Information on EC 2.4.99.9 - lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Euteleostomi

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.99.9
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide = CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2->3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
glycosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - ganglio series
-
Metabolic pathways
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide alpha-(2->3)-N-acetylneuraminyltransferase
Lactose cannot act as acceptor.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
beta-galactoside alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 5
O88829
-
CMP-acetylneuraminate-lactosylceramide-sialyltransferase
-
-
-
-
CMP-acetylneuraminic acid:lactosylceramide sialytransferase
-
-
-
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid:lactosylceramide 2,3-sialyltransferase
-
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid:lactosylceramide alpha2,3-sialyltransferase
-
-
CMP-NeuAc:lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase
-
-
-
-
CMP-NeuAc:lactosylceramide alpha2,3-sialyltransferase
-
-
CMP-sialic acid:lactosylceramide-sialyltransferase
-
-
-
-
cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate-lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase
-
-
-
-
cytidine monophosphoacetylneuraminate-lactosylceramide sialyltransferase
-
-
-
-
ganglioside GM3 synthase
-
-
Ganglioside GM3 synthase
-
-
-
-
ganglioside GM3 synthetase
-
-
-
-
GM3 synthase
-
-
-
-
GM3 synthase
Q9UNP4
-
GM3 synthetase
-
-
-
-
GM3S
-
-
hST3Gal V
-
-
Laccer sialyltransferase
-
-
lactosylceramide alpha2,3-sialyltransferase
-
-
SAT-1
-
-
SAT-I
-
-
SAT1
-
-
-
-
Sia-T1
-, Q9UNP4
-
sialyltransferase-1
-
-
Siat9
-
-
ST3Gal V
Q9UNP4
-
ST3Gal V
-
-
ST3Gal5
-
-
ST3Gal5
O88829
-
ST3GalV
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
125752-90-1
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
15 days old embryo
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
7-11 days old embryo
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
5 different isozymes/mRNA variants of different lengths, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SIAT9; 5 different isozymes/mRNA variants of different lengths, overview; ST3GAL5, SIAT9; 5 different isozymes/mRNA variants of different lengths, overview
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cichlid fish
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
female Wistar
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
in SAT-I null mice, hearing ability is impaired at the onset of hearing and is completely lost by 17 days after birth, showing a deformity in hair cells in the organ of Corti, by 2 months of age, the organ of Corti selectively and completely disappears without effect on balance or motor function or in the histology of vestibule. Lack of brainstem auditory-evoked potentials (BAEPs) in SAT-I null mice due to selective degeneration of the organ of Corti. SAT-I null mice maintain the function of stria vascularis. Defect of hearing ability of SAT-I null mice can be attributed to the functional disorganization of the organ of Corti, and the expression of gangliosides, especially GM3, during the early part of the functional maturation of the cochlea can be essential for the acquisition and maintenance of hearing function
physiological function
-
GM3S knockdown significantly suppresses expression of the ganglioside GM3 and the more complex ganglioside GD3. GM3 synthase silencing in 4T1 cells significantly inhibits cell migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and lung metastasis in vivo. Overexpression of GM3 synthase in nonmetastatic 67NR cells significantly induces cell migration and anchorage-independent growth. GM3S promotes breast cancer cells migration and invasion through the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt pathway, whereas anchorage-independent growth caused by GM3S is not associated with the phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt pathway
physiological function
-
overexpression of GM3 synthase in A2780 cells consistently results in elevated ganglioside (GM3, GM2 and GD1a) levels. GM3 synthase overexpressing cells have a growth rate similar to wild-type cells, but show a strongly reduced in vitro cell motility accompanied by reduced levels of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker alpha smooth muscle actin. Caveolin-1 is markedly upregulated in GM3 synthase overexpressing cells. Higher levels of the inactive form of c-Src are present in GM3 synthase overexpressing cells, associated with a ganglioside- and caveolin-rich detergent insoluble fraction
physiological function
-
M1-SAT-I, M2-SAT-I, and M3-SAT-I isoforms are produced by leaky scanning from mRNA variants of SAT-Ia and SAT-Ib. SAT-I leads to a reduction in GM1b and an increase in GM3, GM1, and GD1a levels. Ganglioside levels in ks-M1-SAT-I-transfected cells are similar to those in ks-M2-SAT-I- or ks-M3-SAT-I-transfected cells. Introduction of ks-M1-SAT-I or ks-M2-SAT-I into CHO cells leads to the production of M3-SAT-I by leaky scanning. M1-SAT-I and M3-SAT-I have a long half-life relative to M2-SAT-I
physiological function
-
the enzyme catalyzes ganglioside GM3 biosynthesis in ARPE-19 human retinal pigment epithelial cells
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + 1-deoxy-1-cholesteryl (N-acetyl)-ethanolaminolactitol
CMP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
115% of activity with lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + 1-deoxy-1-cholesterylethanolaminolactitol
CMP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
28% of activity with lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + 1-deoxy-1-cholesterylphospho (N-acetyl)-ethanolaminolactitol
CMP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
151% of activity with lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + 1-deoxy-1-cholesterylphosphoethanolaminolactitol
CMP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
60% of activity with lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + 2,3-dicholesteryl-1-beta-lactosylglycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
113% of activity with lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + 2-cholesteryl-1-beta-lactosylglycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
138% of activity with lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + 3-cholesteryl-1-beta-lactosylglycerol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
163% of activity with lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + asialoGM1
CMP + GM1
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9UNP4
-
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + asialoGM1
?
show the reaction diagram
-
27.7% relative activity to lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + asialoGM2
CMP + GM2
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9UNP4
-
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetylgalactosamin-1,4-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. asialo-ganglioside GM1, sialylated at about 84% the rate of lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,3-N-acetylgalactosamin-lactosylceramide
CMP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
14% of activity with lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. lactosylceramide, high specificity
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred acceptors have the general structure beta1-O-ceramide, disaccharides are preferred to monosaccharide, no acceptors are fetuin, mucin, alpha1-acid glycoprotein, glycophorin or their respective asialo-derivatives, gangliosides GD1b, GM3, GM2, GM1 or GD1a
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
brain sialyltransferase shows high activity with d18:1-16:0, d18:1-22:1, and d18:0-18:0 lactosylceramide molecular species, specificity changes when the lipid composition of the neuronal microsomal membrane resembles that of liver Golgi membrane lipids
i.e. ganglioside GM3
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
i.e. ganglioside GM3
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-lactosylcholesterol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
138% of activity with lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + cholesteryl-beta-lactosylpropane-1,3-diol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
143% of activity with lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + galactosylceramide
CMP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
sialylated at about 40% the rate of lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + galactosylceramide
CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9UNP4
-
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + galactosylceramide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
30% relative activity to lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + glucosylceramide
CMP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
sialylated at about 65% the rate of lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + GM3
?
show the reaction diagram
-
4.5% relative activity to lactosylceramide
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
Q9UNP4
-
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
synthesizes the first ganglioside of the gangliotetraose series, GM3
-
-
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in sequential addition of monosaccharides from sugar nucleotides to non-reducing end of oligosaccharide chains of glycosphingolipids
-
-
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosyl-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosyl-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9UNP4
-
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosyl-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosyl-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
ganglioside GM3 is involved in neuronal cell death
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosyl-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
metabolic flux and expression levels of enzymes involved in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway, overview
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
100% relative activity
-
-
?
CMP-Neu5Ac + lactosylceramide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
caveolin-1 is a GM3-interacting protein in GM3 synthase overexpressing cells
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
mice with a disrupted gene encoding GM3 synthase have an enhanced phosphorylation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor after ligand binding. They show heightened responses in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. The mutant mice are protected from high-fat diet induced insulin resistance
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the cAMP responsive element binding protein binding site of the hST3Gal V promoter plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation of the hST3Gal V gene during HL-60 cell differentiation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
upregulation of GM3 synthase through protein kinase C/extracellular regulated kinases-dependent cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation results in the differentiation of HL-60 cells by inducing expression of CD11b
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
overexpression of recombinant UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc 6-kinase, GNE, in HEK AD293 cells up-regulates GM3 synthase, while GNE down-regulation by RNA interference or exogenous GM3 and GD3 down-regulates the GM3 synthase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q9UNP4
substrate specificity of isozymes, no activity with GD3 and GM1a as acceptors, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no acitvity with GM1 or asialofetuin as acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the -177 to -83 region, which contains a cAMP-responsive element at -143, functions as the valproic acid-inducible promoter by actively binding cAMP-responsive element binding protein. The cAMP-responsive element at -143 is crucial for the valproic acid-induced expression of hST3Gal V in SK-NBE(2)-C cells
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
synthesizes the first ganglioside of the gangliotetraose series, GM3
-
-
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in sequential addition of monosaccharides from sugar nucleotides to non-reducing end of oligosaccharide chains of glycosphingolipids
-
-
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosyl-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9UNP4
-
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosyl-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
ganglioside GM3 is involved in neuronal cell death
-
-
?
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + lactosylceramide
CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-glucosyl-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
metabolic flux and expression levels of enzymes involved in the sialic acid biosynthetic pathway, overview
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
mice with a disrupted gene encoding GM3 synthase have an enhanced phosphorylation of the skeletal muscle insulin receptor after ligand binding. They show heightened responses in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. The mutant mice are protected from high-fat diet induced insulin resistance
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the cAMP responsive element binding protein binding site of the hST3Gal V promoter plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation of the hST3Gal V gene during HL-60 cell differentiation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
upregulation of GM3 synthase through protein kinase C/extracellular regulated kinases-dependent cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation results in the differentiation of HL-60 cells by inducing expression of CD11b
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
overexpression of recombinant UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc 6-kinase, GNE, in HEK AD293 cells up-regulates GM3 synthase, while GNE down-regulation by RNA interference or exogenous GM3 and GD3 down-regulates the GM3 synthase
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
activation, slightly less efficient than Mn2+
Mg2+
-
-
Mg2+
-
activation, slightly less efficient than Mn2+
Mg2+
-, Q9UNP4
;
Mn2+
-
10 mM, approx. 2fold activation, required for full activity
Mn2+
-
15 mM, required for maximal activity
additional information
-
no metal ion requirement
additional information
-
no metal ion requirement
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(4-Amidinophenyl)-methanesulfonyl fluoride
-
serine protease, 0.02 mM, 48% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1
alpha2-Macroglobulin
-
1 unit, 67% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1, no inhibition of sialyltransferase-1 activity in microsomes
-
Aprotinin
-
serine protease inhibitor, 0.0003 mM, 74% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1
asialofetuin
-
weak
-
CMPdialdehyde
-
kinetics
dithiothreitol
-
0.1 mM, 89% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1
DL-threo-phenyl-2-hexadecanoylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol
-
inhibitor of ganglioside synthesis, depletion of GM3 synthesis in cultured monocyte-derived macrophages, delays acquisition of CD206 antigen, prevents loss of CD163 antigen and enhances anti-inflammatory cytokine (CCL18) secretion
E-64
-
thiol protease inhibitor, 0.0028 mM, 71% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1, activation of sialytransferase-1 activity in microsomes
EDTA
-
0.1 mM, 71% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1
Ep-475
-
thiol protease inhibitor, 0.0028 mM, 75% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1; thiol protease inhibitor, 0.0028 mM, 84% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1
ganglioside GM1a
-
-
ganglioside GM3
-
0.5 mM and 1 mM, 43% and 60% inhibition respectively
Globotetraosylceramide
-
weak
Go6976
-
protein kinase C inhibitor, treatment of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced cells reduces expression of GM3 synthase
Ionic detergents
-
-
-
L-1-chloro-3-[4-tosylamido]-4-phenyl-2-butanone
-
chymotrypsin and thiol protease inhibitor, 0.284 mM, 67% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1
L-1-Chloro-3-[4-tosylamido]-7-amino-2-heptanone-HCl
-
trypsin and thiol protease inhibitor, 0.135 mM, 73% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1
Leupeptin
-
serine and thiol protease inhibitor, 0.001 mM, 72% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1, no inhibition of sialyltransferase-1 activity in microsomes
N3-
-
1 mM, 87% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1
pepstatin A
-
0.001 mM, 72% inhibition of purified sialyltransferase-1, activation of sialyltransferase-1 activity in microsomes
Tris buffer
-
weak
Triton CF-54
-
at higher concentrations
U0126
-
extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor, treatment of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced cells reduces expression of GM3 synthase
UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine
-
weak
UDPdialdehyde
-
kinetics
UDPgalactose
-
weak
Zn2+
-
10 mM, 90% inhibition
Monoclonal antibody M12GC7
-
-
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by EDTA; not inhibited by Fe2+, Mg2+, IAA, 2-mercaptoethanol
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by EDTA
-
additional information
-
inhibition in vivo i.e. stable microsomes not as dramatic as in vitro
-
additional information
-
glucosylceramide or globotriaosylceramide
-
additional information
-
overexpression of recombinant UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc 6-kinase, GNE, in HEK AD293 cells up-regulates GM3 synthase, while GNE down-regulation by RNA interference or exogenous GM3 and GD3 down-regulates the GM3 synthase
-
additional information
-
motility of low GM3 synthase expressing cells is reduced in the presence of a Src kinase inhibitor
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
-
0.18 mM, 392% activation of purified sialyltransferase-1, 1120% activation of sialytransferase-1 activity in microsomes
beta-octylglucoside
-
-
cardiolipin
-
activation
Cutscum
-
activation, most potent activator; can be replaced by Triton CF-54, Triton X-100 or Triton CF-54/Tween 80, ratio 2:1, activation efficiency in descending order
-
Myrj 59
-
activation, most potent activator, can be replaced by sodium deoxycholate, Triton CF-54, Tween 20, Triton CF-54/Tween 80, ratio 2:1, Triton X-100 or Tween 80, activation efficiency in descending order
Nonidet P-40
-
slight activation
Triton CF-54
-
inhibits at higher concentrations
Triton CF-54
-
-
Triton CF-54
-
0.15%, required for full activity
Triton CF-54
-
activation, most potent activator
Triton CF-54/Tween 80
-
ratio 2:1, activation, about 50% as efficient as Cutscum
-
Triton CF-54/Tween 80
-
less than 50% as efficient as Myrj 59
-
Triton CF-54/Tween 80
-
-
-
Triton X-100
-
activation
Triton X-100
-
activation
Triton X-100
-
activation
Lauryldimethylamine oxide
-
i.e. Ammonyx LO, nonionic/cationic detergent, 12-15fold higher activation than by Triton CF-54, Triton X-100 or beta-octylglucoside
additional information
-
not activated by Tween 20 or 80
-
additional information
-
GM3 is up-regulated in glutamate-induced neuronal cell death
-
additional information
-
overexpression of recombinant UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc 6-kinase, GNE, in HEK AD293 cells up-regulates GM3 synthase, while GNE down-regulation by RNA interference or exogenous GM3 and GD3 down-regulates the GM3 synthase
-
additional information
-
the enzyme is expressed during the induction of megakaryocytic differentiation in human leukemia K562 cells by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate depending upon the PKC/ERK/CREB pathway, overview
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00026
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate
-
-
0.16
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate
-
-
0.18
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate
-
-
0.19
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate
-
-
0.21
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate
-
-
1.5
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate
-
-
1.5
-
CMP-N-acetylneuraminate
-
-
0.00011
-
lactosylceramide
-
-
0.035
-
lactosylceramide
-
-
0.068
-
lactosylceramide
-
-
0.075
-
lactosylceramide
-
-
0.08
-
lactosylceramide
-
-
0.0815
-
lactosylceramide
-
-
0.101
-
lactosylceramide
-
-
0.11
-
lactosylceramide
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0853
-
CMP-dialdehyde
-
at 0.1 mM
0.104
-
CMP-dialdehyde
-
at 0.2 mM
0.219
-
UDP-dialdehyde
-
at 0.2 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.000000167
-
-
homogenate
0.0000027
-
-
sialyltransferase-1 activity in membrane fraction from brain
0.0000032
-
-
liver
0.0000045
-
-
-
0.0000064
-
-
sialyltransferase-1 activity in membrane fraction from brain
0.00002255
-
-
PMA-stimulated HL-60 cell
0.0006048
-
-
3600fold purified enzyme
0.0055
-
-
-
0.0094
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
analysis of cell surface and total levels of GM3 in wild-type and transfected cells
additional information
-
-
activity of ks-M3-SAT-I is about 3fold higher than that of either ks-M1-SAT-I or ks-M2-SAT-I
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.2
-
-
-
6.4
-
-, Q9UNP4
assay at; assay at
6.5
-
-
broad optimum in cacodylate-HCl buffer
additional information
-
-
pI: 5.7-6.2
additional information
-
-
no effects of buffer on activity
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.1
7.6
-
detectable activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
37
-
-
-
37
-
-, Q9UNP4
assay at; assay at
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
expression of GM3S mRNA is greater in the highly metastatic 4T1 tumor cells than in the nonmetastatic 67NR cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
level of GM3 synthase in membrane-fractions isolated from the atherosclerotic intima are higher compared to those in non-dieased arterial tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
atherosclerotic aortic intima
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
atherosclerotic and normal aorta
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in atherosclerosis, excessive GM3 is synthesized in atherosclerotic lesions by macrophages and dendritic cells directly within the arterial walls in blood arteries additionally to the GM3 synthesis in blood plasma, the fatty acid compositions of GM3 from blood plasma low density lipoprotein and from atherosclerotic lesions differ; level of GM3 synthase in membrane-fractions isolated from the atherosclerotic intima are higher compared to those in non-dieased arterial tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in atherosclerosis, excessive GM3 is synthesized in atherosclerotic lesions by macrophages and dendritic cells directly within the arterial walls in blood vessels additionally to the GM3 synthesis in blood plasma, the fatty acid compositions of GM3 from blood plasma low density lipoprotein and from atherosclerotic lesions differ
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q9UNP4
fetal, isozymes type 1-4
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high levels of SAT-Ia-1 and SAT-Ia-2, whereas very low levels of SAT-Ib-1 and SAT-Ib-2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
three SAT-I isoforms, high transcript level of SAT-Ia and SAT-Ib transcript
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
; excessive GM3 is synthesized in atherosclerotic lesions by macrophages and dendritic cells directly within the arterial walls
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
contact-inhibited cell-line NIL-8
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high transcript level of SAT-Ia and SAT-Ib transcript
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
strain R, elevated enzyme level if cultured in butyrate containing media
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
phorbol myristate actetate-stimulated
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the cAMP responsive element binding protein binding site of the hST3Gal V promoter plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation of the hST3Gal V gene during HL-60 cell differentiation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
upregulation of GM3 synthase through protein kinase C/extracellular regulated kinases-dependent cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation results in the differentiation of HL-60 cells by inducing expression of CD11b
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q9UNP4
type 2 isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
GM3 synthase expression analysis, the enzyme is expressed during the induction of megakaryocytic differentiation in human leukemia K562 cells by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate depending upon the PKC/ERK/CREB pathway, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
treatment of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induced cells with protein kinase C inhibitor Go6976 or extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor U0126 reduces expression of GM3 synthase. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and cAMP response element binding protein is prevented by pretreatment with Go6976 and U0126
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high levels of SAT-Ia-1 and SAT-Ia-2, whereas very low levels of SAT-Ib-1 and SAT-Ib-2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, enzyme level is stimulated by growth in the presence of phytohemagglutinin
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
; excessive GM3 is synthesized in atherosclerotic lesions by macrophages and dendritic cells directly within the arterial walls
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
murine neuroblastoma x rat dorsal root ganglion F-11A cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high levels of SAT-Ia-1 and SAT-Ia-2, whereas very low levels of SAT-Ib-1 and SAT-Ib-2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
embryonic carcinoma cell line P19 differentiates into neurons and astrocytes on cell aggregation after treatment with retinoic acid
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q9UNP4
type 5 isozyme
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high levels of SAT-Ia-1 and SAT-Ia-2, whereas very low levels of SAT-Ib-1 and SAT-Ib-2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high levels of SAT-Ia-1 and SAT-Ia-2, whereas very low levels of SAT-Ib-1 and SAT-Ib-2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high levels of SAT-Ia-1 and SAT-Ia-2, whereas very low levels of SAT-Ib-1 and SAT-Ib-2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high transcript level of SAT-Ia and SAT-Ib transcript
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the GM3 synthase gene is expressed at relatively higher levels in the dexamethasone-administered mice than in the control mice
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high levels of SAT-Ia-1 and SAT-Ia-2, whereas very low levels of SAT-Ib-1 and SAT-Ib-2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high levels of SAT-Ia-1 and SAT-Ia-2, whereas very low levels of SAT-Ib-1 and SAT-Ib-2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
immunohistochemic analysis of tissue distribution of GM3 synthase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
SK-N-BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cell
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
67NR cell
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
in cervix, high levels of SAT-Ia-1 and SAT-Ia-2, whereas very low levels of SAT-Ib-1 and SAT-Ib-2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
in B16 melanoma cells SAT-Ia is present
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
broadley distributed in endoplasmic reticulum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
exclusively M1-SAT-I, specific multiple arginines arranged in an R-based motif, RRXXXXR necessary for endoplasmic reticulum targeting, in the cytoplasmic tail of M1-SAT-I
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
broadley distributed in Golgi
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
M2- and M3-SAT-I. Isoform M2-SAT-I is rapidly degraded in the lysosomes, whereas isoform M3-SAT-I is retained in the Golgi apparatus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
level of GM3 synthase in membrane-fractions isolated from the atherosclerotic intima are higher compared to those in non-dieased arterial tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q9UNP4
membrane and lumen; membrane and lumen
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
M1-SAT-I, M2-SAT-I, and M3-SAT-I possess distinct lengths in their NH2-terminal cytoplasmic tails
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 60000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 76000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 60000, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-, Q9UNP4
the isozyme transcripts differ in length and the proteins in molecular weight; the isozyme transcripts differ in length and the proteins in molecular weight
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
glycoprotein
-, Q9UNP4
;
glycoprotein
-
N- and O-linked carbohydrate side chains, containing sialic acids in alpha-2,3 and 2,6-linkage, galactose and galactosamine, branched N-glycans containing mannose
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
56
-
-
t1/2: 60 s
100
-
-
5 min, inactivation
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
lauryldimethylamine oxide solubilizes and stabilizes solubilized enzyme during purification and storage
-
PMSF, leupeptin or pepstatin A stabilize during purification
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-80°C, 25 mM sodium cacodylate, pH 6.5, 15% w/v lauryldimethylamine oxide, 6-12 months, no loss of activity
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
by immunoaffinity chromatography, to apparent homogeneity, 3600fold, with a yield of 19%
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
CHO cells transfected with hSAT-Ia-1 or -Ia-2 including the 5'-UTR
-
cloning from HL-60 cells, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic organization of isozymes, mRNA variants differ in the 5'-untranslated region, in vitro transcription and translation using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, expression in murine MG1361 cells, a mammary adenocarcinoma cell line; cloning from placenta, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic organization of isozymes, mRNA variants differ in the 5'-untranslated region, in vitro transcription and translation using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, expression in murine MG1361 cells, a mammary adenocarcinoma cell line; type 1-4 isozymes, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genetic organization of isozymes, mRNA variants differ in the 5'-untranslated region, in vitro transcription and translation using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, expression in murine MG1361 cells, a mammary adenocarcinoma cell line
-, Q9UNP4
from HL-60 cell DNA, expression of His6-tagged fragment comprising residues 191-245
-
SAT-1 cDNA cloned into plasmid expression vector pRc/CMV under control of CMV promoter, overexpression in A2780 ovarian tumor cells
-
CHO cells transiently transfected with plasmids encoding SAT-Ia or SAT-Ib, which contains the 5'-untranslated region of each variant. CHO cells stably transfected with ks-M1-SAT-I, ks-M2-SAT-I, or ks-M3-SAT-I, in which GCCACC (ks) is inserted before isoforms M1, M2, or M3. Stable expression in CHO cells of a fusion protein for the NH2-terminus of M1-, M2-, or M3-SAT-I containing the transmembrane region and EGFP (M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP, M2-SAT-I(N)-EGFP, and M3-SAT-I(N)-EGFP or each M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP mutant)
-
expression as fusion proteins with red fluorescent protein in murine neuroblastoma F-11A cells
-
functional expression in HT22 cells, GM3 levels are increased in immortalized mouse hippocampal HT22 cells after exposure to glutamate, GM3 not only mediates the effect of glutamate on the oxidative death of HT22 cells but also acts, in itself, as a modulator of in vivo neuronal cell death, overview
-
three pairs of oligonucleotides, corresponding to different regions of murine GM3S encoding gene, annealed and inserted into BglII/HindIII double digested pMEHMpuro, yielding the vectors pMEHM-siGM3S1, pMEHM-siGM3S2, and pMEHMsiGM3S3. Full-length GM3S encoding gene amplified from the total RNA of 4T1 cells and inserted into XhoI/EcoRI double digested pMSCVpuro, resulting in the GM3S expression vector pMSCV-GM3S. Overexpressed in non-metastatic 67NR cells
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
valproic acid induces hST3Gal V mRNA expression in SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. A cAMP-responsive element at -143 is essential for transcriptional activation of hST3Gal V in valproic acid-induced SK-N-BE(2)-C cells. Subsequent cAMP-responsive element binding protein binding to this cAMP-responsive element mediates valproic acid-dependent upregulation of hST3Gal V gene expression
-
SAT-1 mRNA level and GM3 synthase activity in vitro are markedly upregulated in 3 SAT-1-transfected clones with respect to wild-type and mock-transfected A2780 cells
-
GM3 synthase mRNA levels are significantly higher in differentiated monocyte-derived macrophages compared to monocytes and in atherosclerotic aorta compared to normal aorta
-
GM3 synthase mRNA is significantly increased (mediated by specificity protein 1) in transforming growth factor-beta1-induced HLE B-3 cells
-
the activity of GM3 synthase in blood mononuclear cells from atherosclerotic patients is 4.6fold higher than those from healthy subjects
-
the transcriptional activity of the enzyme is induced 2.4fold by 1 mM valproic acid in ARPE-19 cells
-
expression of GM3S in the highly metastatic 4T1 cell line silenced by RNA interference. Expression of the GM3S siRNAs siGM3S2 and siGM3S3, but not that of siGM3S1, drastically reduces expression of GM3S mRNA in 4T1 cells
-
expression level of M3-SAT-I decreases remarkably in cells carrying the mSAT-Ib m1 in which the nucleotide sequence from position -6 to -1 at the M2 site is switched for GCCACC
-
enzyme mRNA levels are significantly lower (64%) in mouse muscles of a model of hereditary inclusion body myopathy harboring the M712T mutation of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase compared to control mice
-
overexpressed in 67NR cells
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
DELTA12-21
-
M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP mutant, is localized in the Golgi apparatus
DELTA12-26
-
M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP mutant, is localized in the Golgi apparatus
DELTA28-55
-
M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP mutant, changes its localization from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus
M28/56A
-
ks-M1-SAT-I mutant, subcellular localization and stability similar to those of the wild-type. Activity is similar to that of ks-M1-SAT-I. Amounts of gangliosides in the ks-M1-SAT-I M28/56A mutant-transfected cells are greatly reduced compared with those of cells transfected with the other isoforms or mutants
M29A
-
ks-M1-SAT-I mutant, activity is decreased to ca. 50%, relative to the activity of ks-M2-SAT-I
R11S
-
M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP mutant, is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum
R11S/R12S
-
M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP mutant, results in a shift of localization from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus
R11S/R17S
-
M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP mutant, shifts its localization to the Golgi apparatus
R12S
-
M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP mutant, is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum
R12S/R17S
-
M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP mutant, shifts its localization to the Golgi apparatus
R17S
-
M1-SAT-I(N)-EGFP mutant, stays in the endoplasmic reticulum
additional information
-
overexpression of recombinant UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase/ManNAc 6-kinase, GNE, in HEK AD293 cells up-regulates GM3 synthase, while GNE down-regulation by RNA interference or exogenous GM3 and GD3 down-regulates the GM3 synthase
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
medicine
-
GM3 synthase may be of value as a therapeutic target in breast cancer
medicine
-
the enzyme is a marker of hereditary inclusion body myopathy