Information on EC 2.4.1.38 - beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.4.1.38
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - keratan sulfate
-
-
Metabolic pathways
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N-Glycan biosynthesis
-
-
terminal O-glycans residues modification
-
-
Various types of N-glycan biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide 4-beta-galactosyltransferase
Terminal N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl residues in polysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycopeptides can act as acceptor. High activity is shown towards such residues in branched-chain polysaccharides when these are linked by beta-1,6-links to galactose residues; lower activity towards residues linked to galactose by beta-1,3-links. A component of EC 2.4.1.22 (lactose synthase).
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
37237-43-7
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9054-94-8
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment; strain UR6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment; strain UR6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tammar wallaby
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 31151
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-Gal + 4-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-4-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside
UDP + Gal-beta-S-1,4-GlcNAcpNP
show the reaction diagram
-
HP0826 catalyzes the synthesis of the thiodisaccharide Gal-beta-S-1,4-GlcNAcpNP as well as Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP with total regio- and stereoselectivity, overview
-
-
?
UDP-Gal + 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-mannopyranoside
UDP + Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP
show the reaction diagram
UDP-Gal + 4-nitrophenyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)3-deoxy-3-fluoro-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + beta-D-galactopyranosyl-1,4-xylopyranosyl-1-O-4-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 6-deoxy-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)6-deoxy-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 6-thio-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)6-thio-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside
UDP + benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + chitotriose
?
show the reaction diagram
GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAc
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + colchicoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-colchicoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + ginsenoside Rg1
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-ginsenoside Rg1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
?
show the reaction diagram
an N-linked biantennary oligosaccharide chain, one antenna is attached to the 3-hydroxyl-(1,2-1,3-arm) group of mannose, which is beta-1,4-linked to an N-linked chitobiose, attached to the aspargine residue of a protein
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3)Man
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6-Manbeta-OR
?
show the reaction diagram
an N-linked biantennary oligosaccharide chain, one antenna is attached to the 3-hydroxyl-(1,2-1,6-arm) group of mannose, which is beta-1,4-linked to an N-linked chitobiose, attached to the aspargine residue of a protein
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,4-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
?
show the reaction diagram
an N-linked biantennary oligosaccharide chain, one antenna is attached to the 3-hydroxyl-(1,4-1,3-arm) group of mannose, which is beta-1,4-linked to an N-linked chitobiose, attached to the aspargine residue of a protein
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + lactose
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-lactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + laminin
UDP + beta-1,4-D-galactosyl-laminin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-1-O-methyl-2-deoxy-2-acetylamido-beta-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
76% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + methyl 2-bromo-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-1-O-methyl-2-bromo-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
75% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + methyl 2-deoxy-2-benzamido-beta-D-glucoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-1-O-methyl-2-deoxy-2-benzamido-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
16% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-4-toluenesulfonyl-GlcN
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-4-toluenesulfonyl-GlcN
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
for the binding of GlcNAc in the monosaccharide binding site of beta4Gal-T1, there is a hydrophobic N-acetyl group-binding pocket formed by residues Arg359, Phe360, and Ile363 from the ?-helix region in the closed conformation of the long loop, the sugar donor specificity of beta4Gal-T1 toward galactose is determined by the Tyr residue at position 289 in the binding pocket. The two proteins beta4Gal-T1 and alpha-lactalbukin crystallize together as a complex only in the presence of either donor substrate or acceptor Glc or GlcNAc to form lactose synthase. The specificity of the sugar donor is generally determined by a few residues in the sugar-nucleotide binding pocket. The conformational change in beta4Gal-T1 also creates the binding site for a mammary gland-specific protein, alpha-lactalbumin, which changes the acceptor specificity of the enzyme toward glucose to synthesize lactose during lactation
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-methanesulfonyl-GlcN
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-methanesulfonyl-GlcN
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-trifluoroacetyl-GlcN
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-trifluoroacetyl-GlcN
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminide
?
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + T(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TTVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + T(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TTVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + T(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TTVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + T-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TTVTPTPTG
UDP + T-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TTVTPTPTG
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 40% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTP(GGA)TPTG
UDP + TT-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTP(GGA)TPTG
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 25% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTPTPTG
UDP + TT-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTPTPTG
show the reaction diagram
UDP-galactose + TTTV (GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTV(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTV(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TPTG
UDP + TTTVTP-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TPTG
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 20% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP-(GlcNAcbeta1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TG
UDP + TTTVTP-(Galbeta-1-4GlcNAcbeta1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TG
show the reaction diagram
pH 7.0, 0.2 mM, 2% activity in A549 cells, 14% activity in H292 cells relative to benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTPTP(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTPTP(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-GalNAc + GlcNAc
?
show the reaction diagram
UDP-glucose + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + 4-O-beta-D-galactosyl-beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
1.5% activity with UDO-glucose compared to UDP-galactose
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + beta-D-glucosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction with 0.3% efficiency. R228K mutation results in a 15-fold higher glucosyltransferase activity, which is further enhanced by alpha-lactalbumin to nearly 25% of the galactosyltransferase activity of the wild type
-
-
?
UDP-glucuronic acid + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-xylose + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + 2-acetamido-N-(L-aspart-4-oyl)-1,2-dideoxy-beta-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
65% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + 3-acetamido-3-deoxy-D-xylose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + agalacto-ovomucoid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
65% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + agalacto-poly-N-acetyllactosamine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + agalactokeratan
?
show the reaction diagram
-
agalactokeratan from bovine cornea and nasal septum, at 5% and 13% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + alpha1-acid glycoprotein
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialo agalacto alpha1 acid glycoprotein
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialo-agalacto-alpha1-glycoprotein
?
show the reaction diagram
-
42% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialo-agalacto-transferrin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transfer of galactose to N-acetylglucosamine residues of Asn-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins in a beta1-4linkage
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialogalactofetuin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + chitobiose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + chitotriose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + degalactosylated fetuin
UDP + fetuin containing beta-1,4-galactose linkages
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + di-acetylchitobiose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
54% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + fetuin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + GlcNAcbeta-S-p-NP
UDP + Galbeta1-4 GlcNAcbeta-S-p-NP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + GlcNAcbeta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-2)Manalpha1-3Manbeta1-O(CH2)8COOCH2-mNP
UDP + Galbeta1-4 GlcNAcbeta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-2)Manalpha1-3Manbeta1-O(CH2)8COOCH2-mNP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + immunoglobulin heavy chain
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + lacto-N-triaosylceramide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + lacto-N-triose II
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetamido-3-deoxy-D-glucose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-glycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
galactose is transferred much faster to the N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-branch than to the N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-branch
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + ovalbumin
?
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + ovomucoid
UDP + ovomucoid with beta-1,4-bound galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + p-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + tri-N-acetylchitotriose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
64% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + UDPglucose
UDP + lactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-galactose + laminin
UDP + beta-1,4-D-galactosyl-laminin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Co2+
-
activation at 14.9% of the activity with Mn2+
Zn2+
-
activation at 9.2% of the activity with Mn2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,6-dithio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
45% inhibition at 1.0 mM
1-thio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
uncompetitive, complete inhibition at 1.0 mM, 85% inhibition at 0.2 mM
1-thioGlcNAcbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
91% inhibition at 1.0 mM
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-4-fluoro-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-4-methoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-4-amino-2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-Dgalactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-4-azido-2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-Dgalactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-3-fluoro-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-3-methoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-Dgalactopyranoside
-
-
6-thio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
19% inhibition at 1.0 mM
alpha-lactalbumin
alpha1-Acid glycoprotein
-
above 1.4 mM with respect to acceptor sites
-
ammonium
enzyme activity is decreased in ammonium treated cell culture
Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol
-
-
GlcNAcbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
92% inhibition at 1.0 mM
N-acetylglucosamine
N-Acetylimidazole
-
activity is partially restored by treatment with hydroxylamine
N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
87% inhibition at 1.0 mM
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucoside
-
competitively inhibits the transfer of galactose to glycoprotein substrates
-
phosphatidic acid
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
-
phosphatidylglycerol
-
-
phosphatidylserine
-
-
poly(L-Glu)
-
-
UMP
-
competitively inhibits the transfer of galactose to glycoprotein substrates
uridine 5'-(6-amino-(2-[(7-bromomethyl-2-naphthyl)methoxycarbonylmethoxy]ethoxy)acetyl-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate
-
irreversible, modifies residue Trp310
uridine 5'-(6-amino-(2-[(7-methyl-2-naphthyl)methoxycarbonylmethoxy]ethoxy)acetyl-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate
-
-
uridine 5'-(6-O-[10-(2-naphthyl)-3,6,9-trioxadecanyl]-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)diphosphate
-
competitive versus UDP-Gal, blocks acceptor substrate binding by the enzyme in presence of Mn2+
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
alpha-lactalbumin
dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine
dioleoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
Distearoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
histone
-
activation
lysophosphatidylcholine
-
activation
Methylphosphatidylic acid
-
activation
phosphatidylcholine
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
activation
phosphatidylglycerol
-
activation
poly(L-Arg)
-
activation
poly(L-Lys)
-
activation
Protamine sulfate
-
activation
-
Triton X-100
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.16 - 0.27
4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
0.85 - 1.27
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
0.17
agalacto-poly-N-acetyllactosamine
-
-
-
2.8
agalactokeratan
-
-
-
0.2
alpha1-Acid glycoprotein
-
-
-
0.056 - 0.064
asialo-agalacto-transferrin
0.0608
asialogalactofetuin
-
-
-
0.96
chitotriose
-
-
1 - 21
D-glucose
0.029
fetuin
-
-
-
6.28
galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
-
-
0.01
Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol
-
-
0.6
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
-
-
1.23
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3)Man
-
-
0.06
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6-Manbeta-OR
-
-
0.71
GlcNAcbeta1,4-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
-
-
0.25
glycopeptide prepared from porcine IgG immunoglobulin
-
-
-
0.02
IgG immunoglobulin heavy chain
-
-
-
0.83
lacto-N-triaosylceramide
-
-
0.19
lacto-N-triose II
-
-
0.01
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
-
1.59
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
-
0.8
N-acetylgalactosamine
-
-
0.0007 - 40
N-acetylglucosamine
0.43
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
-
-
0.13
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
-
-
3.4
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
-
-
1.5
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-galactose
-
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
0.054 - 0.27
ovalbumin
0.66
p-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucoside
-
-
-
0.79
pNP-beta-GlcNAc
-
pH 7.2
0.00491 - 0.27
UDP-Gal
0.0105 - 0.31
UDP-galactose
0.031 - 0.28
UDP-glucose
4
UDP-glucuronic acid
-
Km above 4 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
10
UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
Km above 10 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.16
UDP-xylose
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.0108 - 0.25
UDPgalactose
additional information
additional information
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.13
4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
Homo sapiens
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
1.52
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
Homo sapiens
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
3.3 - 4.81
chitotriose
2.47
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
Homo sapiens
-
-
1.74
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3)Man
Homo sapiens
-
-
1.9
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6-Manbeta-OR
Homo sapiens
-
-
3.35
GlcNAcbeta1,4-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
Homo sapiens
-
-
3.6
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
Homo sapiens
-
-
4.82
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.06 - 14
N-acetylglucosamine
0.33 - 14
UDP-galactose
0.02 - 0.96
UDP-glucose
0.003
UDP-glucuronic acid
0.01
UDP-xylose
Homo sapiens
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
additional information
additional information
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4.93
UDP-galactose
Homo sapiens
-
Km above 0.003 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
129
0.07
UDP-glucose
Homo sapiens
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
64
0.065
UDP-xylose
Homo sapiens
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
1013
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.01
1-thio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
pH 7.0
1.93
TDP
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.61
UDP
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.0223
uridine 5'-(6-amino-(2-[(7-methyl-2-naphthyl)methoxycarbonylmethoxy]ethoxy)acetyl-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate
-
-
0.00186
uridine 5'-(6-O-[10-(2-naphthyl)-3,6,9-trioxadecanyl]-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)diphosphate
-
-
1.65
UTP
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
additional information
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.035
-
-
0.535
-
-
6.9
-
N-deglycosylated recombinant enzyme
8.4
-
recombinant enzyme
10.7
-
-
160
-
purified recombinant enzyme
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6
-
in Tris-maleate buffer
6.4 - 7.6
-
-
6.5
-
assay at
6.5 - 7
7.5 - 10.5
-
-
7.5
-
reaction with N-acetylglucosamine and UDPgalactose, reaction with alpha1-acid glycoprotein and UDPgalactose
8
-
assay at
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 9.3
-
pH 5.0: about 60% of maximal activity, pH 9.3: about 45% of maximal activity
5.5 - 8
-
less than 50% of maximal activity above and below
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30 - 37
-
assay at
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
25 - 45
-
less than 50% of maximal activity above and below
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
expression of beta1,4-GalT-I increases in the cartilage and synovial tissue of osteoarthritis patients compared with healthy controls
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of patients with colorectal cancer 48% have down-regulated expression of beta-1,4-GT-IV in the tumor tissue, while 28% of patients exhibit elevated beta-1,4-GT-IV levels, the patient group with tumor beta-1,4-GT-IV overexpression strongly predicts for tumor metastasis, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the enzyme is maternally loaded and expressed throughout development, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
very high enzyme concentration in Golgi apparatus of epididymal duct epithelium from initial segment to intermediate caput, although much lower amounts of enzyme are in efferent ducts, distal caput, corpus and cauda. Even in the initial segment and caput epididymis, only low levels of soluble enzyme form are detected in the fluid
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in conventional mice, the beta1,4-galactosyltransferase gene expression rapidly increases to adult levels by the fourth postnatal week. In germ-free mice, gene expression remains at initial low levels and is rapidly induced on reintroduction of luminal microbes of the adult gut but not of microbes characteristic of the suckling gut. Essential role for microbes in the ontogeny of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ileal-colonic
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
regional distribution
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ATCC No. CCL22
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highly metastatic lung cancer cells, elevated levels of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I as compared to its less metastatic partner PGLH7 cells. Essential role for the transcription activator E1AF in the activation of human GalTI gene in highly metastatic lung cancer cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
anterior head of sperm head
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
during differentiation from spermatogonia to pachytene spermatocytes the amount of UDP beta1,4-galactosyltransferase mRNA is reduced to barley detectable levels
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
beta1, 4-GalT-I iss highly expressed in endometrium during implantation window
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
localized in the cytoplasm near nucleus and cytomembrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
subcellular distribution, Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum exchange kinetics, approximately 90:10 Golgi-to-ER distribution, two-compartment model for Golgi glycosyltransferase cycling, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
42960
-
calculation from gene sequence, short form, transmembrane enzyme
44420
-
long form with NH2-terminal extension of 13 amino acids, calculation from gene sequence
44880
-
unglycosylated enzyme, calculation from gene sequence
57000
-
sucrose density gradient centrifugation
59000
-
gel filtration
85000 - 90000
-
gel filtration
106000
-
calculation from light-scattering experiments
440000
-
gel filtration
additional information
-
two related forms of enzyme of 399 and 386 amino acids are synthesized as a consequence of alternative translation initiation. The long enzyme form has a NH2-terminal extension of 13 amino acids
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
dimer
-
2 * 55000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
additional information
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
glycoprotein
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
catalytic domain of R228K-Gal-T1 and mouse recombinant alpha-lactalbumin are cocrystallized in the presence of UDP-galactose and MnCl2. Crystals are grown at room temperature by the hanging drop method. Crystal structure of R228K-Gal-T1 complexed with alpha-lactalbumin, UDP-galactose, and Mn2+, determined at 1.9 resolution shows that the Asp318 side chain exhibits a minor alternate conformation, compared to that in the wild type
-
crystal structure of enzyme-alpha-lactalbumin complex with UDP-Glc
-
crystal structures of the beta4galactosyltransferase catalytic domain and its complex with uridine diphosphogalactose
-
purified recombinant pentenary complex of bovine M344H-Gal-T1 mutant-Mn2+-UDP-GalNAc-Glc-alpha-lactalbumin, hanging-drop vapor diffusion method, using 20 mg/ml of beta-M344H-Gal-T1 and 10 mg/ml of mouse alpha-lactalbumin in the presence of 10 mM each ofUDP-Gal and CaCl2, with the precipitant containing 100 mM NaCl, 100 mM Mes-NaOH buffer, pH 6.0, and 12.5% PEG 4000, the crystals of the complex cannot be obtained in the absence of CaCl2, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.9-2.0 A resolution
-
recombinant enzyme, crystal structure of lactose synthase reveals a large conformational change in its catalytic component, the beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-I
-
mutant enzyme M340H/C338T in complex with Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol, hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using MES-NaOH buffer (pH 6.0), 1.5 M ammonium sulfate, and 3% dioxane
-
purified recombinant M340H-Gal-T1 mutant in the open conformation as apo-enzyme, and its Mn2+ and Mn2+-UDP-Gal-bound complexes, hanging-drop vapor diffusion method using a protein solution at 10 mg/ml concentration with a precipitant containing sodium citratebuffer, pH 5.5, and 10% w/v PEG-4000, the crystals of the Mn2+ complex are grown in the droplet containing 10 mM MnCl2, while the crystals containing UDP-Gal and Mn2+ are grown in the presence of 17 mM each of MnCl2 and UDPGal, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.7-2.0 A resolution
-
purified wild-type and M340H mutant enzymes in complex with pentasaccharide GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3) and trisaccharide GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAc substrates, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.9-2.0 A resolution
-
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 9
-
-
489493
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
40
-
4 h, 18% loss of activity
45
-
stable up to
50
-
1 h, complete loss of activity
56
-
inactivation at
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
ammonium sulfate stabilizes during storage
-
glycerol stabilizes during storage
-
more than 50% loss of activity on freezing
-
the N-terminal stem extension enhances the in vitro folding efficiency of the catalytic domain by several fold, it increases the solubility of even the misfolded protein
Triton X-100 essential for stability during purification
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, 0.02 M Tris/HCl buffer, pH 7.5, stable for several months
-
-20C, 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin
-
-20C, bovine serum albumin, stable for up to 60 d
-
-20C, partially purified enzyme stable for several weeks, purified enzyme stable for 1 week
-
-20C, stable fo at least 1 month
-
-20C, stable for 3 weeks
-
-20C, stable for at least 2 months
-
4C, 0.1% bovine serum albumin, stable for 3 months
-
4C, concentrated enzyme
-
4C, immobilized, 5 weeks, stable
-
4C, more than 50% loss of activity after 1 week
-
4C, purified and concentrated enzyme is stable for 4 weeks
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
amylose column chromatography
-
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
PNA-Sepharose column chromatography
recombinant enzyme
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
cloning and sequencing of cDNA
-
cloning and sequencing of the full-length cDNA
-
cloning of the 5'-region flanking the transcription start point of the GalT I gene
-
comparison of sequences of enzyme from placenta and HeLa cells
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expresion analysis, stable overexpression of HA-tagged GalT V in astrocytes C8-D30 and glioma cell lines U87 and U251, expression of mutant enzymes
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and anaylsis, sequence comparisons
-
ectopic expression in SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells overexpressing the CDK11(p58) kinase
-
enzymatically active soluble N-deglycosylated enzyme form
-
enzyme fused to protein A is expressed as a soluble form in COS-7 cells
expressed in HeLa cells and as a fusion protein with maltose-binding protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
expressed in NIH-3T3 cells
-
expression as GFP-tagged enzyme in HeLa cells
-
expression in Cos-1 cells
-
expression in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells
-
expression in Escherichia coli
expression in Sf9 cells. Sfbeta4GalT cell, unlike the parental Sf9 cells, can terminally beta1,4-galactosylate gp64 during baculovirus infection
-
expression of full-length HP0826 in Escherichia coli
-
expression of mutant cDNA from a patient with the congenital disorder of glycosylation type IId leads to the synthesis of a truncated, inactive polypeptide, which is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum
-
expression of mutants W312C/P401C and W312C/P401C/M340H enzymes in Escherichia coli, the wild-type enzyme forms inclusion bodies after expression in Escherichia coli, overview
-
expression of short and long enzyme form in CHO-cells
-
expression of wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli
-
expression of wild-type and mutant M340H enzymes in Escherichia coli
-
expression under the control of the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli BL21
functional expression in suspension cultured tobacco BY2 GT6 cells via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404
-
HeLa cells expressing the murine enzyme on their surface spread more rapidly on laminin substrates than do control cells
-
histidine-tagged 46000 Da protein produced in Escherichia coli
-
isolation and characterization of the genomic locus
-
isolation of a cDNA clone that encodes a major portion of galactosyltransferase
-
molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing
-
overexpression in human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells
-
recombinant enzyme is N-glycosylated
-
stem region fused to the catalytic domain, expression in Escherichia coli
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
anti-TNFR1 antibody suppresses the expression of beta-1,4-GalT I, and TNF-alpha autocrine
-
beta 1, 4-GalT-I iss highly expressed in endometrium during implantation window
-
beta-1,4-GalT-I mRNA is significant increased 2 h after lipopolysaccharide stimulation with 0.001 mg/ml
-
CDK11p58 and beta-1,4-GalT-I are induced in lipopolysaccharide-challenged rat primary astrocytes in a affinis dose- and time-dependent manner. CDK11p58 regulates the expression of beta-1,4-GalT-I by interacting with it. The expression of beta-1,4-GalT-I increases, and astrocyte activation enhances due to the overexpression of CDK11p58
-
estrogen antagonists ICI 182,780 and ER-a-ERE binding blocker TPBM inhibit the expression of estrogen-induced B4GALT1
-
estrogen induces beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 expression
-
expression of beta1,4-GalT-I and galactose-containing glycans increases in synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients compared with osteoarthritis patients and healthy controls. Most galactose-containing glycans and beta1,4-GalT-I are expressed in inflammatory cells
-
expression of beta1,4-GalT-I increases in the cartilage and synovial tissue of osteoarthritis patients compared with healthy controls
-
inhibition of MEK/ERK, PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB suppresses recombinant human osteopontin-induced beta1,4-GalT-I expression
-
mRNA and protein expression of beta1,4-GalT-I increases in synovial tissue of a collagen-induced rat model of rheumatoid arthritis compared with the normal group at 10d and 15d after collagen-induced
-
recombinant human osteopontin protein induces the beta 1,4-GalT-I up-regulation in RL95-2 cells
-
the expression level of GalTI and cellular adhesion ability is increased when dendritic cells continue to mature
-
the transcriptional activity and mRNA expression level of beta1,4GalT II are dramatically induced by p53 transcription factor in HeLa cell, in response to DNA damage agent adriamycin, the mRNA expression and promoter activity of beta1,4GalT II are significantly up-regulated
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C134S
-
complete loss of activity
C342S
-
33fold increase in the apparent Km-value for UDPgalactose
D254E
-
0.01% of the activity of the wild-type enzyme
D254N
-
0.01% of the activity of the wild-type enzyme
D320A
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
D320E
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
D320N
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
E317A
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
E317D
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
E317Q
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
H347D
-
in presence of Mn2+ retains 0.02% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 0.085% of wild-type enzyme activity
H347E
-
in presence of Mn2+ retains 0.1% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 0.4% of wild-type enzyme activity
H347N
-
in presence of Mn2+ retains 0.07% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 0.36% of wild-type enzyme activity
H347Q
-
in presence of Mn2+ retains 0.28% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 1.21% of wild-type enzyme activity
M344A
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in presence of Mn2+ retains 54.5% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 6.15% of wild-type enzyme activity
M344H
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site-directed mutagenesis, substrate binding structure in comparison to the wild-type enzyme, overview
M344Q
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in presence of Mn2+ retains 15.37% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 31.08% of wild-type enzyme activity
R228K
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mutant enzyme shows 16% of the wild-type galactosyltransferase activity, mutation results in a 15fold higher glucosyltransferase activity, which is further enhanced by alpha-lactalbumin to nearly 25% of the galactosyltransferase activity of the wild type. The main effect of the mutation is on the kcat of glucosyltransferase, which increases 3-4fold, both in the absence and in the presence of alpha-lactalbumin simultaneously, the kcat for the galactosyltransferase reaction is reduced 30fold
Y289I
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mutation enhances GalNAc-transferase activity. Km for GlcNAc is increased compared to the wild type
Y289L
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mutation enhances GalNAc-transferase activity. Km for GlcNAc is incereased compared to the wild type
Y289N
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mutation enhances GalNAc-transferase activity. Km for GlcNAc is increased compared to the wild type
I289Y
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mutation of the Drosophila beta4GalNAc-T1 converts the enzyme to a beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-1, beta4Gal-T1, by reducing its beta4GalNAc-T1 activity by nearly 1000fold while enhancing its beta4Gal-T1 activity by 80fold
M340H
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site-directed mutagenesis, substrate binding structure in comparison to the wild-type enzyme, overview
M344H
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in the presence of Mg2+ the mutant exhibits 25% of the catalytic activity compared to the wild type enzyme in the presence of Mn2+. Although the mutant has higher Km in the presence of Mg2+ for the substrates compared to the wild type enzyme in the presence of Mn2+, the catalytic efficiency with respect to donor and acceptor has decreased by an order of about 13 and 6, respectively. The turnover number of the mutant is only reduced to 60%
R228K
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the mutation enhances the glucosyltransferase activity of beta4GalNAc-T1, which is low for the wild-type enzyme, by steric alterations, overview
R228LK
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the mutation enhances glucosyltransferase activity
W312C/P401C
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutations facilitate invitro folding of the recombinantly expressed enzyme
W312C/P401C/M340H
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site-directed mutagenesis, substrate binding structure in comparison to the wild-type enzyme, overview
Y268G
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant enzyme is less active compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y268G/Y294G
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant enzyme is less active compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y285I
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutation converts the betaGALT1 enzyme into an equally efficient beta4GalNAc-T1, EC 2.4.1.90
Y285L
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutation converts the betaGALT1enzyme into an equally efficient beta4GalNAc-T1, EC 2.4.1.90
Y289I
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the mutation makes the enzyme equally as efficient as Gal- or GalNAc-transferase
Y289L
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mutation of the beta4GalNAc-T1 converts the enzyme to a beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-1, beta4Gal-T1. Substituting Tyr289 for Leu removes this restriction and the Tyr289Leu mutant can now transfer GalNAc or other Gal C2-analogues from their respective UDPderivatives, not normally substrates of the enzyme, to the acceptor GlcNAc with the same efficiency with which the wild-type enzyme transfers Gal from UDP-Gal, phenotype, overview; the mutation makes the enzyme equally as efficient as Gal- or GalNAc-transferase
Y289L/C342T
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant is able to transfer GalNAc from the sugar donor UDP-GalNAc to the acceptor, GlcNAc, with efficiency as good as that of galactose from UDP-Gal, in contrast to the wild-type enzyme, mutant substrate specificity with different donor substrate and oligosaccharides as acceptor substrates, mass spectrometry product analysis, overview, the C342T mutation does not alter enzyme activity, but increases the enzyme stability at room temperature
Y289N
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the mutation makes the enzyme equally as efficient as Gal- or GalNAc-transferase
Y294G
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site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant enzyme is less active compared to the wild-type enzyme
additional information
Renatured/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression of HA-tagged beta 1,4GalT V
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the folding efficiency of the catalytic domain is increased further if the protein is renatured in a buffer that has polyethylene glycol and L-arginine
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
drug development
medicine
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GalT V might represent a target in glioma therapy
pharmacology
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beta 1,4GalT V inhibitors enhance the therapeutic effect of As2O3 for malignant glioma
synthesis