Information on EC 2.4.1.38 - beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.1.38
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
beta-N-acetylglucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
not distinguishable from EC 2.4.1.90 which has identical substrate specificities. EC 2.4.1.38/90 is identical with the A protein of EC 2.4.1.22. Terminal N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl residues in polysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycopeptides can act as acceptor. High activity is shown towards such residues in branched-chain polysaccharides when these are linked by beta-1,6-links to galactose residues, lower activity towards residues linked to galactose by beta-1,3-links. A component of EC 2.4.1.22 (lactose synthase)
-
-
-
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
the sequences of cDNA isolated from mammary and F9 cell lines are identical, thus indicating that EC 2.4.1.38 and EC 2.4.1.90 are non-distinguishable
-
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
functional role of Trp310 residue located in the small loop near the active site of the enzyme
-
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
reaction mechanism and structural changes
-
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide = UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
reaction mechanism, structure-function relationship, upon binding of metal ion and sugar-nucleotide, the flexible loops undergo a marked conformational change, from an open to a closed conformation. Conformational change simultaneously creates at the C-terminal region of the flexible loop an oligosaccharide acceptor binding site that did not exist before. The loop acts as a lid covering the bound donor substrate. After completion of the transfer of the glycosyl unit to the acceptor, the saccharide product is ejected and the loop reverts to its native conformation to release the remaining nucleotide moiety
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - keratan sulfate
-
Metabolic pathways
-
N-Glycan biosynthesis
-
terminal O-glycans residues modification
-
Various types of N-glycan biosynthesis
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-galactose:N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide 4-beta-galactosyltransferase
Terminal N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl residues in polysaccharides, glycoproteins and glycopeptides can act as acceptor. High activity is shown towards such residues in branched-chain polysaccharides when these are linked by beta-1,6-links to galactose residues; lower activity towards residues linked to galactose by beta-1,3-links. A component of EC 2.4.1.22 (lactose synthase).
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
(alpha4Gal-T1)
-
-
4betaGalT
-
-
acetyllactosamine synthetase
-
-
-
-
alpha-1,4-galactosyltransferase I
-
-
beta 1, 4-GalT-I
-
-
beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase 1
-
-
beta 1,4-GalT-I
-
-
beta 1,4GalT V
-
-
beta(1,4)-galactosyltransferase
Q99PC2
-
beta(1,4)-galactosyltransferase
-
-
beta(1,4)-GalT
-
-
beta(1,4)-GT
Q99PC2
-
beta-1,4 galactosyltransferase I
P80225
-
beta-1,4 galactosyltransferase V
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase I
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase I
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase I
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase IV
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase V
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I
-
-
beta-1,4-GalT
-
-
beta-1,4-GalT I
-
-
beta-1,4-GalT I
P80225
-
beta-1,4-GalT V
-
-
beta-1,4-GT-IV
-
-
beta-N-acetyl-beta1-4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
beta-N-acetylglucosaminide beta1-4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
beta1,4-Gal-transferase T1
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase 1
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase 7
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase II
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase V
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-1
-
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-I
P15291
-
beta1,4-galactosyltransferase1
-
-
beta1,4-GalT7
-
-
beta1,4-GT
-
-
-
-
beta1,4-GT 1
-
-
beta1,4GalT II
-
-
beta1-4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
beta1-4-galactosyltransferase
P15291
-
beta1-4GalT
-
-
-
-
beta1-4GalT1
P15291
-
beta4 Gal-transferase
-
-
beta4 Gal-transferase
O60909
-
beta4-GalT-I
-
-
beta4-GalT-II
-
-
beta4-GalT-III
-
-
beta4-GalT-IV
-
-
beta4-GalT-V
-
-
beta4Gal-T1
-
-
beta4Gal-T1
-
-
beta4Gal-T1
P15291
-
beta4GalT
-
-
beta4GalT
O60909
-
beta4GalT-II
-
-
beta4GalT1
-
-
betaGalT
-
-
betaGalT-1
-
-
betaGALT1
-
-
betaGT
-
-
EC 2.4.1.98
-
-
related
-
Gal-T
-
-
-
-
galactosyltransferase 7
-
-
galactosyltransferase, uridine diphosphogalactose-acetylglucosamine
-
-
-
-
GalNAcT2
-
-
GALT
A9XBL4
-
GALT
Leishmania donovani UR6
A9XBL4
-
-
GalT I
-
-
GalT V
-
-
GalT1
-
-
GalTase
-
-
-
-
GalTase
-
-
GalTase
-, P80225
-
GalTI
-
-
glycoprotein 4-beta-galactosyl-transferase
-
-
-
-
glycoprotein beta-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
lactosamine synthase
-
-
-
-
lactosamine synthetase
-
-
-
-
lactose synthetase A protein
-
-
-
-
N-acetylglucosamine beta1,4 galactosyltransferase
A9XBL4
-
N-acetylglucosamine beta1,4 galactosyltransferase
Leishmania donovani UR6
A9XBL4
-
-
N-acetyllactosamine synthetase
-
-
-
-
NAL synthetase
-
-
-
-
thyroid galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
thyroid glycoprotein beta-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase, polypeptide 1
-
-
UDP-Gal:N-acetylglucosamine beta1-4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose N-acetylglucosamine beta-4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose-acetylglucosamine galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose-N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose-N-acetylglucosamine galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose:N-acetylglucosaminide beta1-4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 2
-
-
UDPgalactose-glycoprotein galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDPgalactose-N-acetylglucosamine beta-D-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDPgalactose:N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDPgalactose:N-acetylglucosaminyl(beta1-4)galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
uridine diphosphogalactose-acetylglucosamine galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
uridine diphosphogalactose-glycoprotein galactosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
additional information
-
cf. EC 2.4.1.90
additional information
-
cf. EC 2.4.1.90, the enzyme belongs to the CAZY family 7 of inverting glycosyltransferases
additional information
-
HP0826 belongs to the carbohydrate active enzyme family GT25 of inverting glycosyltransferases
additional information
-
cf. EC 2.4.1.90
additional information
-
cf. EC 2.4.1.90
additional information
-
LgtB belongs to the carbohydrate active enzyme family GT25 of inverting glycosyltransferases
additional information
-, P80225
the enzyme belongs to the family of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferases, beta-1,4-GalTs
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
37237-43-7
-
9054-94-8
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
calf
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
constitutitive genes expressing two enzyme forms
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wild type and recombinant enzyme expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
fragment; strain UR6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Leishmania donovani UR6
fragment; strain UR6
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tammar wallaby
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
beta4-GalT-I; beta4-GalT-II; beta4-GalT-III; beta4-GalT-IV; beta4-GalT-V
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expression of the enzyme in HeLa cells
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 31151
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
beta-1,4 galactosyltransferase I
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
female Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male sprague-dawley rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
decreasing the expression of beta1,4GalT V by RNA interference in glioma cells attenuates the formation of polylactosamine and inhibits the ability of tumor formation in vivo. Down-regulation of beta1,4GalT V depletes CD133-positive cells in glioma xenograft, and inhibits the self-renewal capacity and the tumorigenic potential of glioma-initiating cells
malfunction
-
the knock-down of the B4GALT1 gene and the inhibition of membrane B4GALT1 function results in the significant inhibition of estrogen-induced proliferation of MCF-7 cells
malfunction
-
lobe B depletion of the conserved oligomeric Golgi complex severely alters the stability of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase1 (B4GALT1) and alpha2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6GAL1)
malfunction
-
Lac-Cer synthase activity is significantly decreased in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) derived from beta-1,4-GalT V (B4galt5)-mutant mice, indicating that that murine beta-1,4-GalT V is involved in Lac-Cer biosynthesis
malfunction
-
adhesion of blastocysts cells in vitro is greatly inhibited when beta 1,4-GalT-I is blocked with the specific antibody
malfunction
-
knockdown of beta-1,4-GalT-I reduces the activation potentiation caused by the overexpression of CDK11p58, illustrating the function of CDK11p58 to promote astrocyte activation depends on beta-1,4-GalT-I
malfunction
-
silencing of beta-1,4-GalT I suppresses TNF-alpha autocrine, while overexpression of beta-1,4-GalT I promotes TNF-alpha autocrine in TNF-alpha-treated Schwann cells
malfunction
-
overexpression of beta-1,4-GalT-I represses Schwann cell proliferation induced by low concentration of TNF-alpha via ERK1/2 signal pathway and TNFR2, while knocking down beta-1,4-GalT I expression inhibits Schwann cell apoptosis induced by high concentration of TNF-alpha via P38, JNK signal pathways, and TNFR1
physiological function
-
beta4Gal-T1 interacts with alpha-lactalbumin to form the lactose synthase complex that transfers galactose from UDP-alpha-D-Gal to glucose, producing the lactose secreted in milk
physiological function
-
UDP-GlcNAc:betaGal beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase 1 and UDP-Gal:betaGlcNAc beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase polypeptide1 physically associate in vitro and in cultured cells recruiting one another to the endoplasmic reticulum
physiological function
-
beta-1,4-GalT-I may play an important role in adhesion and migration of Schwann cells during inflammation
physiological function
-
beta1,4GalT II may serve as a target gene of p53 transcription factor during adriamycin-induced HeLa cell apoptosis
physiological function
-
the involvement of beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase and N-acetylglucosamine residues in fertilization has been lost in the horse
physiological function
-
beta1,4-GalT-I plays an important role in the inflammation process of rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue
physiological function
-
in Neuro2a cells it is shown that beta4GalT-II associates with glucuronyltransferase. beta4GalT-II enhances kinetic efficacy of glucuronyltransferase. Co-expression of beta4GalT-II and glucuronyltransferase increase HNK-1 expression on various glycoproteins in N2a cells, including neural cell adhesion molecule; the specific enzyme complex of beta4GalT-II with glucuronyltransferase plays an important role in the biosynthesis of human natural killer-1 carbohydrate
physiological function
-
beta-1,4-GalT I plays a positive role in the regulation of TNF-alpha-induced TNF-alpha secretion. It promotes the activation of ERK, JNK, and P38 MAP kinase signal pathways which subsequently enhance TNF-alpha secretion in TNF-alpha-treated Schwann cells
physiological function
-
beta-1,4-GalT I plays an important role in Schwann cell proliferation and apoptosis induced by TNF-alpha via different signal pathways and TNF-alpha receptor
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-Gal + 4-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-4-thio-beta-D-glucopyranoside
UDP + Gal-beta-S-1,4-GlcNAcpNP
show the reaction diagram
-
HP0826 catalyzes the synthesis of the thiodisaccharide Gal-beta-S-1,4-GlcNAcpNP as well as Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP with total regio- and stereoselectivity, overview
-
-
?
UDP-Gal + 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-mannopyranoside
UDP + Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP
show the reaction diagram
-
HP0826 catalyzes the synthesis of the thiodisaccharide Gal-beta-S-1,4-GlcNAcpNP as well as Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP with total regio- and stereoselectivity, overview
-
-
?
UDP-Gal + 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-mannopyranoside
UDP + Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP
show the reaction diagram
-
LgtB catalyzes the synthesis of Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP, overview
-
-
?
UDP-Gal + 4-nitrophenyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 3-deoxy-3-fluoro-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)3-deoxy-3-fluoro-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + beta-D-galactopyranosyl-1,4-xylopyranosyl-1-O-4-nitrophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 6-deoxy-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)6-deoxy-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + 6-thio-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)6-thio-GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside
UDP + benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
O60909
pH 7.0
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside
UDP + benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-4-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 100% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + chitotriose
?
show the reaction diagram
P15291
GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAc
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + colchicoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-colchicoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + ginsenoside Rg1
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-ginsenoside Rg1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)GlcNAcbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
?
show the reaction diagram
P15291
an N-linked biantennary oligosaccharide chain, one antenna is attached to the 3-hydroxyl-(1,2-1,3-arm) group of mannose, which is beta-1,4-linked to an N-linked chitobiose, attached to the aspargine residue of a protein
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3)Man
?
show the reaction diagram
P15291
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6-Manbeta-OR
?
show the reaction diagram
P15291
an N-linked biantennary oligosaccharide chain, one antenna is attached to the 3-hydroxyl-(1,2-1,6-arm) group of mannose, which is beta-1,4-linked to an N-linked chitobiose, attached to the aspargine residue of a protein
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + GlcNAcbeta1,4-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
?
show the reaction diagram
P15291
an N-linked biantennary oligosaccharide chain, one antenna is attached to the 3-hydroxyl-(1,4-1,3-arm) group of mannose, which is beta-1,4-linked to an N-linked chitobiose, attached to the aspargine residue of a protein
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + lactose
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-lactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + laminin
UDP + beta-1,4-D-galactosyl-laminin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + methyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-1-O-methyl-2-deoxy-2-acetylamido-beta-D-glucopyranoside
show the reaction diagram
-
76% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + methyl 2-bromo-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-1-O-methyl-2-bromo-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
75% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + methyl 2-deoxy-2-benzamido-beta-D-glucoside
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-1-O-methyl-2-deoxy-2-benzamido-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
16% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-4-toluenesulfonyl-GlcN
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-4-toluenesulfonyl-GlcN
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
P15291
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
P15291
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
Q99PC2
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
P15291
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme effectively galactosylates the GlcNAcbeta1,6Man arm of the highly branched N-glycans that are characteristic of glioma, overview
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
P15291
the enzyme transfers galactose from UDP-galactose to N-acetylglucosamine residues of the branched N-linked oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
catalytic cycle: Mn2+ binds first before UDP-Gal, two flexible loops, a long and a short loop, change their conformation from open to closed
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
residue Y285 alone is responsible for determination of enzyme substrate specificity, overview, active site structure, overview
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
UDP-Gal-Mn2+ substrate binding structure, overview
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
100% activity with UDP-galactose
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-(1-4)-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
for the binding of GlcNAc in the monosaccharide binding site of beta4Gal-T1, there is a hydrophobic N-acetyl group-binding pocket formed by residues Arg359, Phe360, and Ile363 from the ?-helix region in the closed conformation of the long loop, the sugar donor specificity of beta4Gal-T1 toward galactose is determined by the Tyr residue at position 289 in the binding pocket. The two proteins beta4Gal-T1 and alpha-lactalbukin crystallize together as a complex only in the presence of either donor substrate or acceptor Glc or GlcNAc to form lactose synthase. The specificity of the sugar donor is generally determined by a few residues in the sugar-nucleotide binding pocket. The conformational change in beta4Gal-T1 also creates the binding site for a mammary gland-specific protein, alpha-lactalbumin, which changes the acceptor specificity of the enzyme toward glucose to synthesize lactose during lactation
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-Bn
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-Bn
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-methanesulfonyl-GlcN
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-methanesulfonyl-GlcN
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-trifluoroacetyl-GlcN
UDP + Galbeta(1-4)N-trifluoroacetyl-GlcN
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
UDP-galactose + p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-N-acetylglucosaminide
?
show the reaction diagram
Leishmania donovani, Leishmania donovani UR6
A9XBL4
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + T(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TTVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + T(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TTVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + T(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TTVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + T-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TTVTPTPTG
UDP + T-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TTVTPTPTG
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 40% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TVTPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTP(GGA)TPTG
UDP + TT-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTP(GGA)TPTG
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 25% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TT-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTPTPTG
UDP + TT-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TVTPTPTG
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 30% activity, pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 35% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTV (GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTV(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTV(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TPTPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP(GlcNAcbeta6GalNAcbeta)TPTG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP-(GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TPTG
UDP + TTTVTP-(Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta-1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TPTG
show the reaction diagram
-
pH 7.0, 0.5 mM, 20% activity
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTP-(GlcNAcbeta1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TG
UDP + TTTVTP-(Galbeta-1-4GlcNAcbeta1-6[Galbeta1-3]GalNAcalpha1-)TG
show the reaction diagram
O60909
pH 7.0, 0.2 mM, 2% activity in A549 cells, 14% activity in H292 cells relative to benzyl 2-(acetylamino)-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTPTP(GlcNAcbeta3GalNAcbeta)TG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + TTTVTPTP(GlcNAcbeta6[GlcNAcbeta3]GalNAcbeta)TG
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-GalNAc + GlcNAc
?
show the reaction diagram
-
at high concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin
-
-
?
UDP-GalNAc + GlcNAc
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transfer of GalNAc is only 1% of galactose transfer in wild type enzyme. Mutant enzyme Y289L exhibits nearly 100% of the galactose transferase activity
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + 4-O-beta-D-galactosyl-beta-D-glucose
show the reaction diagram
-
1.5% activity with UDO-glucose compared to UDP-galactose
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + beta-D-glucosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction with 0.3% efficiency. R228K mutation results in a 15-fold higher glucosyltransferase activity, which is further enhanced by alpha-lactalbumin to nearly 25% of the galactosyltransferase activity of the wild type
-
-
?
UDP-glucuronic acid + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-xylose + 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + 2-acetamido-N-(L-aspart-4-oyl)-1,2-dideoxy-beta-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
65% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + 3-acetamido-3-deoxy-D-xylose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + agalacto-ovomucoid
?
show the reaction diagram
-
65% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + agalacto-poly-N-acetyllactosamine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + agalactokeratan
?
show the reaction diagram
-
agalactokeratan from bovine cornea and nasal septum, at 5% and 13% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + alpha1-acid glycoprotein
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialo agalacto alpha1 acid glycoprotein
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialo-agalacto-alpha1-glycoprotein
?
show the reaction diagram
-
42% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialo-agalacto-transferrin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
transfer of galactose to N-acetylglucosamine residues of Asn-linked sugar chains of glycoproteins in a beta1-4linkage
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + asialogalactofetuin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + chitobiose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + chitotriose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + degalactosylated fetuin
UDP + fetuin containing beta-1,4-galactose linkages
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + degalactosylated fetuin
UDP + fetuin containing beta-1,4-galactose linkages
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + degalactosylated fetuin
UDP + fetuin containing beta-1,4-galactose linkages
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + degalactosylated fetuin
UDP + fetuin containing beta-1,4-galactose linkages
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + di-acetylchitobiose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
54% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + fetuin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + GlcNAcbeta-S-p-NP
UDP + Galbeta1-4 GlcNAcbeta-S-p-NP
show the reaction diagram
O43286
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + GlcNAcbeta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-2)Manalpha1-3Manbeta1-O(CH2)8COOCH2-mNP
UDP + Galbeta1-4 GlcNAcbeta1-6(GlcNAcbeta1-2)Manalpha1-3Manbeta1-O(CH2)8COOCH2-mNP
show the reaction diagram
O43286
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + glucose
lactose + UDP
show the reaction diagram
O43286
enzyme has no lactose synthase activity in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
-
-
UDPgalactose + immunoglobulin heavy chain
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + lacto-N-triaosylceramide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + lacto-N-triose II
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetamido-3-deoxy-D-glucose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-glycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
glycopeptide prepared from porcine IgG immunoglobulin
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-glycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
glycoproteins containing terminal nonreducing N-acetylglucosaminyl units
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosamine
UDP + N-acetyllactosamine
show the reaction diagram
O43286
7% of the activity with GlcNAcbeta-S-pNP
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme facilitates sperm binding to the oocyte zona pellucida
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of the oligosaccharide structures of glycoproteins and glycolipids
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of a variety of carbohydrate structures in glycoproteins and glycolipids
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme may be involved in the synthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine, lacto-N-neotetraose and probably lacto-N-neotetraosylceramide in addition to the formation of the Galbeta1-4GlcNAc group of glycoprotein sugar chains and lactose
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the soluble enzyme form from the luminal fluid of the epididymis is suggested to play a role on sperm maturation
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme functions in the coordinate biosynthesis of complex oligosaccharides, proposed to function in intercellular recognition and/or adhesion
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme may be involved in the synthesis of plasma glycoproteins by the liver during secretion, and may possibly be required for secretion of these proteins
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
biosynthesis of carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins and glycolipids, role in intercellular recognition and adhesion
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
main enzyme responsible for the transfer of galactose residues from UDPgalactose into terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues of complex-type oligosaccharides in newly synthesized glycoproteins in the Golgi apparatus. Deficiency of UDP-galactose:N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase I causes the congenital disorder of glycosylation type IId, a severe neurologic disease characterized by a hydrocephalus, myopathy and blood-clotting defects
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
biosynthesis of keratan sulfate-like polysaccharides
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
galactose is transferred much faster to the N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-branch than to the N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-branch
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-galactose
UDP + galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + ovalbumin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + ovalbumin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + ovalbumin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + ovomucoid
UDP + ovomucoid with beta-1,4-bound galactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + p-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + p-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucoside
?
show the reaction diagram
-
67% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + tri-N-acetylchitotriose
?
show the reaction diagram
-
64% of the activity with N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + UDPglucose
UDP + lactose
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
regioselectivity towards specific C(4)glucose OH group in the complex protopanaxadiol glycoside ginsenoside Rb1
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme also catalyzes unusual galactosyl transfer to the 3-OH position of L-sugars
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme also catalyzes transfer of glucose from UDPglucose to N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme activity might be involved in apoptotic pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
decreasing the expression of GalT V in glioma cells promotes apoptosis, inhibits the invasion and migration and the ability of tumor formation in vivo, and reduces the activation of AKT, the enzyme functions as a glioma growth activator, overview, contribution of GalT V in the activation of AKT and MAPK kinase, contribution of serum or EGF in the transcription regulation of the GalT V gene, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
downregulation of the enzyme inhibits CDK11(p58)-mediated apoptosis induced by cycloheximide, while ectopically expressed beta1,4-GT 1 increases CDK11p58-mediated apoptosis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the cell surface enzyme promotes apoptosis by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway via inhibition of the autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor especially at Try 1068, mechanism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is involved in regulation of carbohydrate composition of milk during lactation, endocrine enzyme regulation, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q99PC2
the enzyme is part of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi glycosylation network, glycosyltransferase metabolism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tumor beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase IV overexpression is closely associated with colorectal cancer metastasis and poor prognosis, relationships between tumor beta-1,4-GT-IV overexpression and clinicopathologic characteristics, overview, beta-1,4-GTs are a family of glycosyltransferases responsible for biosynthesizing N-acetyllactosamine by the transfer of a galactose from UDP-galactose to the terminal N-acetylgluosamine of acceptor sugars in glycoproteins or glycolipids with a beta-1,4-linkage
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P15291
complex penta-antennary N-glycan structure, detailed substrate binding structure analysis of the wild-type and mutant M340H enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity in presence or absence of alpha-lactalbumin, overview, the 'specifier' protein alpha-lactalbumin, which interacts with beta-1,4-GalT forming the lactose synthase complex, EC 2.4.1.2 and changing the substrate specificity to the reaction of EC 2.4.1.90, alpha-lactalbumin is not necessary when the acceptors are different glucopyranosides and, in some cases, it can even have an inhibitory effect, e.g. in reaction with the complex glucosides ginsenoside Rg1 and colchicoside, overview, in absence of alpha-lactalbumin, the enzyme is not active with glucose as acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate specificity of wild-type and mutant Y289L enzymes, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme catalyzes the transfer of Gal from UDP-Gal to GlcNAc-terminating acceptors with inversion of configuration of the glycosidic linkage, in presence of beta-lactalbumin, the enzyme changes its specificity to become lactose synthase, EC 2.4.1.22, and transfers Gal to glucose to synthesize lactose, substrate specificity, e.g. with GlcNAc-terminating O-glycopeptides, no activity with N-trimethylacetyl-GlcN, N,N-dimethyl-GlcN, N-isopropyl-GlcN, and N-(4-MeOBn)GlcN, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta 1,4GalT V galactosylates the beta1,6-GlcNAc branch of N-glycans at the cell surface and of secreted glycoproteins, and functions as a positive regulator in glioma development, overview. As2O3-induced gioma cell apoptosis mechanism involves beta 1,4GalT V inhibition, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosylransferase participates in the synthesis of Galbeta1-4-GlcNac disaccharide unit of glycoconjugates, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P80225
beta-1,4-GalT I is a type II membrane-bound glycoprotein, which occurs the plasma membrane of different types of cells where it serves as a cell surface adhesion molecule mediating various cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions such as sperm-egg binding, cell spreading, migration, and neurite outgrowth
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta-1,4-GalT-I plays a key role in the synthesis of selectin ligands such as sialy Lewis, sLex, and sulfated sLex, overview. beta-1,4-GalT-I may play an important role in the inflammation reaction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
HP0826 is the beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the lipopolysaccharide O-chain backbone of Helicobacter pylori
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
LgtB is the beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the lipopolysaccharide O-chain backbone of Helicobacter pylori
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the specific inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase LY294002 and wortmannin up-regulate beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I and thus sensitize SMMC-7721 human hepatocarcinoma cells to cycloheximide-induced apoptosis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
an enzyme orthologue involved in the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids, the sugar donor specificity of the enzyme toward galactose is determined by the Ile residue at position 289 in the binding pocket. The two proteins beta4Gal-T1 and alpha-lactalbukin crystallize together as a complex only in the presence of either donor substrate or acceptor Glc or GlcNAc to form lactose synthase. The specificity of the sugar donor is generally determined by a few residues in the sugar-nucleotide binding pocket. The conformational change in beta4Gal-T1 also creates the binding site for a mammary gland-specific protein, alpha-lactalbumin, which changes the acceptor specificity of the enzyme toward glucose to synthesize lactose during lactation
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
HP0826 exhibits a pronounced acceptor promiscuity with the most striking result being the successful transfer of Gal to the 4-SH of pNP-4-S-beta-GlcNAc
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta4Gal-T1 participates in the synthesis of Galbeta1-4-GlcNac disaccharide unit of glycoconjugates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta-1,4-GalT-I transfers galactose from UDP-galactose donors to terminal N-acetylglucosamine of carbohydrate chains in beta-1,4-linkage to form a Galbeta1->4GlcNAc structure
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
UDP-mannose and UDP-N-acetyl galactosamine are no substrates for soluble beta1,4-GalT7
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-galactose + laminin
UDP + beta-1,4-D-galactosyl-laminin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
Q99PC2
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme effectively galactosylates the GlcNAcbeta1,6Man arm of the highly branched N-glycans that are characteristic of glioma, overview
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
UDP + beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminylglycopeptide
show the reaction diagram
P15291
the enzyme transfers galactose from UDP-galactose to N-acetylglucosamine residues of the branched N-linked oligosaccharide chains of glycoproteins
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme facilitates sperm binding to the oocyte zona pellucida
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme participates in the biosynthesis of the oligosaccharide structures of glycoproteins and glycolipids
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of a variety of carbohydrate structures in glycoproteins and glycolipids
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme may be involved in the synthesis of poly-N-acetyllactosamine, lacto-N-neotetraose and probably lacto-N-neotetraosylceramide in addition to the formation of the Galbeta1-4GlcNAc group of glycoprotein sugar chains and lactose
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the soluble enzyme form from the luminal fluid of the epididymis is suggested to play a role on sperm maturation
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme functions in the coordinate biosynthesis of complex oligosaccharides, proposed to function in intercellular recognition and/or adhesion
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme may be involved in the synthesis of plasma glycoproteins by the liver during secretion, and may possibly be required for secretion of these proteins
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
biosynthesis of carbohydrate moieties of glycoproteins and glycolipids, role in intercellular recognition and adhesion
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
main enzyme responsible for the transfer of galactose residues from UDPgalactose into terminal N-acetylglucosamine residues of complex-type oligosaccharides in newly synthesized glycoproteins in the Golgi apparatus. Deficiency of UDP-galactose:N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase I causes the congenital disorder of glycosylation type IId, a severe neurologic disease characterized by a hydrocephalus, myopathy and blood-clotting defects
-
-
?
UDPgalactose + N-acetylglucosaminyl at the non-reducing ends of protein-bound oligosaccharides
?
show the reaction diagram
-
biosynthesis of keratan sulfate-like polysaccharides
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme activity might be involved in apoptotic pathway in hepatocarcinoma cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
decreasing the expression of GalT V in glioma cells promotes apoptosis, inhibits the invasion and migration and the ability of tumor formation in vivo, and reduces the activation of AKT, the enzyme functions as a glioma growth activator, overview, contribution of GalT V in the activation of AKT and MAPK kinase, contribution of serum or EGF in the transcription regulation of the GalT V gene, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
downregulation of the enzyme inhibits CDK11(p58)-mediated apoptosis induced by cycloheximide, while ectopically expressed beta1,4-GT 1 increases CDK11p58-mediated apoptosis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the cell surface enzyme promotes apoptosis by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway via inhibition of the autophosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor especially at Try 1068, mechanism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is involved in regulation of carbohydrate composition of milk during lactation, endocrine enzyme regulation, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q99PC2
the enzyme is part of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi glycosylation network, glycosyltransferase metabolism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
tumor beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase IV overexpression is closely associated with colorectal cancer metastasis and poor prognosis, relationships between tumor beta-1,4-GT-IV overexpression and clinicopathologic characteristics, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta 1,4GalT V galactosylates the beta1,6-GlcNAc branch of N-glycans at the cell surface and of secreted glycoproteins, and functions as a positive regulator in glioma development, overview. As2O3-induced gioma cell apoptosis mechanism involves beta 1,4GalT V inhibition, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta-1,4-galactosylransferase participates in the synthesis of Galbeta1-4-GlcNac disaccharide unit of glycoconjugates, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P80225
beta-1,4-GalT I is a type II membrane-bound glycoprotein, which occurs the plasma membrane of different types of cells where it serves as a cell surface adhesion molecule mediating various cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions such as sperm-egg binding, cell spreading, migration, and neurite outgrowth
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta-1,4-GalT-I plays a key role in the synthesis of selectin ligands such as sialy Lewis, sLex, and sulfated sLex, overview. beta-1,4-GalT-I may play an important role in the inflammation reaction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
HP0826 is the beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the lipopolysaccharide O-chain backbone of Helicobacter pylori
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
LgtB is the beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of the lipopolysaccharide O-chain backbone of Helicobacter pylori
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the specific inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase LY294002 and wortmannin up-regulate beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I and thus sensitize SMMC-7721 human hepatocarcinoma cells to cycloheximide-induced apoptosis, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
beta4Gal-T1 participates in the synthesis of Galbeta1-4-GlcNac disaccharide unit of glycoconjugates
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
can partially replace Mn2+
Ca2+
-
about 50% of the activity with Mn2+
Ca2+
-
-
Co2+
-
activation at 14.9% of the activity with Mn2+
Fe2+
-
no activation
Fe2+
-
partial activation
Mg2+
-
can partially replace Mn2+
Mg2+
-
about 50% of the activity with Mn2+
Mn2+
-
maximal activity at 3-5 mM; optimal concentration 3-5 mM
Mn2+
-
required
Mn2+
-
required
Mn2+
-
optimal concentration is 10 mM; required
Mn2+
-
0.0025 mM required for half-maximal activity; required
Mn2+
-
Km: 0.03 mM; required
Mn2+
-
optimal concentration is 5-10 mM MnCl2; required
Mn2+
-
binding of two Mn(II) per mol of enzyme in the ternary enzyme-manganese-UDPgalactose complex. The affinity of the enzyme for manganese is much higher in the presence of UDPgalactose than in its absence; required
Mn2+
-
Km for MnCl2: 0.34 mM; maximal activity at 4 mM; required
Mn2+
-
Km: 0.4 mM; required
Mn2+
-
optimal concentration: 12.5 mM; required
Mn2+
-
optimal concentration: 12.5 mM; required
Mn2+
O43286
20 mM, stimulates
Mn2+
-
required
Mn2+
-
no activation in presence of Fe2+, Zn2+ and Cu2+; required
Mn2+
-
the catalytic domain of the enzyme has two metal binding sites, each with a distinct affinity. Site I binds Mn2+ with high affinity and does not bind Ca2+. Site II binds a variety of metal ions, including Ca2+. In the primary metal binding site the Mn2+ ion is coordinated to five ligands, two supplied by the phosphates of the sugar nucleotide and the other three by D254, H347 and M344
Mn2+
-
required, binds first in the catalytic cycle
Mn2+
-
required, binds first in the catalytic cycle, Met340 is involved
Mn2+
-
required
Mn2+
-
activates
Mn2+
-
required; the catalytic domain has two flexible loops, a long and a small one, with the primary metal binding site being located at the N-terminal hinge region of the long flexible loop
Mn2+
-
required for activity
Zn2+
-
activation at 9.2% of the activity with Mn2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,6-dithio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
45% inhibition at 1.0 mM
1-thio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
uncompetitive, complete inhibition at 1.0 mM, 85% inhibition at 0.2 mM
1-thioGlcNAcbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
91% inhibition at 1.0 mM
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-4-fluoro-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-4-methoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-4-amino-2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-Dgalactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-3,6-di-O-acetyl-4-azido-2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-Dgalactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-3-fluoro-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-3-methoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside
-
-
2-naphthylmethyl 2-acetamido-4,6-di-O-acetyl-2,3-dideoxy-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1,3)-2,4,6-tri-O-acetyl-beta-Dgalactopyranoside
-
-
6-thio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
19% inhibition at 1.0 mM
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
inhibits reaction with UDPgalactose and N-acetylglucosamine
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
partially inhibits reaction with UDPgalactose and asialo-agalacto-transferrin
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
-
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
inhibits N-acetyllactosamine synthesis in plasma membrane fraction
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
inhibits reaction with UDPgalactose and N-acetylglucosamine
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
inhibits reaction with UDPgalactose and N-acetylglucosamine
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
inhibits the reaction of EC 2.4.1.38 with the complex glucoside colchicoside
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
cellular adhesion ability of dendritic cells is inhibited by alpha-lactalbumin via interference with cell surface GalTI
-
alpha1-Acid glycoprotein
-
above 1.4 mM with respect to acceptor sites
-
ammonium
Q99PC2
enzyme activity is decreased in ammonium treated cell culture
Cu2+
-
complete inhibition in presence of Mn2+
Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol
-
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
above 10 mM
N-acetylglucosamine
-
competitively inhibits the transfer of galactose to glycoprotein substrates
N-Acetylimidazole
-
activity is partially restored by treatment with hydroxylamine
N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
87% inhibition at 1.0 mM
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucoside
-
competitively inhibits the transfer of galactose to glycoprotein substrates
-
phosphatidic acid
-
-
phosphatidic acid
-
-
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
-
phosphatidylglycerol
-
-
phosphatidylserine
-
-
poly(L-Glu)
-
-
UDP
-
treatment with periodate-cleaved UDP and NaCNBH3 results in a loss of 80% of enzyme activity, which is largely prevented by UDP-galactose
UDP
-
competitively inhibits the transfer of galactose to glycoprotein substrates
UMP
-
competitively inhibits the transfer of galactose to glycoprotein substrates
uridine 5'-(6-amino-(2-[(7-bromomethyl-2-naphthyl)methoxycarbonylmethoxy]ethoxy)acetyl-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate
-
irreversible, modifies residue Trp310
uridine 5'-(6-amino-(2-[(7-methyl-2-naphthyl)methoxycarbonylmethoxy]ethoxy)acetyl-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate
-
-
uridine 5'-(6-O-[10-(2-naphthyl)-3,6,9-trioxadecanyl]-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)diphosphate
-
competitive versus UDP-Gal, blocks acceptor substrate binding by the enzyme in presence of Mn2+
Zn2+
-
complete inhibition in presence of Mn2+
GlcNAcbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
92% inhibition at 1.0 mM
additional information
-
the enzyme is totally inactivated by iodination with lactoperoxidase, EC 1.11.1.7. Substrates protect against inactivation
-
additional information
-
inhibitor synthesis and potency, mechanism of inhibition, overview
-
additional information
-
development and synthesis of mechanism-based inhibitors, structure analysis, overview
-
additional information
Q99PC2
in vivo galactosylation and sialylation inhibition is mainly due to decreased gene expression of galactosyltransferase, sialyltransferase, and CMP-sialic acid transporter and not due to sialidase
-
additional information
-
As2O3 significantly decreases beta 1,4GalT V expression level in in glioma cells, which increases the glioma cell apoptosis induced by As2O3, overviewoverview
-
additional information
-
structural features for rational design of specific inhibitors, overview
-
additional information
-
bis(oxalate)oxovanadium(IV), bis(maltolato)oxovanadium(IV), bis(kojato)oxovanadium(IV) and bis(2,2'-bipyridine)oxovanadium(IV) act as anti-diabetic drugs affecting the Golgi complex morphology and the enzyme activity, overview
-
additional information
P80225
TNF-alpha and its receptors affect the expression of beta-1,4 galactosyltransferase I mRNA by rat primary astrocytes, downregulation of beta-1,4-GalT I mRNA expression by TNF-alpha stimulation, overview; TNF-alpha and its receptors affect the expression of beta-1,4 galactosyltransferase V mRNA by rat primary astrocytes, overview
-
additional information
-
the constitutively active Akt protein, myr-Akt, inhibits CHX-induced apoptosis in SMMC-7721 cells through downregulating beta1,4GT1
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by CDP, UDP-mannose, and UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
stimulates transfer of galactose from UDPgalactose to N-acetylgalactosamine
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
stimulates transfer of galactose from UDPgalactose to N-acetylgalactosamine
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
stimulates transfer of galactose from UDPgalactose to N-acetylgalactosamine; stimulates transfer of glucose from UDPglucose to N-acetylglucosamine
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
stimulates transfer of galactose from UDPgalactose to N-acetylgalactosamine
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
stimulates transfer of galactose from UDPgalactose to N-acetylgalactosamine
-
alpha-Lactalbumin
-
modulates the enzyme's acceptor specificity, but does not interact with the sugar donor-binding site of beta4Gal-T1. Instead, interacting with the extended sugar-binding site of the closed conformer of beta4Gal-T1 in the enzyme-sugar nucleotide complex, lactalbumin stabilizes the complex, thereby facilitating the transfer of the sugar moiety from the less preferred sugar nucleotides to a monosaccharide, it kinetically enhances the transfer of the sugar residue from the less preferred sugar nucleotides to a monosaccharide, GlcNAc, lactalbumin binding site structure of beta4Gal-T family members, overview, modulation mechanism, overview
-
dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
dioleoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
Distearoylphosphatidylcholine
-
activation
Histone
-
activation
lysophosphatidylcholine
-
activation
phosphatidylcholine
-
activation
phosphatidylcholine
-
activation
phosphatidylethanolamine
-
activation
phosphatidylglycerol
-
activation
poly(L-Arg)
-
activation
poly(L-Lys)
-
activation
Protamine sulfate
-
activation
-
Triton X-100
-
0.1-5%, 1.5fold stimulation
Methylphosphatidylic acid
-
activation
additional information
-
the enzyme regulation/stimulation is a complex system involving the hormones insulin, prolactine, hydrocortisone, triiodothyronine, and 17beta-estradiol, and also the extracellular matrix and the sucking stimulus
-
additional information
-
the activity of GalT V promoter can be induced by epidermal growth factor, dominant active Ras, ERK1, JNK1, and constitutively active AKT
-
additional information
-
intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide, a potent inducer of systemic inflammation, strongly induces beta-1,4-GalT-I mRNA expression in the lung, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, lymph node, hippocampus, and testis, as well as in the cerebral cortex. In the rat lung, liver and testis, LPS stimulation of beta-1,4-GalT-I mRNA expression is time-dependent and biphasic
-
additional information
P80225
lipopolysaccharide stimulation of astrocytes induces the enzyme expression, overview; lipopolysaccharide stimulation of astrocytes induces the enzyme expression, overview
-
additional information
-
the specific inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase LY294002 and wortmannin up-regulate beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I through enhancing Sp1 protein expression, and thus sensitize SMMC-7721 human hepatocarcinoma cells to cycloheximide-induced apoptosis, overview
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.16
-
4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
purified beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.27
-
4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.85
-
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
purified beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
1.27
-
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.17
-
agalacto-poly-N-acetyllactosamine
-
-
-
2.8
-
agalactokeratan
-
-
-
0.2
-
alpha1-Acid glycoprotein
-
-
-
0.056
-
asialo-agalacto-transferrin
-
enzyme in pCMGT1-transfected cells
-
0.064
-
asialo-agalacto-transferrin
-
recombinant enzyme
-
0.0608
-
asialogalactofetuin
-
-
-
0.96
-
chitotriose
-
-
1
-
D-glucose
-
recombinant enzyme
1.1
-
D-glucose
-
recombinant N-deglycosylated enzyme
2
-
D-glucose
-
-
21
-
D-glucose
-
-
0.029
-
fetuin
-
-
-
6.28
-
galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
-
-
0.01
-
Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol
-
-
0.6
-
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
-
-
1.23
-
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3)Man
-
-
0.06
-
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6-Manbeta-OR
-
-
0.71
-
GlcNAcbeta1,4-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
-
-
0.25
-
glycopeptide prepared from porcine IgG immunoglobulin
-
-
-
0.02
-
IgG immunoglobulin heavy chain
-
-
-
0.83
-
lacto-N-triaosylceramide
-
-
0.01
-
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
-
1.59
-
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
-
0.8
-
N-acetylgalactosamine
-
-
0.0007
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-galactose, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.0013
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-glucose, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.0025
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-glucose, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.0039
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
0.009
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-glucose, without alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.011
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-galactose, without alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K; cosubstrate: UDP-galactose, without alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.074
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-glucose, without alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.33
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
enzyme from liver
0.5
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
1
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
1.49
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
1.6
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
1.9
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
enzyme in pCMGT1-transfected cells
1.9
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-galactose
2.3
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
2.5
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
recombinant enzyme
2.8
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
3.3
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
3.6
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
recombinant enzyme
4
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
4.6
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
5.8
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
8.2
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
8.3
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
recombinant N-deglycosylated enzyme
10
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
recombinant enzyme
40
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
-
0.43
-
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
-
-
0.13
-
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,6-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,2-mannosyl-alpha-1,3-)mannosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,4-(fucosyl-alpha-1,6-)N-acetylglucosaminyl-asparagine
-
-
3.4
-
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(galactosyl-beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
-
-
1.5
-
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-galactose
-
N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,3-(N-acetylglucosaminyl-beta-1,6-)galactose
0.054
-
ovalbumin
-
-
-
0.27
-
ovalbumin
-
-
-
0.66
-
p-nitrophenyl 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-beta-glucoside
-
-
-
0.79
-
pNP-beta-GlcNAc
-
pH 7.2
0.00491
-
UDP-Gal
-
-
0.27
-
UDP-Gal
-
pH 7.2
0.0105
-
UDP-galactose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.087
-
UDP-galactose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, without alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.093
-
UDP-galactose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, without alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.23
-
UDP-galactose
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.31
-
UDP-galactose
-
purified beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.031
-
UDP-glucose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.044
-
UDP-glucose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.091
-
UDP-glucose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, without alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.148
-
UDP-glucose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, without alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.28
-
UDP-glucose
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
4
-
UDP-glucuronic acid
-
Km above 4 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
10
-
UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
Km above 10 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.16
-
UDP-xylose
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.0108
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.0118
-
UDPgalactose
-
enzyme from liver microsomal membrane
0.01205
-
UDPgalactose
-
enzyme from serum
0.0125
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.0127
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.019
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.022
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.024
-
UDPgalactose
-
enzyme in pCMGT1-transfected cells
0.024
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.025
-
UDPgalactose
-
recombinant enzyme
0.028
-
UDPgalactose
-
recombinant enzyme
0.0295
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.03
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.043
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.0468
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.052
-
UDPgalactose
-
enzyme from serum
0.055
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.065
-
UDPgalactose
-
enzyme from liver
0.08
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.082
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.091
-
UDPgalactose
-
recombinant enzyme
0.106
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.143
-
UDPgalactose
-
recombinant N-deglycosylated enzyme
0.2
-
UDPgalactose
-
reaction with glucose, wild-type enzyme and N-deglycosylated recombinant enzyme
0.21
-
UDPgalactose
-
reaction with glucose, recombinant enzyme
0.25
-
UDPgalactose
-
-
0.19
-
lacto-N-triose II
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
effects of cationic polypeptides
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
Km-value for ovalbumin for the N-deglycosylated recombinant enzyme is 6 mg/ml, and 15 mg/ml for th recombinant enzyme
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics, mutant enzyme, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics, implications of the oligosaccharide structures on the kinetic parameters, overview
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
kinetics
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.13
-
4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
1.52
-
4-nitrophenyl beta-D-xylopyranoside
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
3.3
-
chitotriose
-
-
4.81
-
chitotriose
-
-
2.47
-
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
-
-
1.74
-
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3)Man
-
-
1.9
-
GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6-Manbeta-OR
-
-
3.6
-
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
-
4.82
-
N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminyl-1,4-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
-
0.06
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-glucose, without alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.17
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-glucose, without alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.25
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-glucose, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.33
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-galactose, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.52
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-galactose, without alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.96
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-glucose, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
14
-
N-acetylglucosamine
-
cosubstrate: UDP-galactose, without alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.33
-
UDP-galactose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.52
-
UDP-galactose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, without alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
1.14
-
UDP-galactose
-
Km above 0.003 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
14
-
UDP-galactose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, without alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.02
-
UDP-glucose
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.06
-
UDP-glucose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, without alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.17
-
UDP-glucose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, without alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.25
-
UDP-glucose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, wild-type enzyme
0.96
-
UDP-glucose
-
cosubstrate: N-acetylglucosamine, in presence of alpha-lactalbumin, mutant enzyme R228K
0.003
-
UDP-glucuronic acid
-
Km above 0.003 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.003
-
UDP-N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine
-
Km above 0.003 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.01
-
UDP-xylose
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
3.35
-
GlcNAcbeta1,4-Manalpha1,3-Manbeta-OR
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
turnover number for UDPglucose in absence of alpha-lactalbumin is 3.48 and 14.8 in presence of alpha-lactalbumin
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
4.93
-
UDP-galactose
-
Km above 0.003 mM, purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
17639
0.07
-
UDP-glucose
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
17641
0.065
-
UDP-xylose
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
137491
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.93
-
TDP
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.61
-
UDP
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.0223
-
uridine 5'-(6-amino-(2-[(7-methyl-2-naphthyl)methoxycarbonylmethoxy]ethoxy)acetyl-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate
-
-
0.00186
-
uridine 5'-(6-O-[10-(2-naphthyl)-3,6,9-trioxadecanyl]-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl)diphosphate
-
-
1.65
-
UTP
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta1,4-GalT7, in 100 mM cacodylate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM MnCl2, at 37C
0.01
-
1-thio-N-butyryl-GlcNbeta-(2-naphthyl)
-
pH 7.0
additional information
-
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.035
-
-
-
0.535
-
-
-
4.7
-
-
-
6.9
-
-
N-deglycosylated recombinant enzyme
8.4
-
-
recombinant enzyme
10.7
-
-
-
160
-
-
purified recombinant enzyme
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
determination of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase enzymatic activity by capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection, high sensitivity of product detection
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
-
-
in Tris-maleate buffer
6.4
7.6
-
-
6.5
-
-
assay at
6.8
-
-
-
7
-
O43286
-
7
-
-
assay at
7
-
O60909
assay at
7.4
-
-
assay at
7.4
-
-
assay at
7.5
10.5
-
-
7.5
-
-
reaction with N-acetylglucosamine and UDPgalactose, reaction with alpha1-acid glycoprotein and UDPgalactose
8
-
-
assay at
8.2
-
-
-
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5
9.3
-
pH 5.0: about 60% of maximal activity, pH 9.3: about 45% of maximal activity
5.5
8
-
less than 50% of maximal activity above and below
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
37
-
assay at
30
-
-
reaction with N-acetylglucosamine and UDPgalactose, reaction with alpha1-acid glycoprotein and UDPgalactose
30
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
activity at 37C is faster than at 31C or at 27C
37
-
-
-
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-
assay at
42
-
-
-
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
45
-
less than 50% of maximal activity above and below
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
P80225
primary; primary
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of beta1,4-GalT-I increases in the cartilage and synovial tissue of osteoarthritis patients compared with healthy controls
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of patients with colorectal cancer 48% have down-regulated expression of beta-1,4-GT-IV in the tumor tissue, while 28% of patients exhibit elevated beta-1,4-GT-IV levels, the patient group with tumor beta-1,4-GT-IV overexpression strongly predicts for tumor metastasis, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the enzyme is maternally loaded and expressed throughout development, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
very high enzyme concentration in Golgi apparatus of epididymal duct epithelium from initial segment to intermediate caput, although much lower amounts of enzyme are in efferent ducts, distal caput, corpus and cauda. Even in the initial segment and caput epididymis, only low levels of soluble enzyme form are detected in the fluid
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in conventional mice, the beta1,4-galactosyltransferase gene expression rapidly increases to adult levels by the fourth postnatal week. In germ-free mice, gene expression remains at initial low levels and is rapidly induced on reintroduction of luminal microbes of the adult gut but not of microbes characteristic of the suckling gut. Essential role for microbes in the ontogeny of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of extremely high levels of mRNA
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
regional distribution
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
specific enzyme expression and regulation during the lactation cycle, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
ATCC No. CCL22
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highly metastatic lung cancer cells, elevated levels of beta1,4-galactosyltransferase I as compared to its less metastatic partner PGLH7 cells. Essential role for the transcription activator E1AF in the activation of human GalTI gene in highly metastatic lung cancer cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Leishmania donovani UR6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
glioma cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
anterior head of sperm head
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
during differentiation from spermatogonia to pachytene spermatocytes the amount of UDP beta1,4-galactosyltransferase mRNA is reduced to barley detectable levels
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
expression of beta1,4-GalT-I increases in the cartilage and synovial tissue of osteoarthritis patients compared with healthy controls
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
during differentiation from spermatogonia to pachytene spermatocytes the amount of UDO beta1,4-galactosyltransferase mRNA is reduced to barley detectable levels
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
beta4-GalT-IV is only expressed at low levels in 1-week-old mouse testes; expression remains relatively low at each stage of development; the transcript of beta4-GalT-II increases during development, and persists at the highest level in adult mouse testis; transcript of beta4-GalT-I is expressed at a significant level in 1 to 2-week-old testis and after this stage the level decreases to barely detectable levels
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
glioma cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
glioma cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
beta1, 4-GalT-I iss highly expressed in endometrium during implantation window
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
localized in the cytoplasm near nucleus and cytomembrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
short and long enzyme form are resident trans-Golgi proteins, the NH2-terminal segment contains the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
cisternal space of the Golgi apparatus being distributed from cis to trans
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Leishmania donovani UR6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
beta4Gal-T1 is a trans-Golgi glycosyltransferase, Glyco-T, with a type II membrane protein topology, a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a membrane-spanning region, as well as a stem and a C-terminal catalytic domain facing the trans-Golgi-lumen
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
N-terminal hydrophobic segment serves as the membrane anchor, the C-terminal region is oriented within the lumen of the Golgi membranes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
plasma membrane enriched fraction
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
the enzyme from kidney appears to be an intrinsic membrane protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
trans-membrane protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P80225
beta-1,4-GalT I is a type II membrane-bound glycoprotein which occurs on the plasma membrane of different types of cells where it serves as a cell surface adhesion molecule
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
enzyme exists as a soluble and a membrane-bound form
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
subcellular distribution, Golgi-to-endoplasmic reticulum exchange kinetics, approximately 90:10 Golgi-to-ER distribution, two-compartment model for Golgi glycosyltransferase cycling, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
29000
-
A9XBL4
SDS-PAGE
42960
-
-
calculation from gene sequence, short form, transmembrane enzyme
44420
-
-
long form with NH2-terminal extension of 13 amino acids, calculation from gene sequence
44880
-
-
unglycosylated enzyme, calculation from gene sequence
57000
-
-
sucrose density gradient centrifugation
59000
-
-
gel filtration
70000
-
-
gel filtration
70000
-
-
purified maltose-binding protein-beta-1,4-GalT7 protein, SDS/PAGE
85000
90000
-
gel filtration
106000
-
-
calculation from light-scattering experiments
440000
-
-
gel filtration
additional information
-
-
two related forms of enzyme of 399 and 386 amino acids are synthesized as a consequence of alternative translation initiation. The long enzyme form has a NH2-terminal extension of 13 amino acids
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 51000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 47000, deglycosylated enzyme form, SDS-PAGE; x * 48000, glycosylated enzyme form
?
-
x * 53000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 50000-51000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 70000-75000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 54000, enzyme from milk, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 42200, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 70000-80000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 65000-70000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 43000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 38000, SDS-PAGE
dimer
-
2 * 55000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 74000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 57000, SDS-PAGE
additional information
-
structure analysis, open and closed conformation change of the enzyme upon Mn2+ and substrate binding, overview
additional information
-
structure analysis, in vivo and invitro folding analysis, open and closed conformation change of the enzyme upon Mn2+ and substrate binding, overview
additional information
-
beta4Gal-T1 is a trans-Golgi glycosyltransferase, Glyco-T, with a type II membrane protein topology, a short N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, a membrane-spanning region, as well as a stem and a C-terminal catalytic domain facing the trans-Golgi-lumen. The two proteins beta4Gal-T1 and alpha-lactalbukin crystallize together as a complex only in the presence of either donor substrate or acceptor Glc or GlcNAc to form lactose synthase
POSTTRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
glycoprotein
-
-
glycoprotein
-
structure of mucin-type sugar depends on blood group
glycoprotein
-
-
glycoprotein
P80225
;
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
catalytic domain of R228K-Gal-T1 and mouse recombinant alpha-lactalbumin are cocrystallized in the presence of UDP-galactose and MnCl2. Crystals are grown at room temperature by the hanging drop method. Crystal structure of R228K-Gal-T1 complexed with alpha-lactalbumin, UDP-galactose, and Mn2+, determined at 1.9 resolution shows that the Asp318 side chain exhibits a minor alternate conformation, compared to that in the wild type
-
crystal structure of enzyme-alpha-lactalbumin complex with UDP-Glc
-
crystal structures of the beta4galactosyltransferase catalytic domain and its complex with uridine diphosphogalactose
-
purified recombinant pentenary complex of bovine M344H-Gal-T1 mutant-Mn2+-UDP-GalNAc-Glc-alpha-lactalbumin, hanging-drop vapor diffusion method, using 20 mg/ml of beta-M344H-Gal-T1 and 10 mg/ml of mouse alpha-lactalbumin in the presence of 10 mM each ofUDP-Gal and CaCl2, with the precipitant containing 100 mM NaCl, 100 mM Mes-NaOH buffer, pH 6.0, and 12.5% PEG 4000, the crystals of the complex cannot be obtained in the absence of CaCl2, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.9-2.0 A resolution
-
recombinant enzyme, crystal structure of lactose synthase reveals a large conformational change in its catalytic component, the beta1,4-galactosyltransferase-I
-
mutant enzyme M340H/C338T in complex with Glc-NAcbeta1-3Galbeta-O-naphthalenemethanol, hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using MES-NaOH buffer (pH 6.0), 1.5 M ammonium sulfate, and 3% dioxane
-
purified recombinant M340H-Gal-T1 mutant in the open conformation as apo-enzyme, and its Mn2+ and Mn2+-UDP-Gal-bound complexes, hanging-drop vapor diffusion method using a protein solution at 10 mg/ml concentration with a precipitant containing sodium citratebuffer, pH 5.5, and 10% w/v PEG-4000, the crystals of the Mn2+ complex are grown in the droplet containing 10 mM MnCl2, while the crystals containing UDP-Gal and Mn2+ are grown in the presence of 17 mM each of MnCl2 and UDPGal, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.7-2.0 A resolution
-
purified wild-type and M340H mutant enzymes in complex with pentasaccharide GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,6 (GlcNAcbeta1,2-Manalpha1,3) and trisaccharide GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAcbeta1,4-GlcNAc substrates, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.9-2.0 A resolution
-
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
40
-
-
4 h, 18% loss of activity
45
-
-
stable up to
50
-
-
1 h, complete loss of activity
56
-
-
inactivation at
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
the N-terminal stem extension enhances the in vitro folding efficiency of the catalytic domain by several fold, it increases the solubility of even the misfolded protein
-
Triton X-100 essential for stability during purification
-
the N-terminal stem extension enhances the in vitro folding efficiency of the catalytic domain by several fold, it increases the solubility of even the misfolded protein
-
ammonium sulfate stabilizes during storage
-
glycerol stabilizes during storage
-
more than 50% loss of activity on freezing
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20C, 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin
-
4C, immobilized, 5 weeks, stable
-
-20C, stable fo at least 1 month
-
-20C, stable for at least 2 months
-
4C, 0.1% bovine serum albumin, stable for 3 months
-
-20C, bovine serum albumin, stable for up to 60 d
-
-20C, partially purified enzyme stable for several weeks, purified enzyme stable for 1 week
-
-20C, stable for 3 weeks
-
4C, concentrated enzyme
-
4C, more than 50% loss of activity after 1 week
-
4C, purified and concentrated enzyme is stable for 4 weeks
-
-20C, 0.02 M Tris/HCl buffer, pH 7.5, stable for several months
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
amylose column chromatography
-
expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
recombinant enzyme
-
PNA-Sepharose column chromatography
A9XBL4
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
cloning and sequencing of cDNA
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Sf9 cells. Sfbeta4GalT cell, unlike the parental Sf9 cells, can terminally beta1,4-galactosylate gp64 during baculovirus infection
-
expression of short and long enzyme form in CHO-cells
-
expression of wild-type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli
-
isolation of a cDNA clone that encodes a major portion of galactosyltransferase
-
stem region fused to the catalytic domain, expression in Escherichia coli
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and anaylsis, sequence comparisons
-
expression of full-length HP0826 in Escherichia coli
-
cloning of the 5'-region flanking the transcription start point of the GalT I gene
-
comparison of sequences of enzyme from placenta and HeLa cells
-
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expresion analysis, stable overexpression of HA-tagged GalT V in astrocytes C8-D30 and glioma cell lines U87 and U251, expression of mutant enzymes
-
ectopic expression in SMMC-7721 hepatocarcinoma cells overexpressing the CDK11(p58) kinase
-
enzymatically active soluble N-deglycosylated enzyme form
-
enzyme fused to protein A is expressed as a soluble form in COS-7 cells
O43286
expressed in HeLa cells and as a fusion protein with maltose-binding protein in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells
-
expressed in NIH-3T3 cells
-
expression as GFP-tagged enzyme in HeLa cells
-
expression in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression of mutant cDNA from a patient with the congenital disorder of glycosylation type IId leads to the synthesis of a truncated, inactive polypeptide, which is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum
-
expression of mutants W312C/P401C and W312C/P401C/M340H enzymes in Escherichia coli, the wild-type enzyme forms inclusion bodies after expression in Escherichia coli, overview
-
expression of wild-type and mutant M340H enzymes in Escherichia coli
-
functional expression in suspension cultured tobacco BY2 GT6 cells via Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404
-
molecular cloning and nucleotide sequencing
-
overexpression in human hepatocarcinoma SMMC-7721 cells
-
recombinant enzyme is N-glycosylated
-
stem region fused to the catalytic domain, expression in Escherichia coli
-
cloning and sequencing of the full-length cDNA
-
expression in Cos-1 cells
-
HeLa cells expressing the murine enzyme on their surface spread more rapidly on laminin substrates than do control cells
-
histidine-tagged 46000 Da protein produced in Escherichia coli
-
isolation and characterization of the genomic locus
-
expression under the control of the T7 promoter in Escherichia coli BL21
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
estrogen antagonists ICI 182,780 and ER-a-ERE binding blocker TPBM inhibit the expression of estrogen-induced B4GALT1
-
inhibition of MEK/ERK, PI3K/AKT and NF-kappaB suppresses recombinant human osteopontin-induced beta1,4-GalT-I expression
-
the transcriptional activity and mRNA expression level of beta1,4GalT II are dramatically induced by p53 transcription factor in HeLa cell, in response to DNA damage agent adriamycin, the mRNA expression and promoter activity of beta1,4GalT II are significantly up-regulated
-
estrogen induces beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 expression
-
the expression level of GalTI and cellular adhesion ability is increased when dendritic cells continue to mature
-
recombinant human osteopontin protein induces the beta 1,4-GalT-I up-regulation in RL95-2 cells
-
expression of beta1,4-GalT-I and galactose-containing glycans increases in synovial tissue of rheumatoid arthritis patients compared with osteoarthritis patients and healthy controls. Most galactose-containing glycans and beta1,4-GalT-I are expressed in inflammatory cells
-
expression of beta1,4-GalT-I increases in the cartilage and synovial tissue of osteoarthritis patients compared with healthy controls
-
beta 1, 4-GalT-I iss highly expressed in endometrium during implantation window
-
anti-TNFR1 antibody suppresses the expression of beta-1,4-GalT I, and TNF-alpha autocrine
-
beta-1,4-GalT-I mRNA is significant increased 2 h after lipopolysaccharide stimulation with 0.001 mg/ml
-
mRNA and protein expression of beta1,4-GalT-I increases in synovial tissue of a collagen-induced rat model of rheumatoid arthritis compared with the normal group at 10d and 15d after collagen-induced
-
CDK11p58 and beta-1,4-GalT-I are induced in lipopolysaccharide-challenged rat primary astrocytes in a affinis dose- and time-dependent manner. CDK11p58 regulates the expression of beta-1,4-GalT-I by interacting with it. The expression of beta-1,4-GalT-I increases, and astrocyte activation enhances due to the overexpression of CDK11p58
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
C134S
-
complete loss of activity
C342S
-
33fold increase in the apparent Km-value for UDPgalactose
D254E
-
0.01% of the activity of the wild-type enzyme
D254N
-
0.01% of the activity of the wild-type enzyme
D320A
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
D320E
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
D320N
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
E317A
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
E317D
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
E317Q
-
when partially activated by Mn2+ binding to the primary site, can be further activated by Co2+ or inhibited by Ca2+, an effect that is the opposite of what is observed with the wild-type enzyme
H347D
-
in presence of Mn2+ retains 0.02% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 0.085% of wild-type enzyme activity
H347E
-
in presence of Mn2+ retains 0.1% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 0.4% of wild-type enzyme activity
H347N
-
in presence of Mn2+ retains 0.07% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 0.36% of wild-type enzyme activity
H347Q
-
in presence of Mn2+ retains 0.28% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 1.21% of wild-type enzyme activity
M344A
-
in presence of Mn2+ retains 54.5% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 6.15% of wild-type enzyme activity
M344H
-
site-directed mutagenesis, substrate binding structure in comparison to the wild-type enzyme, overview
R228K
-
mutant enzyme shows 16% of the wild-type galactosyltransferase activity, mutation results in a 15fold higher glucosyltransferase activity, which is further enhanced by alpha-lactalbumin to nearly 25% of the galactosyltransferase activity of the wild type. The main effect of the mutation is on the kcat of glucosyltransferase, which increases 3-4fold, both in the absence and in the presence of alpha-lactalbumin simultaneously, the kcat for the galactosyltransferase reaction is reduced 30fold
Y289I
-
mutation enhances GalNAc-transferase activity. Km for GlcNAc is increased compared to the wild type
Y289L
-
mutation enhances GalNAc-transferase activity. Km for GlcNAc is incereased compared to the wild type
I289Y
-
mutation of the Drosophila beta4GalNAc-T1 converts the enzyme to a beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-1, beta4Gal-T1, by reducing its beta4GalNAc-T1 activity by nearly 1000fold while enhancing its beta4Gal-T1 activity by 80fold
M340H
-
site-directed mutagenesis, substrate binding structure in comparison to the wild-type enzyme, overview
R228K
-
the mutation enhances the glucosyltransferase activity of beta4GalNAc-T1, which is low for the wild-type enzyme, by steric alterations, overview
R228LK
-
the mutation enhances glucosyltransferase activity
W312C/P401C
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutations facilitate invitro folding of the recombinantly expressed enzyme
W312C/P401C/M340H
-
site-directed mutagenesis, substrate binding structure in comparison to the wild-type enzyme, overview
Y268G
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant enzyme is less active compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y268G/Y294G
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant enzyme is less active compared to the wild-type enzyme
Y285I
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutation converts the betaGALT1 enzyme into an equally efficient beta4GalNAc-T1, EC 2.4.1.90
Y285L
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutation converts the betaGALT1enzyme into an equally efficient beta4GalNAc-T1, EC 2.4.1.90
Y289I
-
the mutation makes the enzyme equally as efficient as Gal- or GalNAc-transferase
Y289L
-
mutation of the beta4GalNAc-T1 converts the enzyme to a beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase-1, beta4Gal-T1. Substituting Tyr289 for Leu removes this restriction and the Tyr289Leu mutant can now transfer GalNAc or other Gal C2-analogues from their respective UDPderivatives, not normally substrates of the enzyme, to the acceptor GlcNAc with the same efficiency with which the wild-type enzyme transfers Gal from UDP-Gal, phenotype, overview; the mutation makes the enzyme equally as efficient as Gal- or GalNAc-transferase
Y289L/C342T
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant is able to transfer GalNAc from the sugar donor UDP-GalNAc to the acceptor, GlcNAc, with efficiency as good as that of galactose from UDP-Gal, in contrast to the wild-type enzyme, mutant substrate specificity with different donor substrate and oligosaccharides as acceptor substrates, mass spectrometry product analysis, overview, the C342T mutation does not alter enzyme activity, but increases the enzyme stability at room temperature
Y289N
-
the mutation makes the enzyme equally as efficient as Gal- or GalNAc-transferase
Y294G
-
site-directed mutagenesis, the mutant enzyme is less active compared to the wild-type enzyme
M344Q
-
in presence of Mn2+ retains 15.37% of wild-type enzyme activity, in presence of Co2+ retains 31.08% of wild-type enzyme activity
additional information
-
N-terminal truncated forms of the enzyme between residues 1-129, do not show any significant difference in the apparent Km-values towards N-acetylglucosamine or linear oligosaccharide acceptors, e.g. for chitobiose and chitotriose, or for the nucleotide donor UDPgalactose. The binding behaviour of N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of the enzyme towards the N-acetylglucosamine-agarose and UDP-agarose columns differ, the former binds preferentially to the N-acetylglucosamine-columns, while the latter binds to UDP-agarose columns via Mn2+
additional information
-
mutations of Asp318 and Asp319 abolish enzyme activity
additional information
-
covalent immobilization of the enzyme in the absence of alpha-lactalbumin for use as biocatalyst, method evaluation, overview
Y289N
-
mutation enhances GalNAc-transferase activity. Km for GlcNAc is increased compared to the wild type
additional information
-
knockdown of zebrafish beta-4GalT1 by two independent morpholino oligonucleotides results in embryos with a truncated anterior-posterior axis, as well as elongated somites and moderate defects in the patterning of the head mesenchyme, phenotype with the axial mesoderm of epiboly stage embryos being abnormally widened in beta-4GalT1 morphants, indicative of abnormal convergent extension, laminin isolated from beta-4GalT1 morphant embryos is poorly galactosylated, activity is restored by injection of wild-type enzyme mRNA, overview
M344H
-
in the presence of Mg2+ the mutant exhibits 25% of the catalytic activity compared to the wild type enzyme in the presence of Mn2+. Although the mutant has higher Km in the presence of Mg2+ for the substrates compared to the wild type enzyme in the presence of Mn2+, the catalytic efficiency with respect to donor and acceptor has decreased by an order of about 13 and 6, respectively. The turnover number of the mutant is only reduced to 60%
additional information
-
RNAi-mediated knockdown of beta1,4-GT 1 inhibits CDK11(p58)-mediated apoptosis induced by cycloheximide, while ectopically expressed beta1,4-GT 1 increases CDK11p58-mediated apoptosis, enzyme knockout also inhibits the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and caspase-3 processing, mechanism of beta1,4-GT 1 in CHX-induced apoptosis of CDK11p58-overexpressing cells, overview
additional information
-
autophosporylation of epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR, and phosphorylation of protein kinase B, PKB/Akt, and extracellular signalregulated protein kinase1/2,ERK1/2, which are downstream molecules of EGFR, are reduced in cell surface beta1,4GT1-overexpressing SMMC-7721 cells, phenotype, overview, knockdown of beta1,4GT1 by siRNA increases the autophosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068
additional information
-
introduction of human betaGalT into suspension cultured tobacco cells results in the production of recombinant proteins with galactose-extended glycans and decreased contents of beta(1,2)-xylose and alpha(1,3)-fucose
additional information
-
beta 1,4GalT V antisense constructs interfere with beta 1,4GalT V leading to promotion of As2O3-induced glioma cell apoptosis, while overexpression of beta 1,4GalT V inhibits it, overview
additional information
-
expression vectors bearing the luminal domains of beta4GalT-II and glucuronyltransferase show in GST-pulldown assays that the Golgi luminal domains are sufficient for the complex to form
Renatured/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
the folding efficiency of the catalytic domain is increased further if the protein is renatured in a buffer that has polyethylene glycol and L-arginine
-
expression of HA-tagged beta 1,4GalT V
-
the folding efficiency of the catalytic domain is increased further if the protein is renatured in a buffer that has polyethylene glycol and L-arginine
-
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
drug development
-
the enzyme is a target enzyme for drug design
synthesis
-
preparation of a series of specific derivatives of the complex protopanaxadiol glycoside ginsenoside Rb1
synthesis
-
-
synthesis
-
the enzyme is useful as catalyst for quantitative synthesis of the thiodisaccharide Gal-betaS-1,4-GlcNAcpNP as well as Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP, overview
drug development
-
the enzyme is a target for rational design of specific inhibitors
medicine
-
GalT V might represent a target in glioma therapy
pharmacology
-
beta 1,4GalT V inhibitors enhance the therapeutic effect of As2O3 for malignant glioma
synthesis
-
use of transformed whole yeast cells, expressing the human N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase, in synthesis of N-acetyllactosamine
synthesis
-
the enzyme is useful as catalyst for quantitative synthesis of Gal-beta-1,4-Man-pNP, overview