Information on EC 2.4.1.241 - digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.1.241
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
UDP-alpha-D-galactose + 1,2-diacyl-3-O-(beta-D-galactosyl)-sn-glycerol = UDP + 1,2-diacyl-3-O-[alpha-D-galactosyl-(1->6)-beta-D-galactosyl]-sn-glycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
glycosyl group transfer
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Glycerolipid metabolism
-
glycolipid biosynthesis
-
Metabolic pathways
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-galactose:3-(beta-D-galactosyl)-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 6-alpha-galactosyltransferase
Requires Mg2+. Diacylglycerol cannot serve as an acceptor molecule for galactosylation as in the reaction catalysed by EC 2.4.1.46, monogalactosyldiacylglyerol synthase. When phosphate is limiting, phospholipids in plant membranes are reduced but these are replaced, at least in part, by the glycolipids digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol [3]. While both DGD1 and DGD2 are increased under phosphate-limiting conditions, DGD2 does not contribute significantly under optimal growth conditions. DGD2 is responsible for the synthesis of DGDG molecular species that are rich in C16 fatty acids at sn-1 of diacylglycerol whereas DGD1 leads to molecular species rich in C18 fatty acids [3]. The enzyme has been localized to the outer side of chloroplast envelope membranes.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
DGD synthase
-
-
DGD1
Q84XL8
-
DGDG synthase
-
-
DGDG synthase
-
-
DGDG synthase
A4UNX4, Q07A01
-
DGDG synthase (ambiguous)
-
-
digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 1
Q9S7D1
-
digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 1
Q84XL8
-
digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 1, chloroplast
Q9S7D1
-
digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase type 1
Q07A01
-
digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase type 2
A4UNX4
-
UDP-galactose-dependent DGDG synthase
-
-
UDP-galactose-dependent digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase
-
-
UDP-galactose:MGDG galactosyltransferase
-
-
UDP-galactose:MGDG galactosyltransferase
A4UNX4, Q07A01
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
69913-00-4
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 1; cultivars EPACE-1 and 1183
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase type 2 fragment; cultivars EPACE-1 and 1183
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-galactose + digalactosyldiacylglycerol
UDP + trigalactosyldiacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + monogalactosyldiacylglycerol
UDP + digalactosyldiacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + monogalactosyldiacylglycerol
UDP + digalactosyldiacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + monogalactosyldiacylglycerol
UDP + digalactosyldiacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
A4UNX4, Q07A01
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + monogalactosyldiacylglycerol
UDP + digalactosyldiacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
Q84XL8, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + monogalactosyldiacylglycerol
UDP + digalactosyldiacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
DGD1 seems to act preferentially on monogalactosyldiacylglycerol molecular species with 18-carbon fatty acids in the two positions of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol in vivo, DGD2 seems to act preferentially on monogalactosyldiacylglycerol molecular species with 16-carbon fatty acids in the sn-1 position and on 18-carbon fatty acid in the sn-2 position in vivo
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
a null-mutant of Arabidopsis, which lacks the DGDG synthase (DGD1) resulting in a 90% reduction in the amount of DGDG under normal growth conditions, accumulates digalactosyldiacylglycerol after phosphate deprivation up to 60% of the amount present in the wild-type. Extraplastidic biosynthesis of digalactosyldiacylglycerol induced by phosphate deprivation is a biochemical mechanism for plants to conserve phosphate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
DGD2 mRNA expression in leaves is very low but is strongly induced during growth under phosphate-limiting conditions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
disruption of the two digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase genes DGD1 and DGD2 in Arabidopsis reveals the existence of an additional enzyme of galactolipid synthesis
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-galactose + monogalactosyldiacylglycerol
UDP + digalactosyldiacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
Q84XL8, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-galactose + monogalactosyldiacylglycerol
UDP + digalactosyldiacylglycerol
show the reaction diagram
-
DGD1 seems to act preferentially on monogalactosyldiacylglycerol molecular species with 18-carbon fatty acids in the two positions of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol in vivo, DGD2 seems to act preferentially on monogalactosyldiacylglycerol molecular species with 16-carbon fatty acids in the sn-1 position and on 18-carbon fatty acid in the sn-2 position in vivo
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
a null-mutant of Arabidopsis, which lacks the DGDG synthase (DGD1) resulting in a 90% reduction in the amount of DGDG under normal growth conditions, accumulates digalactosyldiacylglycerol after phosphate deprivation up to 60% of the amount present in the wild-type. Extraplastidic biosynthesis of digalactosyldiacylglycerol induced by phosphate deprivation is a biochemical mechanism for plants to conserve phosphate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
DGD2 mRNA expression in leaves is very low but is strongly induced during growth under phosphate-limiting conditions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
disruption of the two digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase genes DGD1 and DGD2 in Arabidopsis reveals the existence of an additional enzyme of galactolipid synthesis
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Mg2+
-
required
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.5
8.5
-
pH 5.5: about 25% of maximal activity, pH 8.5: about 45% of maximal activity
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
DGD2 mRNA expression in leaves is very low but is strongly induced during growth under phosphate-limiting conditions
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A4UNX4, Q07A01
;
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
the enzyme is targeted to the chloroplast outer envelope in an ATP-independent manner
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
DGD1 associated with the outside of the outer envelope of chloroplasts. Does not require ATP for insertion and is not processed; DGD2 associated with the outside of the outer envelope of chloroplasts. DGD2 is processed and requires ATP for insertion
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
DGD2 is localized to the outer side of chloroplast envelope membranes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q9S7D1
membrane, outer membrane protein. Insertion of digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 1 into the membrane is reduced by either nucleotide depletion or proteolysis of the chloroplasts DGD1 integration
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
integral membrane protein of the outer envelope of the chloroplast
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
DGD2 is localized to the outer side of chloroplast envelope membranes
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression of DGD2 in Escherichia coli
-
co-expressed with a cucumber monogalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase in Escherichia coli
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
no DGD1protein is detected in plants rehydrated in the dark
Q84XL8, -
DGD1 is up-regulated during desiccation, with transcript levels detectable only at relative water content below 30%
Q84XL8, -