Information on EC 2.4.1.88 - globoside alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eutheria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.1.88
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
globoside alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->3)-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide = UDP + N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->3)-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->3)-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide = UDP + N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosaminyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->3)-alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide
show the reaction diagram
catalytic mechanism, substrate binding and active site structure
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis - globo series
-
Metabolic pathways
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine:N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-(1->3)-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide alpha-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase
-
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-globoside alpha-
-
-
-
-
Forss-S
Q95158
-
Forssman synthase
-
-
-
-
Forssman synthase
-, Q3L7L9, Q3L7M0
-
Forssman synthetase
-
-
Forssmann glycolipid synthetase
-
-
Forssmann glycolipid synthetase
Q95158
-
Forssmann glycolipid synthetase
Q8N5D6
-
FS
Q8N5D6
-
globoside acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
-
-
-
-
glycosyltransferase 6 (GT6) family member
-, Q3L7L9, Q3L7M0
-
GT6m5
Q3L7M0
-
GT6m6
Q3L7L9
-
uridine diphosphoacetylgalactosamine-globoside alpha-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
-
-
-
-
additional information
Q95158
enzyme belongs to the alpha3-Gal(NAc)T 6 family, i.e. GT6
additional information
Q95158
member of blood group ABO family
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
52037-97-5
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
mongrel dog, adult
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cosmid sequence from chromosome 9q34
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
immunoreactive sequence homologue to FS sequences, but without FS activity due to modification of catalytic domain during evolution
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Homo sapiens
due to natively occurring inactive gene mutant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
O75752
-
i.e. Forssman antigen
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. Forssman hapten
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. Forssman hapten
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. Forssman hapten
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. Forssman hapten
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-, Q8N5D6
no activity
-
-
-
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-, Q95158
i.e. globoside, catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine in alpha-1,3-linkage to globoside
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. globoside, catalyzes the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine in alpha-1,3-linkage to globoside, general structure of preferred substrates: N-acetylgalactosaminyl-beta-1,3-galactosyl-O-R
i.e. Forssman hapten
ir
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in biosynthesis of carbohydrate moiety of sphingoglycolipids
i.e. Forssman hapten
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-R
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-R
show the reaction diagram
-
production of the Forssman antigen, substrate binding mechanism, binding site structures and involved amino acids, binding of the nucleotide sugar requires the residues A263, D206, E297, Q296, W295, and S180, binding of the acceptor sugar involves residues H228, Y259, E298, and others, overview
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetylgalactosaminyl-1,3-beta-galactosyl-alpha-1,3-galactosyl-beta-1,4-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosamine-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-1,3-beta-galactosyl-alpha-1,3-galactosyl-beta-1,4-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + oligosaccharide of globoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
no substrates: oligosaccharide of blood type H substance, asialo-GM1, asialo-GM2 and GD1a, galactosyl-alpha-1,4-galactosyl-beta-1,4-glucosylceramide, UDP, UDP-galactose, 2'-fucosyllactose, H blood group glycoprotein, bovine submaxillary deglycosylated mucin, GM1-3, glucosyl-beta-1,1-ceramide, galactosyl-beta-1,1-ceramide, galactosyl-beta-1,4-glucosylceramide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q8N5D6
variability in glycolipid synthesis between species is an important determinant of microbial tropism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is responsible for production of Forssman glycolipid, the enzyme modifies the Shiga toxin receptor glycolipids, e.g. globotriaosylceramide, to Forssman glycolipid, which results in highly decreased susceptibility for Shiga toxin, the enzyme expression level is directly related to the level of sensitivity for the cytotoxin
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. Forssman hapten
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. Forssman hapten
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. Forssman hapten
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-galactosyl-1,4-D-glucosylceramide
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in biosynthesis of carbohydrate moiety of sphingoglycolipids
i.e. Forssman hapten
?
UDP-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-R
UDP + N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl-1,3-D-galactosyl-R
show the reaction diagram
-
production of the Forssman antigen
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-, Q8N5D6
variability in glycolipid synthesis between species is an important determinant of microbial tropism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is responsible for production of Forssman glycolipid, the enzyme modifies the Shiga toxin receptor glycolipids, e.g. globotriaosylceramide, to Forssman glycolipid, which results in highly decreased susceptibility for Shiga toxin, the enzyme expression level is directly related to the level of sensitivity for the cytotoxin
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Co2+
-
can replace Mn2+ with 20% efficiency, inhibits in the presence of Mn2+
Cu2+
-
can replace Mn2+ with 31% efficiency, inhibits in the presence of Mn2+
Fe2+
-
can replace Mn2+ with 76% efficiency
Mg2+
-
no effect
Mg2+
-
stimulation, only in the presence of Mn2+
Mg2+
-
no effect
Mn2+
-
Mg2+ and Ca2+ can hardly replace Mn2+; optimal concentration: 10 mM; requirement
Mn2+
-
Km-value 0.45 mM; requirement
Mn2+
-
absolute requirement, cannot be replaced by Ca2+ and Mg2+; optimal concentration: 10 mM
Zn2+
-
can replace Mn2+ with 83% efficiency
additional information
-
no activation by Ni2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
no inhibition
Co2+
-
in the presence of Mn2+
Cu2+
-
in the presence of Mn2+
Ni2+
-
in the presence of Mn2+
PCMB
-
over 90% inhibition at 2 mM
PCMB
-
no inhibition
Sodium deoxycholate
-
-
Triton CF-54
-
-
UDP
-
competitive to UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine, non-competitive to globoside
UDP
-
85% inhibition at 1.5 mM
UDP-galactose
-
-
UDP-glucose
-
strong
UDP-glucose
-
competitive versus UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine; strong
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
no inhibition
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine
-
strong
Zn2+
-
in the presence of Mn2+
additional information
-
no inhibitor: NaF; not affected by GSH, N-acetylgalactosamine, and glucuronolactone
-
additional information
-
no inhibitor: NaF
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
slightly activating
diphosphatidylglycerol
-
activation
phosphatidic acid
-
activation
phosphatidylcholine
-
activation
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
activation
phosphatidylinositol
-
activation
phosphatidylserine
-
activation
sodium taurocholate
-
activation
sphingomyelin
-
activation
Triton X-100
-
activation
Triton X-100
-
activation; best at 0.3-0.6%
UDP-glucose
-
slight stimulation
GSH
-
slight stimulation
additional information
-
requirement for phospholipids
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00156
-
globoside
-
-
-
0.4
-
globoside
-
-
-
0.5
-
globoside
-
-
-
0.01
-
UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine
-
-
0.1
-
UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.033
-
UDP-glucose
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.000059
-
-
purified enzyme
additional information
-
-
tissue distribution of enzyme activity
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
Q3L7L9, Q3L7M0, -
isoform GT6m5 shows no enzymatic activity in Rattus norvegicus; isoform GT6m6 shows no enzymatic activity in Rattus norvegicus
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
-
O75752
assay at
6.7
-
-
assay at
6.9
-
-
assay at
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
37
-
O75752
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O75752
cDNA library
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q3L7L9, Q3L7M0, -
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q3L7L9, Q3L7M0, -
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-, Q8N5D6
enzyme mRNA is detectable in all tissues
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
120000
-
-
gel filtration
additional information
-
-
amino acid sequence alignment
additional information
-
-
amino acid sequence alignment and comparison, 83% identity
additional information
-
-, Q8N5D6
amino acid sequence alignment and comparison, 83% identity; genomic organisation
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
dimer
-
1 * 56000 + 1 * 60000, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
enzyme structure modeling
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
structure determination and molecular modeling on the basis of crystal structure of the bovine alpha3GalT, Protein Data Bank code 1K4V
-
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
glycerol, 50%, stabilizes during storage
-
phosphatidylserine stabilizes
-
repeated freeze-thawing inactivates, UDP and glycerol protect
-
UDP, 0.1 mM, stabilizes during storage
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20°C, at least 2 weeks without loss of activity
-
-80°C, 0.1 mg/ml enzyme in 25 mM sodium cacodylate buffer with 1% Triton X-100, at least 6 months
-
4°C, 0.1 mg/ml enzyme in 25 mM sodium cacodylate buffer with 1% Triton X-100, 40% loss of activity within 3 months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
affinity chromatography
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, stable expression in and functional complementation of Vero cells, which renders the cells resistant against the toxin
-
expression in COS-1 cells with and without HA-tag; expression of wild-type in T42 human bladder and Vero monkey kidney epithelial cells, enables the cells to bind a canine Escherichia coli uropathogen, which they cannot bind without transfection
-
expression in COS-1 cells, DNA and amino acid sequence determination
-
cloned from cDNA library by PCR, expression, transcription and processing, of wild-type in COS-1 cells with and without HA-tag, but no detectable enzyme activity in the transfected cells by recombinant enzyme, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis
-, Q8N5D6
Gb4-synthase, expression in 1B9 mouse fibroblast L cells, coexpression of SV 40 large T antigen for extrachromosomal replication of the transfected plasmids
O75752
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, stable expression in and functional complementation of Vero cells, which renders the cells resistant against the toxin
-
cloned in a eukaryotic expression vector and transfected into CHO cells; cloned in a eukaryotic expression vector and transfected into CHO cells
Q3L7L9, Q3L7M0, -
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-
chimeric enzyme constructs of N-terminal canine sequence fused in frame with the C-terminal catalytic region of the human sequence, i.e. dog:human construct, and vice versa, i.e. human:dog construct, expression in COS-1 cells, activity is shown only by the human:dog construct
additional information
Q8N5D6
chimeric enzyme constructs of N-terminal canine sequence fused in frame with the C-terminal catalytic region of the human sequence, i.e. dog:human construct, and vice versa, i.e. human:dog construct, expression in COS-1 cells, activity is shown only by the human:dog construct