene
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
in vitro, but not in vivo activity. In vivo, enzyme displays geranyl diphosphate synthase activity, EC 2.5.1.1
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
C4NAM7, C4NAM8
heterodimer of small and large subunit
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
isoforms TC5826 and TC11329, i.e. GGPPS2 and GGPPS1, respectively
-
-
?
3,8-dimethyl-2-nonenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
59% of activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
?
3-methyl-2-alkenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
a number of 3-methyl-2-alkenyl diphosphates ranging in carbon number from 6 to 13 act as substrates
-
-
?
6,7-dihydrogeranyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
87% of activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
?
8,8'-bisnorgeranyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
107% of activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
?
cis-3-methyl-2-hexenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
56% of activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
?
cis-3-methyl-2-hexenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
14% of activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
?
cyclopentylideneethyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
13% of activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q94ID7
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q94ID7
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8W1R9
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8W1R9
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 5% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 5% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
9% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
0.3% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
0.3% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
33% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
33% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P39464
dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, and (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are good substrates, with maximal activity for dimethylallyl diphosphate, dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, and (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are, in decreasing order of activity, acceptable as allylic substrates to produce geranylgeranyl diphosphate. When dimethylallyl diphosphate or geranyl diphosphate are the allylic substrates, a significant amount of mixture of the products is shorter than geranylgeranyl diphosphate. (2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate is not a substrate
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P39464
dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, and (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are good substrates, with maximal activity for dimethylallyl diphosphate, dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, and (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are, in decreasing order of activity, acceptable as allylic substrates to produce geranylgeranyl diphosphate. When dimethylallyl diphosphate or geranyl diphosphate are the allylic substrates, a significant amount of mixture of the products is shorter than geranylgeranyl diphosphate. (2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate is not a substrate
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
D2IT07, -
-
geranyl diphosphate activity of enzyme leads to additional production of geranyl diphosphate. The ratio of geranyl diphosphate to geranylgeranyl diphosphate produced averages approximately 9:1. No synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9V305
-
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
C4NAM7, C4NAM8
heterodimer of small and large subunit
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
isoforms TC5826 and TC11329, i.e. GGPPS2 and GGPPS1, respectively
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
? + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q76CZ2, -
bifunctional enzyme EC2.5.1.29/EC2.5.1.10, the FPP/GGPP product ratio increases with the rise of the reaction temperature
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranyl diphosphate + farnesyl diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
C4NAM7, C4NAM8
large subunit alone
-
-
?
E-3-methyl-2-undecenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
53% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
?
farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
type II geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase utilizes a mechanism of chain length determination, which requires subunit interaction in the homooligomeric enzyme
-
-
?
farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q197X6
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q94ID7
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q94ID7
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8W1R9
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8W1R9
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
main product
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + farnesyl diphosphate, ratio of farnesyl diphosphate to geranylgeranyl diphosphate increases to more than 2 under both conditions of substrate and product inhibition
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
exclusively geranylgeranyl diphosphate
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + farnesyl diphosphate
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
E)-farnesyl diphosphate + (E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
approx. 30% of activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
preferred substrate
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
preferred substrate
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 5% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 5% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
15% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
15% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
3% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
3% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
involved in taxol biosynthesis
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P39464
dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, and (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are good substrates, with maximal activity for dimethylallyl diphosphate, dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, and (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are, in decreasing order of activity, acceptable as allylic substrates to produce geranylgeranyl diphosphate. When dimethylallyl diphosphate or geranyl diphosphate are the allylic substrates, a significant amount of mixture of the products is shorter than geranylgeranyl diphosphate. (2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate is not a substrate
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P39464
dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, and (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are good substrates, with maximal activity for dimethylallyl diphosphate, dimethylallyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, and (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate are, in decreasing order of activity, acceptable as allylic substrates to produce geranylgeranyl diphosphate. When dimethylallyl diphosphate or geranyl diphosphate are the allylic substrates, a significant amount of mixture of the products is shorter than geranylgeranyl diphosphate. (2Z,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate is not a substrate
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + farnesyl diphosphate, ratio of farnesyl diphosphate to geranylgeranyl diphosphate increases to more than 2 under both conditions of substrate and product inhibition
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9V305
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
in vitro, but not in vivo activity. In vivo,enzyme displays geranyl diphosphate synthase activity, EC 2.5.1.1
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
C4NAM7, C4NAM8
heterodimer of small and large subunit
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
isoforms TC5826 and TC11329, i.e. GGPPS2 and GGPPS1, respectively
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + dimethylallyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q76CZ2, -
bifunctional enzyme EC2.5.1.29/EC2.5.1.10, the FPP/GGPP product ratio increases with the rise of the reaction temperature. The enzyme contributes to adjust the membrane composition to the cell growth temperature modulating its substrate and product specificities
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q43133, -
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0, -
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q548K3, -
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q43133, -
-
enzyme-product complex structure
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
product distribution of the wild-type and mutant enzymes, overview, mechanism of product chain length determination
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme participates in the mevalonate pathway, overview, enzyme inhibition leads to enhanced depletion of intracellular geranylgeranyl diphosphate relative to the nitrogenous bisphosphonate, overview
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme takes part in the mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid synthesis, and plays a crucial role in cell survival, overview
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q548K3, -
the N-terminal sequence affects the ratio of FPP to GGPP
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
tight binding substrate and product structures, overview
-
-
?
trans-3-methyl-2-octenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
similar activity as with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
?
trans-3-methyl-2-pentenyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
?
show the reaction diagram
-
33% of activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q76CZ2, -
bifunctional enzyme EC2.5.1.29/EC2.5.1.10, the FPP/GGPP product ratio increases with the rise of the reaction temperature
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
emission of the GGPP-derived volatile terpenoid (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene correlates with expression of GGPS1
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0, -
GGPPS1 is involved in the biosynthesis of defence secretion
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0, -
GGPPS1 is involved in the biosynthesis of defence secretion, terpene biosynthetic pathway in termite soldiers, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q548K3, -
the bifunctional enzyme is encoded by two clones of different lengths, exhibiting different preferences in farnesyl diphosphate synthesis and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthesis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
silencing geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in Nicotiana attenuata dramatically impairs resistance to tobacco hornworm. 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpenoid glycosides or other minor undetected diterpenoids derived from geranylgeranyl diphosphate function as direct defenses for Nicotiana attenuata and are more potent than nicotine or trypsin protease inhibitors against attack by hornworm larvae
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
C4NAM7, C4NAM8
large subunit alone shows geranyl diphosphate synthase activity, producing geranyl diphosphate, farnesyl diphosphate, and geranylgeranyl diphosphate from dimethylallyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate in vitro
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q42698
the enzyme geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from Catharanthus roseus catalyses the formation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate via three successive condensation reactions, exhibiting the activities of EC 2.5.1.1, EC 2.5.1.10, and EC 2.5.1.29
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q42698
-
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P39464
biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a precursor for the ether-linked lipids
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9V305
-
-
-
?
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
P39464
biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a precursor for the ether-linked lipids
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q94ID7
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8W1R9
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
66% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred allylic substrate
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme regulates taxane biosynthesis
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q76CZ2, -
bifunctional enzyme EC2.5.1.29/EC2.5.1.10, the FPP/GGPP product ratio increases with the rise of the reaction temperature. The enzyme contributes to adjust the membrane composition to the cell growth temperature modulating its substrate and product specificities
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
inducible by methyl jasmonate. The product geranylgeranyl diphosphate is a key precursor for diterpenes and, in particular, Taxol, one of the most potent antitumor drugs
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q6F596
the expression level of the active GGPS is at least regulated through the splicing of intron 4b of its gene
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
in vitro, but not in vivo activity. In vivo, enzyme displays geranyl diphosphate synthase activity, EC 2.5.1.1
-
-
?
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
-
-
-
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q94ID7
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8W1R9
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 5% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
9% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
0.3% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
33% of activity with geranyl diphosphate
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9V305
-
-
-
?
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
-
-
-
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate + 3 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 3 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q94ID7
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8W1R9
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
preferred substrate
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
less than 5% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
15% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
3% of the activity with farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q9ZPM3, -
involved in taxol biosynthesis
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9V305
-
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
in vitro, but not in vivo activity. In vivo,enzyme displays geranyl diphosphate synthase activity, EC 2.5.1.1
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
-
-
-
-
geranyl diphosphate + 2 isopentenyl diphosphate
geranylgeranyl diphosphate + 2 diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
-
-
-
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q43133, -
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0, -
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q548K3, -
-
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme participates in the mevalonate pathway, overview, enzyme inhibition leads to enhanced depletion of intracellular geranylgeranyl diphosphate relative to the nitrogenous bisphosphonate, overview
-
-
?
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + geranylgeranyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme takes part in the mevalonate pathway of isoprenoid synthesis, and plays a crucial role in cell survival, overview
-
-
?
geranyl diphosphate + isopentenyl diphosphate
diphosphate + trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
show the reaction diagram
Q76CZ2, -
bifunctional enzyme EC2.5.1.29/EC2.5.1.10, the FPP/GGPP product ratio increases with the rise of the reaction temperature. The enzyme contributes to adjust the membrane composition to the cell growth temperature modulating its substrate and product specificities
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
emission of the GGPP-derived volatile terpenoid (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyltrideca-1,3,7,11-tetraene correlates with expression of GGPS1
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0, -
GGPPS1 is involved in the biosynthesis of defence secretion
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0, -
GGPPS1 is involved in the biosynthesis of defence secretion, terpene biosynthetic pathway in termite soldiers, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
silencing geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase in Nicotiana attenuata dramatically impairs resistance to tobacco hornworm. 17-hydroxygeranyllinalool diterpenoid glycosides or other minor undetected diterpenoids derived from geranylgeranyl diphosphate function as direct defenses for Nicotiana attenuata and are more potent than nicotine or trypsin protease inhibitors against attack by hornworm larvae
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q42698
the enzyme geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase from Catharanthus roseus catalyses the formation of geranylgeranyl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate via three successive condensation reactions, exhibiting the activities of EC 2.5.1.1, EC 2.5.1.10, and EC 2.5.1.29
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Co2+
-
activates, less effective than Mg2+
KCl
-
200-2300 mM, enhances activity approx. 10fold
Mg2+
-
optimal activity at 5 mM; required for activity
Mg2+
-
optimal activation of farnesyl-transferring activity at 1 mM, optimal activation of dimethylallyl-transferring activity at 3 mM; required for activity
Mg2+
-
less effective than Mn2+; required for activity
Mg2+
-
optimal activity at 5-10 mM; required for activity
Mg2+
-
less effective than Mn2+; required for activity
Mg2+
-
required for activity
Mg2+
-
maximal activity at 1 mM; required for activity
Mg2+
Q9ZPM3, -
required for activity
Mg2+
-
maximal activity at 2 mM together with Mn2+ at 3 mM; required for activity
Mg2+
-, Q94ID7
maximal activity at 5 mM; required for activity
Mg2+
Q43133, -
the enzyme structure contains two DDxxD motifs and three Mg2+ ions
Mg2+
-
-
Mg2+
Q548K3, -
-
Mg2+
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
;
Mg2+
Q197X6
TgFPPS from insect cells can be activated by either Mg2+ or Mn2+, and prefers Mg2+ to Mn2+. At 1 mM Mg2+, TgFPPS has the highest specific activity
Mg2+
D2IT07, -
required, activity reaches its highest value at 10 mM MgCl2. At 5 or 15 mM MgCl2, activity is about 65% of maximum
Mg2+
-
required
MgCl2
-
Km value 0.51 mM for isoform GGPPS1, 0.19 mM for isoform GGPPS2
Mn2+
-
activates; optimal activity at 0.5 mM
Mn2+
-
slight activation
Mn2+
-
activates much more effectively than Mg2+
Mn2+
-
required for activity
Mn2+
-
optimal activity at 0.5-1 mM; required for activity
Mn2+
-
required for activity
Mn2+
-
maximal activity at 1 mM, less effective than Mg2+; required for activity
Mn2+
-
most effective divalent cation, maximal activity at 3 mM; required for activity
Mn2+
-, Q94ID7
recombinant enzyme, maximal activity at 0.1 mM, inhibition at high concentrations; required for activity
Mn2+
-
-
Zn2+
-
maximal activity at 1 mM, approx. 30% of activation with Mg2+
Zn2+
-
least effective divalent cation
Zn2+
-
-
Mn2+
Q197X6
TgFPPS from insect cells can be activated by either Mg2+ or Mn2+, and prefers Mg2+ to Mn2+
additional information
-
monovalent cations at low concentrations, i.e. 50 mM, enhance activity, at high concentrations, i.e. 400 mM, they are inhibitory, except for K+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(2E,6E)-farnesyl-bis(phosphonic acid)
-
both inhibition of in vitro reaction as well as of cellular geranylgeranylation
(2E,6E)-farnesyl-geranyl-bis(phosphonic acid)
-
both inhibition of in vitro reaction as well as of cellular geranylgeranylation
(2E,6Z)-farnesyl-bis(phosphonic acid)
-
both inhibition of in vitro reaction as well as of cellular geranylgeranylation
(3E,7Z)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1-phosphonitotrideca-3,7,11-trienylphosphonate
-
-
(3Z,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1-phosphonitotrideca-3,7,11-trienylphosphonate
-
-
(3Z,7Z)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1-phosphonitotrideca-3,7,11-trienylphosphonate
-
-
(6Z,11E)-2,6,12,16-tetramethylheptadeca-2,6,11,15-tetraene-9,9-diyldiphosphonate
-
-
(6Z,11Z)-2,6,12,16-tetramethylheptadeca-2,6,11,15-tetraene-9,9-diyldiphosphonate
-
-
(E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
-
(E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
0.005 mM, 50% inhibition, competitive vs. farnesyl diphosphate
(Z)-2,8,12-trimethyltrideca-2,7,11-triene-5,5-diyldiphosphonate
-
-
(Z,E,E)-Geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
-
(Z,E,E)-Geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
0.005 mM, approx. 50% inhibition, competitive vs. farnesyl diphosphate
1-hydroxydecane-1,1-bisphosphonate
-
IC50: 720 nM
3-azafarnesyl diphosphate
-
0.00074 mM, 50% inhibition
3-azageranyl diphosphate
-
0.24 mM, 50% inhibition
3-azageranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
0.0009 mM, 90% inhibition
3-azageranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
-
3-azageranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
0.00014 mM, 50% inhibition
3-azahomofarnesyl diphosphate
-
0.00031 mM, 50% inhibition
3-azahomogeranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
0.00037 mM, 50% inhibition
4-[(5-[[4-(3-chlorophenyl)-3-oxopiperazin-1-yl]methyl]-1H-imidazol-1-yl)methyl]benzonitrile
-
a dual prenyl transferase inhibitor that has advanced to clinical trials
-
Aminophenylethyl diphosphate
-
-
bis[(6E)-2,6-dimethylnona-2,6-diene-9,9-diyl]bis(phosphonic acid)
-
both inhibition of in vitro reaction as well as of cellular geranylgeranylation
digeranyl bisphosphonate
-
IC50: 200 nM
digeranyl bisphosphonate
-
-
digeranyl bisphosphonate
-
inhibition of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase induces apoptosis through multiple mechanisms and displays synergy with inhibition of other isoprenoid biosynthetic enzymes
digeranyl bisphosphonate
-
decreased intracellular GGPP levels in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts leading to impaired Rap1a geranylgeranylation. DGBP inhibits matrix mineralization in the MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts
diphosphate
-
10 mM, complete inhibition
diphosphate
-
10 mM, more than 90% inhibition
diphosphate
-
10 mM, 97% inhibition
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
above 0.025 mM
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
competitive product inhibition
homorisedronate
-
i.e. NE58051, 0.41 mM, 50% inhibition
ibandronate
-
0.083 mM, 50% inhibition
ibandronate
-
a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate
N-([5-[(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)amino]-2'-methylbiphenyl-2-yl]carbonyl)-L-leucine
-
-
N-[methyl(4-phenylbutyl)]-3-aminopropyl-1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonate
-
the bisphosphonate binds only to the GGPP product inhibitory site
NH4+
-
20 mM, 20% inhibition
nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates
Q43133, -
bind to the A-site, structure, overview
-
nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates
-
-
-
nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates
-
Plasmodium vivax GGPP synthase can bind nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates strongly with the energetically favorable cooperation of three Mg2+, resulting in inhibition at IC50 concentrations below 100 nM. The aspartates at the start and end of the five-residue motif, the second aspartate-rich motif, in Plasmodium vivax GGPPSs both participate in the coordination of the third Mg2+
-
nitrogeneous biphosphonates
-
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
1 mM, 90% inhibition, 30% inhibition in the presence of 800 mM KCl
pamidronate
-
0.18 mM, 50% inhibition
risedronate
-
i.e. NE58095, 0.35 mM, 50% inhibition
risedronate
Q197X6
-
risedronte
-
a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate
-
Triton X-100
-
stimulates farnesyl-transferring activity, inhibits dimethylallyl-transferring activity
zoledronate
-
weak inhibition, IC50: 0.1 mM, above
zoledronate
Q197X6
-
zoledronate
-
a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate
[(6E,11E)-2,6,12,16-tetramethylheptadeca-2,6,11,15-tetraene-9,9-diyl]bis(phosphonic acid)
-
-
[1-hydroxy-2-(1,1':4',1''-terphenyl-3-yl)ethane-1,1-diyl]bis(phosphonic acid)
-
-
[1-hydroxy-2-(pyridin-3-yl)ethane-1,1-diyl]bis(phosphonic acid)
-
-
Li+
-
400 mM, 72% inhibition, slight activation at 50 mM
additional information
-
inhibition by irradiation with the photolabile analog of geranyl diphosphate
-
additional information
-
monovalent cations at low concentrations, i.e. 50 mM, enhance activity, at high concentrations, i.e. 400 mM, they are inhibitory, except for K+
-
additional information
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase is inhibited by a variety of bisphosphonates
-
additional information
-
potency and specificity of bisphosphonate enzyme inhibitors
-
additional information
-
GGDPS inhibitors versus geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitors in cancer therapy, overview. The use of GGDPS inhibitors, thereby blocking prenylation of both sets of geranylgeranylated proteins, may be more effective than targeting either set alone through the use of a geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor or a geranylgeranyl transferase II inhibitor (such as the phosphonocarboxylate 3-PEHPC); statins inhibit the enzyme indirectly through feedback inhibition via inhibition of the first and rate-limiting step of isoprenoid biosynthesis, namely, conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by HMG-CoA reductase. Geranylgeranyl diphosphate depletion (and consequently geranylgeranylation) is strongly linked to statin-induced apoptosis in several models. In endothelial cells, statins potentiate tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated apoptosis by blocking rhoA geranylgeranylation
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NH4+
-
50 mM, enhances activity approx. 13fold
octyl glucoside
-
0.8%, 5fold activation
octyl glucoside
-
0.8%, 1.2fold activation
Triton X-100
-
-
Triton X-100
-
stimulates farnesyl-transferring activity, inhibits dimethylallyl-transferring activity
Triton X-100
-
activating at 0.1%
Tween 20
-
at 0.2%
Tween 80
-
stimulates
Tween 80
-
stimulates
additional information
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
isozyme GGPS1 expression is induced in leaves by spider mite Tetranychus urticae feeding and mechanical wounding in wild type tomato but not in the jasmonic acid-response mutant def-1 and the salicylic acid-deficient transgenic NahG line, overview; isozyme GGPS2 is not induced in leaves by spider mite-feeding, wounding, jasmonic acid or methyl salicylate, overview
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0018
-
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 5.8, 55C, wild-type enzyme
0.0073
-
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
0.0014
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-7, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0019
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-9, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0024
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant L8G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0026
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-8, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0028
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant E7G/L8G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0031
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant L8G/I9G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0032
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
wild-type, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0036
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant I9G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0043
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-6, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0044
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant E7G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.00095
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
0.002
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0032
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
0.0065
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
pH 5.8, 55C, wild-type enzyme
0.0095
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
Q76CZ2, -
pH 8.0, 70C
0.0115
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-, Q94ID7
-
0.0127
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0155
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
GGPPS2
0.0168
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0195
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
cosubstrate geranyl diphosphate, GGPPS2
0.0197
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
cosubstrate geranyl diphosphate, GGPPS1
0.0201
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
cosubstrate farnesyl diphosphate, GGPPS2
0.0228
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
GGPPS1
0.023
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
Q76CZ2, -
pH 8.0, 90C
0.0277
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
cosubstrate farnesyl diphosphate, GGPPS1
0.029
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
heterodimer of geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus with Nicotiana tabacum geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase GGPPS2
0.029
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
heterodimer of GGPPS2 with geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus
0.033
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0589
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
heterodimer of geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus with Nicotiana tabacum geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase GGPPS2
0.0589
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
heterodimer of GGPPS1 with geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus
0.062
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
0.066
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
0.099
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
A57L mutant enzyme
0.127
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
0.39
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
D2IT07, -
-
0.0005
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.00074
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0012
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0017
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0017
-
farnesyl diphosphate
Q76CZ2, -
pH 8.0, 70C
0.0019
-
farnesyl diphosphate
Q197X6
-
0.00246
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0026
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.006
-
farnesyl diphosphate
Q9ZPM3, -
recombinant enzyme
0.00678
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-, Q94ID7
-
0.0094
-
farnesyl diphosphate
Q76CZ2, -
pH 8.0, 90C
0.011
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0147
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0288
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
GGPPS1
0.0532
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
GGPPS2
0.06
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.121
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.00072
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
pH 5.8, 55C, wild-type enzyme
0.0008
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
-
0.001
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0019
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
0.0022
-
geranyl diphosphate
Q76CZ2, -
pH 8.0, 70C
0.00234
-
geranyl diphosphate
-, Q94ID7
-
0.00236
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
GGPPS2
0.00363
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
GGPPS1
0.0077
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
-
0.009
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0126
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0133
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
-
0.022
-
geranyl diphosphate
Q76CZ2, -
pH 8.0, 90C
0.0003
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
mutant E7G/L8G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.000361
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 5.8, 55C, wild-type enzyme
0.0004
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-7, pH 7.5, 25C; mutant E7G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0005
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-8, pH 7.5, 25C; mutant L8G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0006
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-6, pH 7.5, 25C; mutant L8G/I9G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0007
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
mutant I9G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0008
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.0008
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
wild-type, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0014
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-9, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0015
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
-
0.002
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0027
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant F108A
0.0029
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.0, 37C, wild-type enzyme
0.003
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
-
0.003
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant enzyme
0.0033
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/F108A
0.0035
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0047
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A
0.0051
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant H139A
0.0051
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.0, 37C, carboxy-terminal deletion mutant DELTA-4
0.007
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
Q9ZPM3, -
recombinant enzyme
0.008
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
cosubstrate dimethylallyl diphosphate at 0.175 mM
0.0084
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
0.009
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0093
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
heterodimer of geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus with Nicotiana tabacum geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase GGPPS1
0.0093
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
heterodimer of GGPPS1 with geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus
0.017
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant L135A/H139A
0.0206
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
heterodimer of geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus with Nicotiana tabacum geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase GGPPS1
0.0206
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
GGPPS1; GGPPS2; heterodimer of GGPPS2 with geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus
0.024
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-, Q94ID7
-
0.0308
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
-
0.033
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
-
0.036
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
-
0.036
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
cosubstrate farnesyl diphosphate
0.0381
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
Q197X6
-
0.039
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
cosubstrate farnesyl diphosphate
0.051
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/F108A/L135A/H139A
0.056
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.0, 37C, carboxy-terminal deletion mutant DELTA-8
0.088
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
cosubstrate dimethylallyl diphosphate
0.097
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/F108A/H139A
0.108
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
cosubstrate dimethylallyl diphosphate
0.122
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
cosubstrate geranyl diphosphate
0.136
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant F108A/H139A
0.267
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/H139A
0.0034
-
Mg2+
-
-
0.0004
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/F108A/H139A
0.00071
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.0, 37C, wild-type enzyme
0.001
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/F108A/L135A/H139A
0.0011
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/H139A
0.0017
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A
0.002
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.0, 37C, carboxy-terminal deletion mutant DELTA-4
0.0021
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant F108A
0.0025
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant H139A
0.0026
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/F108A
0.0027
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant L135A/H139A
0.0028
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.0, 37C, carboxy-terminal deletion mutant DELTA-8
0.0032
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
0.0042
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant enzyme
0.0051
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant F108A/H139A
0.055
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.0, 37C, carboxy-terminal deletion mutant DELTA-12
0.035
-
Mg2+
Q9ZPM3, -
recombinant enzyme
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics of wild-type and mutant enzymes
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
steady-state kinetics, recombinant enzyme
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetic constants of mutant enzymes
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.8
-
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
0.000042
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-9, pH 7.5, 25C
0.000066
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-8, pH 7.5, 25C
0.000072
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant L8G/I9G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.00015
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant E7G/L8G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.00062
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant I9G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0051
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant L8G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.0073
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-7, pH 7.5, 25C
0.018
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant DELTA1-6, pH 7.5, 25C
0.021
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
mutant E7G, pH 7.5, 25C
0.025
-
(E,E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
wild-type, pH 7.5, 25C
0.5
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
1
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
-
1.4
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
D2IT07, -
-
3.3
-
farnesyl diphosphate
-
-
0.5
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
2.1
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
-
0.8
-
isopentenyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
0.204
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant enzyme
1.6
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant F108A/H139A
2.5
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/F108A/H139A; pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant wild-type enzyme
3.9
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/H139A
4.2
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant H139A
4.7
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant F108A
4.9
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/F108A
5.6
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A
6.4
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant L135A/H139A
8.4
-
trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.5, 25C, recombinant mutant Y107A/F108A/L135A/H139A
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
100
-
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
263972
200
-
dimethylallyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
9892
300
-
geranyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
10850
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0012
-
(E,E,E)-geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
-
0.0012
-
(Z,E,E)-Geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
-
0.025
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant enzyme, versus trans,trans-farnesyl diphosphate
0.000016
-
ibandronate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
0.0000124
-
risedronte
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
-
0.0000107
-
zoledronate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0001
-
(2E,6E)-farnesyl-bis(phosphonic acid)
-
pH 7.5, 37C
0.0003
-
(2E,6E)-farnesyl-geranyl-bis(phosphonic acid)
-
pH 7.5, 37C
0.0006
-
(2E,6Z)-farnesyl-bis(phosphonic acid)
-
pH 7.5, 37C
0.0006
-
(3E,7Z)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1-phosphonitotrideca-3,7,11-trienylphosphonate
-
-
0.04
-
(3Z,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1-phosphonitotrideca-3,7,11-trienylphosphonate
-
-
0.07
-
(3Z,7Z)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1-phosphonitotrideca-3,7,11-trienylphosphonate
-
-
0.006
-
(6Z,11E)-2,6,12,16-tetramethylheptadeca-2,6,11,15-tetraene-9,9-diyldiphosphonate
-
-
0.003
-
(6Z,11Z)-2,6,12,16-tetramethylheptadeca-2,6,11,15-tetraene-9,9-diyldiphosphonate
-
-
0.007
-
(Z)-2,8,12-trimethyltrideca-2,7,11-triene-5,5-diyldiphosphonate
-
-
0.00072
-
1-hydroxydecane-1,1-bisphosphonate
-
IC50: 720 nM
0.0002
-
bis[(6E)-2,6-dimethylnona-2,6-diene-9,9-diyl]bis(phosphonic acid)
-
pH 7.5, 37C
0.0002
-
digeranyl bisphosphonate
-
IC50: 200 nM
0.0002
-
digeranyl bisphosphonate
-
-
0.0000619
-
ibandronate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
0.000074
-
risedronate
Q197X6
-
0.0000475
-
risedronte
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
-
0.0000433
-
zoledronate
-
pH 7.7, 37C, recombinant PvGGPPS
0.00061
-
zoledronate
Q197X6
-
0.1
-
zoledronate
-
weak inhibition, IC50: 0.1 mM, above
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0000279
-
-
-
0.000176
-
-
carboxy-terminal deletion mutant DELTA-8
0.00461
-
-
-
0.0087
-
P39464
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.017
-
-
-
0.0182
-
-
-
0.0306
-
-
carboxy-terminal deletion mutant DELTA-8
0.098
-
-
-
0.0983
-
-
carboxy-terminal deletion mutant DELTA-4
0.117
-
-
wild-type enzyme
0.123
-
-, Q94ID7
recombinant enzyme
0.133
-
-
purified recombinant enzyme
0.14
-
-
with farnesyl diphosphate
0.289
-
-
with geranyl diphosphate
13.8
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
4300000 cpm/mg
additional information
-
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
;
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.9
7.2
-
-
7
-
-
-
7.4
-
Q548K3, -
assay at
7.4
-
Q197X6
-
7.5
-
-
assay at
7.5
-
-
assay at
7.7
-
-
assay at
7.7
-
-
assay at
8
9
-, Q94ID7
recombinant enzyme
8
-
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
assay at; assay at
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
10.5
Q548K3, -
activity range
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
-
-
assay at
30
-
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
assay at; assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
Q548K3, -
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
72
-
approx. 30% of maximal activity at 30C, approx. 80% of maximal activity at 72C
37
-
-, Q9V305
the enzyme maintains significant activity at 37C
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
D2IT07, -
of sapling
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q6F596
expression level of 1a-type mRNA, encoding the active enzyme form is higher than that of 1b-type mRNA, encoding an inactive enzyme form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D2IT07, -
protein is localized to epithelial cells surrounding the traumatic resin ducts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
E9RFD4, -
epithelial class 1 gland cell, around the frontal-gland reservoir, termite soldiers show a 3fold higher expression level than workers
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
predominantly isozyme GGPS2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0, -
epidermal secretory cells; epidermal secretory cells; epidermal secretory cells; of the frontal gland; of the frontal gland; of the frontal gland
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
ripening, predominantly isozyme GGPS2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0, -
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q6F596
expression level of 1a-type mRNA, encoding the active enzyme form is higher than that of 1b-type mRNA, encoding an inactive enzyme form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q94ID7
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
strong expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
predominantly isozyme GGPS1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
maximum expression in trichomes and smallest leaves,CcGGDPS1; maximum expression in trichomes and smallest leaves,CcGGDPS2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q64KQ5
low expression rate
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
; enzyme is active together with 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase and 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate synthase in young leaves prior to full expansion when plaunotol is synthesised from the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate precursor in chloroplasts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D6BCR2
highest expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q6F596
expression level of 1a-type mRNA, encoding the active enzyme form is higher than that of 1b-type mRNA, encoding an inactive enzyme form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
an osteoblastic cell line, change of mRNA and protein expression of GGPPS and its activity in the cell-to-cell contact-induced differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q6F596
expression level of 1a-type mRNA, encoding the active enzyme form is the same as that of 1b-type mRNA, encoding an inactive enzyme form. During testis development the total GGPS mRNSA expression level increases, accompanied by an increase in 1 n-type mRNA, the expression level pf 1a-type mRNA remains kept unchanges
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q94ID7
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
very little expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q64KQ5
and pesh, high expression rate
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
myeloma cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D2IT07, -
expression is restricted to wood and bark
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activity increases markedly as germination proceeds
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D7F2D7
low expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q6F596
expression level of 1a-type mRNA, encoding the active enzyme form is the same as that of 1b-type mRNA, encoding an inactive enzyme form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q6F596
expression level of 1a-type mRNA, encoding the active enzyme form is higher than that of 1b-type mRNA, encoding an inactive enzyme form
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
maximum expression in trichomes and smallest leaves, CcGGDPS1; maximum expression in trichomes and smallest leaves, CcGGDPS2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
C4NAM7, C4NAM8
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D2IT07, -
of sapling
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
pre-osteoblast line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0, -
tissue distribution, overview; tissue distribution, overview; tissue distribution, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
isoform GgsA, localized to punctuate organelles
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
E9RFD4, -
not in vacuolar class 3 gland cells, localization study by in situ hybridization analysis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
D7F2D7
semi-quantitative one-step reverse transcriptase PCR tissue expression analysis, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
enzyme is active together with 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase and 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate synthase in young leaves prior to full expansion when plaunotol is synthesised from the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate precursor in chloroplasts
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q42698
the type II GGPS carries an N-terminal transit peptide allowing plastid import and stroma/stromules localization of the protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
enzyme seems to be membrane associated
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
60000
-
-
gel filtration, enzyme consists of 2 identical subunits of 30000 Da with a tendency to dissociate
60000
-
Q9ZPM3, -
recombinant truncated enzyme, gel filtration
66000
-
-
gel filtration
70000
-
-
gel filtration
72000
-
-
gel filtration
74000
-
-
gel filtration
74000
-
-
gel filtration
76000
-
-
gel filtration
85000
-
-
gel filtration
85000
-
Q76CZ2, -
gel filtration
130000
-
-
tetramer, non-denaturing PAGE
150000
-
-
Superose 12, gel filtration
190000
-
-
Superdex 200, gel filtration
200000
-
-
about, gel filtration
240000
-
-
octamer, non-denaturing PAGE
300000
-
-
-
300000
-
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 37500, tetramer or pentamer, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 36800, SDS-PAGE
?
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
x * 39000, about, isozyme GGPPS2, sequence calculation; x * 39900, about, isozyme GGPPS1, sequence calculation
?
Q197X6
x * 61000, SDS-PAGE
?
O59703, -
heteromer of farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS), Fps1, and an FPS-like protein, Spo9, essential for sporulation
?
D2YZE2, -
x * 55000, SDS-PAGE, recombinant protein including His-tag
?
D2IT07, -
x * 40000, SDS-PAGE of recombinant protein
?
P39464
x * 36873, calculated from sequence
?
-, Q42698
x * 41600, about, sequence calculation
?
-
x * 36873, calculated from sequence
-
dimer
-
2 * 37000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 38000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 39000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 30000, the native enzyme consists of 2 identical subunits with a tendency to dissociate, SDS-PAGE
dimer
Q9ZPM3, -
2 * 31500, deduced from nucleotide sequence
dimer
-
2 * 38000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 32000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
dimer
Q76CZ2, -
2 * 38326, calculation from nucleotide sequence
dimer
Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus SF-4
-
2 * 39000, SDS-PAGE
-
octamer
-
the active form of GGPS in the solution is an octamer (comprising of four dimers) rather than hexamer or dimer
tetramer
-
enzyme forms a heterotetramer of two catalytic large plus two regulatory small subunits, crystallization data.
hexamer
-
three dimers join together to form a propeller-bladed hexameric molecule, quaternary structure, overview
additional information
Q43133, -
the enzyme structure harbors eleven alpha-helices typical for the FPP synthase family enzymes, the enzyme structure contains two DDxxD motifs and three Mg2+ ions
additional information
-
the enzyme structure is composed entirely of 15 alpha-helices joined by connecting loops and is arranged with alpha-helices around a large central cavity, the N-terminal 17 amino acids, 9-amino acid helix A and the following loop, of this GGPPs protrude from the helix core into the other subunit and contribute to the tight dimer formation, in each subunit, an elongated hydrophobic crevice surrounded by D, F, G, H, and I alpha-helices contains twoDDXXDmotifs at the top for substrate binding with one Mg2+ coordinated by Asp75, Asp79, and four water molecules. It is sealed at the bottom with three large residues of Tyr107, Phe108, and His139
additional information
-
geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus forms chimeric geranyl phosphate synthases with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase GGPPS1 or GGPPS2 in Nicotiana tabacum
additional information
-
isoforms GGPPS2 and GGPPS! can form functional heterodimers with heterologously expressed geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus
additional information
D4P8I4
three-dimensional structure of Jc-GGPPS constructed by the homology-based modeling overview
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
lipoprotein
-
proteins modified post-translationally by geranylgeranylation have been implicated in numerous cellular processes related to human disease, e.g. geranylgeranylation of Rab27B is required for the formation of xenograft tumors in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
hanging drop method. Structures of a series of n-alkyl and dialkenyl bisphosphonates bound to GGPPS. The binding modes seen crystallographically can be well predicted computationally, facilitating the development of quantitative structure-activity models
O95749
native protein, 20C, sitting drop vapour diffusion mthod, mixing of 200 nl of 90 mg/ml protein in 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 500 mM NaCl, 5% glycerol with 100 nl of precipitant solution consisting of 25% PEG 3350, 200 mM magnesium formate, pH 5.5, and equilibration against 0.1 ml of the precipitant solution, selenomethionine-labeled protein by suspending a 0.003 ml drop containing 26 mg/ml protein, 333 mM NaCl, 0.67 mM MgCl2, 0.67 mM GGPP, 3% glycerol, 15% 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, 1.7% PEG 10,000, 6.7 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, over a 1 ml reservoir containing 45% 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol, and 5% PEG 10000, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.7-2.8 A resolution
-
enzyme forms a heterotetramer of two catalytic large plus two regulatory small subunits. No activity is detected for individually expressed large or small subunits
-
purified recombinnat GGPPS, in apo form or in complex with zoledronate, hanging drop vapour diffusion method, for the apo ezyme crystals: 0.0015 ml of 16.5 mg/ml protein in 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 500 mM NaCl, is mixed with 0.0015 ml of reservoir solution containing 22% PEG 3350, 200 mM Li2SO4, 100 mM Tris, pH 8.5, for the inhibitor complex crystals: 0.0015 ml of 11.2 mg/ml protein and 10 mM zoledronate, 10 mM IPP, 10 mM MgCl2, 10 mM HEPES, pH 7.5, 500 mM NaCl are mixed with 0.0015 ml reservoir solution containing 20% PEG 3350, 200 mM Li2SO4, 100 mM Tris, 8.5, 18C, overnight, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.1 A resolution
-
hanging drop method, X-ray crystallographic structures of the N-[methyl(4-phenylbutyl)]-3-aminopropyl-1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonate, bound to geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase
-
native and selenomethionine-labeled enzymes, hanging drop vapour diffusion method, mixing of 0.002 ml of the GGPP solution with 1012 mg/ml protein in 25 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 150 mM NaCl, and 0.1% Triton X-100 with 0.002 ml of the mother liquor containing 0.08 M CH3COONa, 0.145 M (NH4)2SO4, 13% polyethylene glycol 4000, 7-9% glycerol, and 7-9% 1,2-propanediol, and equilibrating with 0.5 ml of the mother liquor, 7 days room temperature, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.98 A resolution
-
structures of enzyme-inhibitor complexes with isopentenyl diphosphate, geranyl diphosphate, farnesyl diphosphate, geranylgeranyl diphosphate, zoledronate, minodronate, BPH-629, BPH-364, and BPH-675
-
the 3D structure of GGPPS reveals an unique positioning of the N-terminal helix A, which protrudes into the other subunit and stabilizes dimerization, although it is far from the main dimer interface. The replacement of residues L8 and I9 at this helix with Gly is sufficient to disrupt the dimer into a monomer, leading to at least 1000fold reduction in activity
-
purified recombinant wild-type of selenomethionine-labeled enzyme, 20 mg/mL protein in 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.9, 10 mM MgCl2, 100 mM NaCl, and 0.5 mM tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine, crystals of SeMet-labeled enzyme are obtained by vapor diffusion with hanging drops that contain a 1:1 mixture of protein solution and reservoir buffer D, the latter containing 100 mM sodium acetate, pH 4.4, 40% v/v propanediol, 10 mM MgCl2, and 0.5 mM TCEP, liquid nitrogen freezing without the addition of a cryo protectant, a second crystal form is obtained with native enzyme using the same procedure but with reservoir buffer E containing 100 mM N-cyclohexyl-3-aminopropane sulfonic acid, pH 10.0, 200 mM NaCl, 9-11% PEG 8000, 10 mM MgCl2, and 0.5 mM TCEP, mixing with reservoir buffer E containing 30% v/v glycerol and flash-freezing in liquid nitrogen, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.8-2.0 A resolution, multiwavelength anomalous diffraction, soaking of native enzyme with FPP and Mg2+ fails, overview
Q43133, -
as recombinant native protein and as selenomethionine derivative, sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method, well diffracting crystals are obtained belonging to the tetragonal space group P4(1) or P4(3) with unit-cell paramaters a = b = 139.88, c = 73.37 A. there are two homodimers in the asymmetric unit
-
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
60
70
P39464
100 min, most of the activity for geranylgeranyl synthase remains even after heating at 60 to 70C for 100 min; 100 min, most of the activity remains
65
-
-
in presence of 800 mM KCl, 30 min, stable
72
-
-
in the presence of 3500 mM KCl
90
-
P39464
10 min, 90% loss of activity; 10 min, 90% of the enzyme activity is lost
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
KMFTEENE residing on the carboxyl-terminal sequence of GGPS stabilizes the active region involved in the substrate binding and catalysis
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20C, at least 1 week, no loss of activity
-
-20C, at least 1 week, no loss of activity
-
-20C, at least 1 month, no loss of activity
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
ammonium sulfate, farnesylmethyl affinity gel
-
Mono Q, isoelectric focusing, Superose 12, partial purification
-
poly(ethylene glycol) 6000, DEAE-Sephacel, aminophenethyl diphosphate affinity column
-
DEAE-Sephadex
-
recombinant his-tagged enzyme, Ni2+-column
-, Q94ID7
recombinant N-terminally His-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli, the His-tag is cleaved of by TEV
-
ammonium sulfate, DEAE-Sephadex, hydroxylapatite, Sephadex G-100, enzyme fraction may be a mixture of EC 2.5.1.1 and EC 2.5.1.29 or a single enzyme with two independent catalytic sites, see EC 2.5.1.1
-
recombinant enzyme, urea, DEAE-52
-
polyethylene glycol, DE-52 cellulose, DEAE Trisacryl-M, Reactive blue 4-agarose, Reactive red 120-agarose
-
the histidine-tagged deletion mutants (from the carboxyl terminus) (DELTA-4, DELTA-8, DELTA-12 and DELTa-16) are overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified in a stable form by nickel affinity chromatography except for one mutant DELTA-16
-
anion exchange chromatography, aminophenylethyl diphosphate affinity column
-
recombinant His-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by cobalt affinity chromatography
Q43133, -
recombinant enzyme
-
ammonium sulfate, DEAE Sephadex a-50, hydroxylapatite
-
partial
-
ammonium sulfate, phenyl Sepharose 6, Mono Q, Tosohaas-G3000, Mono P
-
recombinant enzyme
Q9ZPM3, -
recombinant His-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography
Q548K3, -
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
-, Q94F74
to engineer a host that has the capability to supply geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a common precursor of isoprenoids, isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (encoded by idi) from Escherichia coli and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (encoded by gps) from Archaeoglobus fulgidus are cloned and overexpressed. The latter was shown to be a multifunctional enzyme converting dimethylallyl diphosphate to geranylgeranyl diphosphate. These two genes and the gene cluster (crtBIYZW) of the marine bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum are introduced into Escherichia coli to produce astaxanthin, an orange pigment and antioxidant. The metabolically engineered strain produces astaxanthin at a very high rate
-, Q9V305
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3), functional complementation of the carotenogenic crt gene cluster in Escherichia coli, YFP-tagged GGPPS expression in Catharanthus roseus cell culture
-, Q42698
expression in Escherichia coli, CcGGDPS1
-
expression in Escherichia coli
Q64KQ5
expression in Escherichia coli
-, Q94ID7
expression in BL21 gold bacteria
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21
-
expression of N-terminally His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
D4P8I4
overexpression in Escherichia coli
-
gene GGPPS1, splicing variant isozyme A, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons; gene GGPPS1, splicing variant isozyme B, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons
A1IIV8, A1IIV9, A1IIW0, -
expression in Escherichia coli
-
GGPS and the mutant enzymes are expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies
-
expression in Escherichia coli and in Picea abies embryogenic tissue
D2IT07, -
gene PVX_092040
-
expression in Nicotiana tabacum
-
protein expressed from 1a-type mRNA is active, protein expressed from 1b-type mRNA is inactive, expression level in HeLa cells, Cos-7 and 293 cells is about 10% relative to that in Escherichia coli. When fusion of beta-galactosidase with C-terminal regions differing between the 1a-type and the 1b-type proteins are expressed in HeLa cells, the expressed fusion proteins are both active but the latter fusion protein expresion level is considerably low compared with the former one
Q6F596
the histidine-tagged deletion mutants (from the carboxyl terminus) (DELTA-4, DELTA-8, DELTA-12 and DELTa-16) are overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified in a stable form by nickel affinity chromatography except for one mutant DELTA-16
-
gene RsGGPPS, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis, expression in Escherichia coli strain JM109
E9RFD4, -
expression of wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escheichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
SmGGPPS, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparison, semi-quantitative one-step RT-PCR expression analysis, expression in Escherichia coli strains BL21(DE3) and D5alpha
D7F2D7
expression of the His-tagged nezym ein Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
Q43133, -
gene GGPS1, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression analysis, phylogenetic analysis; gene GGPS2, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression analysis, phylogenetic analysis
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
introduction into Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast. Heat treatment abolishes the prenyltransferase activity of the wild strain, bit the activity f the transformant remains
-
overexpression of maltose-binding protein-fusion protein or glutathion S-transferase-fusion protein in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Q9ZPM3, -
expression of preprotein and truncated versions in Escherichia coli
-
expression in yeast mutant lacking GGPPS activity, the geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase is free of introns
-
expression in Escherichia coli
Q76CZ2, -
expression in Escherichia coli
-
heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. TgFPPS is also expressed in the baculovirus system and is biochemically characterized
Q197X6
gene crtE, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, functional expression in Escherichia coli, overexpression in transgenic Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous
-
a short and a long clone, which differ in the substrate specificity, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic organization, functional complementation of an Escherichia coli strain carrying an Erwinia uredovora gene cluster encoding all pathway enzymes needed for carotenoid biosynthesis, except for GGPPS, expression of His-tagged enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
Q548K3, -
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expression is induced by exogenous methyl jasmonate
D6BCR2
decreasing transcript levels in leafs fully expanded, low expression level in nonphotosynthetic tissues like root
-
high transcript levels in the shoot, increasing transcript levels during leaf development, highest expression in young leaves prior to full
-
treatment with methyl jasmonate increases expression rate
Q64KQ5
treatment with methyl jasmonate dramatically increases expression level in sapling
D2IT07, -
expression of SmGGPPS is inhibited by methyl jasmonate
D7F2D7
expression of SmGGPPS is up-regulated by salicylic acid in leaves
D7F2D7
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
A57L
-
mutated enzyme produces mainly farnesyl diphosphate
L50S
-
similar activity as wild-type
S4F
-
very weak activity
V8A
-
similar activity as wild-type
A57L
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
mutated enzyme produces mainly farnesyl diphosphate
-
L50S
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
similar activity as wild-type
-
S4F
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
very weak activity
-
A89F
-
mutant enzyme yields shorter products than the wild-type enzyme. Substrate specificity is almost identical to that of farnesyl diphosphate synthase
A89H
-
mutant enzyme yields shorter products than the wild-type enzyme. Substrate specificity is almost identical to that of farnesyl diphosphate synthase
A89L
-
mutant enzyme yields shorter products than the wild-type enzyme
H87A
-
activity using geranylgeranyl diphosphate as the substrate is undetectable
I121A
-
mutant enzyme yields longer products than the wild-type enzyme
L127A
-
approximately 20% of wild-type activity
L128A
-
mutant enzyme is completely inactive
L162A
-
nop change in chain length of product
L162A/V163A
-
altered substrate specificity, hardly accepts dimethylallyl diphosphate as substrate. Yields the products with the same chain-length with those of wild type
DelP173/DelP174
D2IT07, -
decrease in reaction rate
G257D/P174C
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, no effect on product composition
I161M
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, no effect on product composition
I235T
D2IT07, -
decrease in reation rate, single product is geranyldiphosphate
L180F
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, product composition is about 98% geranyldiphosphate, 12% geranygeranyl diphosphate
L180F/P174C
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, product composition is about 98% geranyldiphosphate, 12% geranygeranyl diphosphate
L273F
D2IT07, -
decrease in reation rate, single product is geranyl diphosphate
M159I
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, no effect on product composition
M165C
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, no effect on product composition
M165Y
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, product composition is about 90% geranyldiphosphate, 10% farnesyl diphosphate
M175I
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, product composition is about 95% geranyldiphosphate, 3% farnesyl diphosphate, 25% geranygeranyl diphosphate
M175I/P174C
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, single product is geranyldiphosphate
M175I/P174S
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, no effect on product composition
P174C
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, no effect on product composition
P174S
D2IT07, -
little effect on reation rate, no effect on product composition
V227M
D2IT07, -
decrease in reation rate
DELTA 1-17
-
complete loss of activity, monomer
DELTA1-6
-
72% of wild-type activity. Dimer formation
DELTA1-7
-
29% of wild-type activity. Dimer and monomer formation
Delta1-8
-
0.3% of wild-type activity. Monomer formation
DELTA1-9
-
0.2% of wild-type activity. Monomer formation
E7G
-
84% of wild-type activity. Dimer and monomer formation
E7G/L8G
-
0.6% of wild-type activity
F108A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant activity, substrate specificity, and product distribution compared to the wild-type enzyme
F108A/H139A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant activity, substrate specificity, and product distribution compared to the wild-type enzyme
H139A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant activity, substrate specificity, and product distribution compared to the wild-type enzyme
H139A
-
mutation upstream from the G(Q/E) motif. Mutant forms larger condensation products than wild-type. With farnesyl diphosphate as allylic substrate, mutant produces large amounts of a C30 product
I9G
-
2.5% of wild-type activity
L135A/H139A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant activity, substrate specificity, and product distribution compared to the wild-type enzyme
L138A
-
mutation upstream from the G(Q/E) motif. Mutant forms larger condensation products than wild-type. With farnesyl diphosphate as allylic substrate, mutant produces large amounts of a C25 product
L8G
-
20% of wild-type activity. Dimer formation
R140A
-
no enzymic activity
S71Y
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant activity, substrate specificity, and product distribution compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y107A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant activity, substrate specificity, and product distribution compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y107A/F108A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant activity, substrate specificity, and product distribution compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y107A/F108A//L135A/H139A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant activity, substrate specificity, and product distribution compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y107A/F108A/H139A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant activity, substrate specificity, and product distribution compared to the wild-type enzyme
D170E/M171P/I172A/S173M
-
mutant enzyme shows considerably lower activity toward primer substrates with a short prenyl chain, DMAPP and GPP, than the wild-type enzyme; no activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate, low activity with geranyl diphosphate
D170E/M171P/I172A/S173R
-
low activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate, approx. 60% of wild-type activity with geranyl diphosphate
D170E/M171P/I172R/S173V
-
mutant enzyme shows considerably lower activity toward primer substrates with a short prenyl chain, DMAPP and GPP, than the wild-type enzyme. Scarcely accepts DMAPP as an allylic substrate. The mutant enzyme can not catalyze condensation of 3,7,ll-trimethyl-2,6,10,14-heptadecatetraenyl diphosphate with isopentenyl diphosphate. Does not accept short allylic substrates but forms products with the same length as those of the wild-type enzyme; no activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate, low activity with geranyl diphosphate
F77G
-
C30-prenyl diphosphate is the main long product
F77G/H114A
-
C45-prenyl diphosphate is the main long product
F77G/H114G
-
although its activity is approximately 2-5% of the wild-type, this double-mutated enzyme exhibits a detectable activity and a thermostability to resist 15 h of heat treatment at 55C. C50-prenyl diphosphate is the main long product
H114A
-
C30-prenyl diphosphate is the main long product
H114G
-
C40-prenyl diphosphate is the main long product
I147A
-
no change in chain length of product
I147A/S148A
-
no change in chain length of product
I147F
-
mutant does not accept farnesyl diphosphate as the allylic substrate, indicating a change in product specificity into that of farnesyl diphosphate synthase
I147G
-
elongation in the chain length of product
M171P
-
low activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate, approx. 50% of wild-type activity with geranyl diphosphate
M171P/I172R
-
no activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate, low activity with geranyl diphosphate
S148A
-
no change in chain length of product
S148F
-
mutant does not accept farnesyl diphosphate as the allylic substrate, indicating a change in product specificity into that of farnesyl diphosphate synthase
S148G
-
slight elongation in the chain length of product
additional information
-
geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus forms chimeric geranyl phosphate synthases with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase GGPPS1 or GGPPS2 in Nicotiana tabacum. The formation of chimeric GPPS in transgenic plants also results in leaf chlorosis, increased light sensitivity, and dwarfism due to decreased levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and gibberellins. Transgenic plants have reduced levels of sesquiterpene emission
additional information
D6BCR2
functional completmentation of gene crtE in Escherichia coli
additional information
Q64KQ5
functional expression in Escherichia coli
additional information
-
women with 2 deletion alleles of GGPS1 -8188A ins/del (rs3840452) have significantly higher femoral neck bone marrow densitiy at baseline compared with those with one or no deletion allele. The response rate of women with 2 deletion alleles of GGPS1 -8188A ins/del (28.6%) is significantly lower than the rate of women with one or no deletion allele. Women with 2 deletion alleles of GGPS1 -8188A ins/del have 7fold higher risk of non-response to bisphosphonate therapy compared with women with other genotypes in GGPS1 -8188. Other polymorphisms in or GGPS1 are not associated with lumbar spine bone marrow density or femoral neck bon marrow density
additional information
C4NAM7, C4NAM8
coexpression of both small and large subunits in Escherichia coli yields a heterodimeric enzyme exhibiting altered ratios of GPP and GGPP synthase activities and greatly enhanced catalytic efficiency. The heterodimeric geranyl(geranyl)diphosphate synthase G(G)PPS may be involved in myrcene biosynthesis in hop trichomes. The conserved CxxxC motif, where x can be any hydrophobic amino acid residue, plays a critical role of in physical interactions between the 2 subunits; small subunit alone is inactive. Coexpression of both small and large subunits in Escherichia coli yields a heterodimeric enzyme exhibiting altered ratios of GPP and GGPP synthase activities and greatly enhanced catalytic efficiency. The heterodimeric geranyl(geranyl)diphosphate synthase G(G)PPS may be involved in myrcene biosynthesis in hop trichomes. The conserved CxxxC motif, where x can be any hydrophobic amino acid residue, plays a critical role of in physical interactions between the 2 subunits
V8A
Kitasatospora griseola MF730-N6
-
similar activity as wild-type
-
additional information
D2YZE2, -
functional expression in Escherichia coli
additional information
-
isoforms GGPPS2 and GGPPS1 can form functional heterodimers with heterologously expressed geranyl phosphate synthase small subunit of Antirrhinum majus. The formation of chimeric GPPS in transgenic plants also results in leaf chlorosis, increased light sensitivity, and dwarfism due to decreased levels of chlorophylls, carotenoids, and gibberellins. Transgenic plants have reduced levels of sesquiterpene emission
V125A
-
mutant enzyme yields longer products than the wild-type enzyme
additional information
-
functional expression in Escherichia coli. A truncated PaxG mutant lacking the C-terminal tripeptide GRV is unable to complement a DeltapaxG mutant; functional expression in Escherichia coli. In the DeltapaxG mutant background ggsA is unable to complement paxilline biosynthesis
V240L
D2IT07, -
decrease in reation rate, no effect on product composition
additional information
-
the farnesyl-transferring activities of wild-type GGPS, DELTA-4, DELTA-8 and DELTA-12 carboxyterminal deletion mutants are relatively in a ratio of 1.0, 0.84, 0.26 and 0.0015. Each Km value of the four recombinants are estimated to be 0.00071, 0.002, 0.0028 and 0.055 mM for farnesyl diphosphate and to be 0.0029, 0.0051, 0.056 and above 0.1 mM for isopentenyl diphosphate, respectively. Allylic substrate specificities of these recombinants are estimated by quantitative analysis of the products, revealing that DELTA-8 and DELTA-12 mutants lack the ability to accept dimethylallyl and geranyl diphosphates compared to wild-type GGPS and DELTA-4 mutant
L8G/I9G
-
0.3% of wild-type activity. Monomer formation
additional information
-
deletion of the first 9 or 17 amino acids caused the dissociation of dimer into monomer, the DELTA1-17 mutant shows abolished enzyme activity
Y107A/H139A
-
site-directed mutagenesis, mutant activity, substrate specificity, and product distribution compared to the wild-type enzyme
additional information
Q1A7S9, Q1A7T0, -
isozyme GGPS1 expression is induced in leaves by spider mite Tetranychus urticae feeding and mechanical wounding in wild type tomato but not in the jasmonic acid-response mutant def-1 and the salicylic acid-deficient transgenic NahG line, isozyme GGPS2 is not induced in leaves by spider mite-feeding, wounding, jasmonic acid or methyl salicylate, overview; isozyme GGPS1 expression is induced in leaves by spider mite Tetranychus urticae feeding and mechanical wounding in wild type tomato but not in the jasmonic acid-response mutant def-1 and the salicylic acid-deficient transgenic NahG line, overview
M171P/S173V
-
very low activity with dimethylallyl diphosphate, approx. 50% of wild-type activity with geranyl diphosphate
additional information
-
the sequence between position 77 and position 86 of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase has been replaced with the corresponding sequences of farnesyl diphosphate synthase from human, rat, Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
S148H
-
mutant does not accept farnesyl diphosphate as the allylic substrate, indicating a change in product specificity into that of farnesyl diphosphate synthase
additional information
-
engineering of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by transforming it with the crtE cDNA to divert metabolite flow from the sterol pathway towards carotenoid biosynthesis. Transformants show increased levels of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase leading to higher carotenoid levels including astaxanthin by 8fold
additional information
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous CBS6938, ATCC96594
-
engineering of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous by transforming it with the crtE cDNA to divert metabolite flow from the sterol pathway towards carotenoid biosynthesis. Transformants show increased levels of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase leading to higher carotenoid levels including astaxanthin by 8fold
-
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
biotechnology
-, Q9V305
reconstruction of the isoprenoid pathway in Escherichia coli. To engineer a host that has the capability to supply geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a common precursor of isoprenoids, isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (encoded by idi) from Escherichia coli and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (encoded by gps) from Archaeoglobus fulgidus are cloned and overexpressed. The latter is shown to be a multifunctional enzyme converting dimethylallyl diphosphate to geranylgeranyl diphosphate. These two genes and the gene cluster (crtBIYZW) of the marine bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum are introduced into Escherichia coli to produce astaxanthin, an orange pigment and antioxidant. The metabolically engineered strain produces astaxanthin at a very high rate
synthesis
-, Q9V305
to engineer a host that has the capability to supply geranylgeranyl diphosphate, a common precursor of isoprenoids, isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (encoded by idi) from Escherichia coli and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (encoded by gps) from Archaeoglobus fulgidus are cloned and overexpressed. The latter is shown to be a multifunctional enzyme converting dimethylallyl diphosphate to geranylgeranyl diphosphate. These two genes and the gene cluster (crtBIYZW) of the marine bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum are introduced into Escherichia coli to produce astaxanthin, an orange pigment and antioxidant. The metabolically engineered strain produces astaxanthin at a very high rate
pharmacology
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate biosynthesized by Ginkgo biloba geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase is an importent key precursor for ginkgolides with pharmaceutical interest
drug development
-
validation of GGDPS as a therapeutic target and assesses the advantages of targeting GGDPS relative to other enzymes involved in geranylgeranylation. Compounds that directly inhibit geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthesis may also display therapeutic efficacy in bone diseases, with potential to decrease side effects unrelated to the mechanism
medicine
-
women with 2 deletion alleles of GGPS1 -8188A ins/del (rs3840452) have significantly higher femoral neck bone marrow densitiy at baseline compared with those with one or no deletion allele. The response rate of women with 2 deletion alleles of GGPS1 -8188A ins/del (28.6%) is significantly lower than the rate of women with one or no deletion allele. Women with 2 deletion alleles of GGPS1 -8188A ins/del have 7fold higher risk of non-response to bisphosphonate therapy compared with women with other genotypes in GGPS1 -8188. Other polymorphisms in or GGPS1 are not associated with lumbar spine bone marrow density or femoral neck bon marrow density
medicine
-
validation of GGDPS as a therapeutic target and assesses the advantages of targeting GGDPS relative to other enzymes involved in geranylgeranylation. Compounds that directly inhibit geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthesis may also display therapeutic efficacy in bone diseases, with potential to decrease side effects unrelated to the mechanism
pharmacology
-
geranylgeranyl diphosphate is a key precursor for taxol, one of the most potent antitumor drugs
medicine
Q197X6
this enzyme is an attractive target for drug development, because the order of inhibition of the enzyme by a number of bisphosphonates is the same as that for inhibition of parasite growth. This enzyme as a valid target for the chemotherapy of toxoplasmosis
food industry
-
the enzyme in Xanthophyllomyces is used for production of astaxanthin, i.e. 3,3'-hydroxy-4,4'-diketo-beta-carotene, which is an industrially important carotenoid used for feeding salmon or trout in farming
synthesis
-
the enzyme in Xanthophyllomyces is used for production of astaxanthin, i.e. 3,3'-hydroxy-4,4'-diketo-beta-carotene, which is an industrially important carotenoid used for feeding salmon or trout in farming
food industry
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous CBS6938, ATCC96594
-
the enzyme in Xanthophyllomyces is used for production of astaxanthin, i.e. 3,3'-hydroxy-4,4'-diketo-beta-carotene, which is an industrially important carotenoid used for feeding salmon or trout in farming
-
synthesis
Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous CBS6938, ATCC96594
-
the enzyme in Xanthophyllomyces is used for production of astaxanthin, i.e. 3,3'-hydroxy-4,4'-diketo-beta-carotene, which is an industrially important carotenoid used for feeding salmon or trout in farming
-