Information on EC 2.4.1.226 - N-acetylgalactosaminyl-proteoglycan 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Amniota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.1.226
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
N-acetylgalactosaminyl-proteoglycan 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan = UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
transfer to polymer most likely through a beta(1-3) linkage
-
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan = UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
transfer to the acceptor through a beta-linkage
-
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan = UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
enzyme has dual function possessing both glucuronyltransferase and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities
-
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan = UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
glucuronyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
glycosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
chondroitin and dermatan biosynthesis
-
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis - chondroitin sulfate / dermatan sulfate
-
Metabolic pathways
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate:N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase
Involved in the biosynthesis of chondroitin and dermatan sulfate. The human chondroitin synthetase is a bifunctional glycosyltransferase, which has the 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase and 4-beta-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.175) activities required for the synthesis of the chondroitin sulfate disaccharide repeats. Similar chondroitin synthase 'co-polymerases' can be found in Pasteurella multocida and Escherichia coli. There is also another human protein with apparently only the 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
chondroitin beta-glucuronyltransferase
-
-
-
-
chondroitin glucuronyltransaferase II
-
-
-
-
chondroitin glucuronyltransferase
-
-
-
-
chondroitin sulfate glucoronyltransferase
A2V663
-
chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase
-
-
-
-
chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase
Q8IZ52
-
chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase
-
-
chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase/chondroitin synthase-3
-
-
chondroitin sulfate N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1
-
-
chondroitin sulfate synthase-2
Q8IZ52
-
chondroitin sulfate synthase-3
-
enzyme possesses dual enzymatic GalNAcT-II (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-II) and GlcAT-II (glucuronyltransferase-II) activities
chondroitin synthase
-
-
chondroitin synthase-3
A2V663
-
ChSy
-
-
ChSy-3
A2V663
-
CHSY1
-
-
CHSY2
-
-
CHSY3
-
-
CSGalNAcT-1
-
-
CSGlcA-T
A2V663
enzyme posseses weak GlcAT-II and GalNAcT-II activities
CSGlcA-T
-
-
CSGlcAT
-
-
CSGlcAT-II
Q8IZ52
-
CSGlcAT/ChSy-3
-
-
CSS2
Q8IZ52
-
GlcAT-II
Q8IZ52
-
GlcAT-II
-
-
GlcAT-II
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
-
-
glucuronyltransferase, uridine diphosphoglucuronate-chondroitin
-
-
-
-
glucuronyltransferase-II
-
-
glucuronyltransferase-II
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
-
-
UDP-glucuronate:chondroitin glucuronyltransferase
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
176023-59-9
-
269077-98-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
fetal, newborn calf, calf, adult animals
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white leghorn
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chondroitin sulfate synthase-2, i.e. CSS2; 2 enzymes: CSGlcAT-II and CSS2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
further cDNA: Kazusa DNA Research Institute number KIAA1402
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
reduced glucuronyltransferase activity for splice variant CSS2B and no polymerizing activity for CSS2B co-expressed with CSS1, in contrast to splice variant CSS2A co-expressed with CSS1
physiological function
-
CSS2 is involved in elongation of chondroitin sulfate chains. Splice variant CSS2A facilitates chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis, while splice variant CSS2B inhibits it, molecular modeling and mechanisms of chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis regulation, overview. The ratio of CSS2 variants correlates with age-dependent change of chondroitin sulfate chain length in brain of mice
physiological function
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
CSS2 is involved in elongation of chondroitin sulfate chains. Splice variant CSS2A facilitates chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis, while splice variant CSS2B inhibits it, molecular modeling and mechanisms of chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis regulation, overview. The ratio of CSS2 variants correlates with age-dependent change of chondroitin sulfate chain length in brain of mice
-
malfunction
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
reduced glucuronyltransferase activity for splice variant CSS2B and no polymerizing activity for CSS2B co-expressed with CSS1, in contrast to splice variant CSS2A co-expressed with CSS1
-
additional information
-
either of CSS2A, CSS2B, and CSS1/ChSy-1 heterogeneously and homogeneously interact with each other, suggesting that they form a complex of multimers
additional information
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
either of CSS2A, CSS2B, and CSS1/ChSy-1 heterogeneously and homogeneously interact with each other, suggesting that they form a complex of multimers
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + alpha-thrombomodulin
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1,3)-alpha-thrombomodulin
show the reaction diagram
Q8IZ52
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1,3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1,3)-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-xylose-1-O-Gly-Ser-Gly-Glu
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q8IZ52
synthetic tetrasaccharide substrate
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1,3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1,3)-beta-D-galactosyl-1,4-beta-D-xylose-1-O-serine
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
Q8IZ52
synthetic tetrasaccharide substrate
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + chondroitin
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1,3)-chondroitin
show the reaction diagram
Q8IZ52
-, chondroitin polymerization in disaccharide units by glucuronyltransferase and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities of the enzyme
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + chondroitin
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1,3)-chondroitin
show the reaction diagram
Q8IZ52
and oligosaccharide of chondroitin with chain length of C11
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + chondroitin sulfate A
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1,3)-chondroitin sulfate A
show the reaction diagram
Q8IZ52
and oligosaccharide of chondroitin sulfate with chain length of C11
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1-3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1-3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1-3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
-
chondroitin sulfate A-8, chondroitin sulfate C-8,chondroitin-8, and GlcUAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Xylbeta1-O-methoxy-phenyl as acceptor substrates
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
-, chondroitin sulfate A-8, chondroitin sulfate C-8,chondroitin-8, and GlcUAbeta1-3Galbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Xylbeta1-O-methoxy-phenyl as acceptor substrates
-
-
?
UDP-glucuronic acid + chondroitin
UDP + N-acetylchondrosine glucuronic acid beta(1-3)N-acetylgalactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucuronic acid + chondroitin
UDP + N-acetylchondrosine glucuronic acid beta(1-3)N-acetylgalactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucuronic acid + chondroitin
UDP + N-acetylchondrosine glucuronic acid beta(1-3)N-acetylgalactosamine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucuronic acid + chondroitin heptasaccharide
?
show the reaction diagram
Q9P2E5
heptasaccharide having a N-acetylgalactosamine residue at its non-reducing terminus
-
-
?
UDP-glucuronic acid + chondroitin polysaccharide
?
show the reaction diagram
Q9P2E5
polysaccharide substrate used after beta-glucuronidase treatment
-
-
?
UDP-glucuronic acid + chondroitin sulfate heptasaccharide
?
show the reaction diagram
Q9P2E5
heptasaccharide having a N-acetylgalactosamine residue at its non-reducing terminus
-
-
?
UDP-glucuronic acid + chondroitin sulfate undecasaccharide
?
show the reaction diagram
Q9P2E5
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
further substrates: chondroitin heptaserine, pentaserine, non-sulfated odd-numbered oligosaccharides with a N-acetylgalactosamine residue at the non-reducing terminus except for a trisaccharide, no substrates: a trisaccharide-serine, an alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine-capped pentasaccharide-serine, the glucuronic acid transfer rate roughly increases with increasing chain length
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9P2E5
the glucuronic acid transfer rate roughly increases with increasing chain length
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
6-O-sulfation of non-reducing terminal N-acetylgalactosamine markedly enhances glucuronic acid transfer
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9P2E5
no substrates: chondroitin, chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, N-acetylheparosan, hyaluronan, heparan sulfate, heparin, hyaluronan heptasaccharides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8IZ52
in vitro activity of the recombinant enzyme requires concomitant expression of the chondroitin polymerizing factor ChPF in a fusion protein, mixing of separately expressed proteins does not result in an active complex, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8IZ52
substrate specificities of enzymes CSGlcAT-II and CSS2 in truncated form
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A2V663
CSGlcA-T exhibits polymerization activity on alpha-thrombomodulin using alpha-thrombomodulin as acceptor incubated with UDP-Gal-NAc and UDP-GlcUA. The chain length of chondroitin formed by the co-expressed proteins ChSy-1,ChSy-2 (CSS3), or ChPF in various combinations is different, polymerization reactions carried out using alpha-thrombomodulin as an acceptor co-incubated with UDP-GalNAc and UDP-GlcA
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CHSY1, CHSY2 and CHSY3 possess dual, glucuronyltransferase and galactosaminyltransferase enzymatic activities, while the CSGlcA-T acts only by transferring glucuronic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
CSS1, CSS2, and CSS3 contain two glycosyltransferase domains, beta-3 domain at the N-terminal region and beta-4 domain at the C-terminal region and exhibit dual enzymatic activities of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-II, GalNAcTII, and glucuronyltransferase-II, GlcAT-II. Chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase, similarly containing two glycosyltransferase domains, shows only GlcAT-I activity, EC 2.4.1.135, CSS2A exhibits both GalNAcT-II and GlcAT-II activities, CSS2B also shows both GalNAcT-II and GlcAT-II activities, but they are 82.8% and 26.5% that of CSS2A, respectively
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
CSS1, CSS2, and CSS3 contain two glycosyltransferase domains, beta-3 domain at the N-terminal region and beta-4 domain at the C-terminal region and exhibit dual enzymatic activities of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-II, GalNAcTII, and glucuronyltransferase-II, GlcAT-II. Chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase, similarly containing two glycosyltransferase domains, shows only GlcAT-I activity, EC 2.4.1.135, CSS2A exhibits both GalNAcT-II and GlcAT-II activities, CSS2B also shows both GalNAcT-II and GlcAT-II activities, but they are 82.8% and 26.5% that of CSS2A, respectively
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + chondroitin
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1,3)-chondroitin
show the reaction diagram
Q8IZ52
chondroitin polymerization in disaccharide units by glucuronyltransferase and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities of the enzyme
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1-3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1-3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1-3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1-4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate + N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
UDP + beta-D-glucuronosyl-(1->3)-N-acetyl-beta-D-galactosaminyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucuronosyl-proteoglycan
show the reaction diagram
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
CHSY1, CHSY2 and CHSY3 possess dual, glucuronyltransferase and galactosaminyltransferase enzymatic activities, while the CSGlcA-T acts only by transferring glucuronic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Mus musculus, Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
CSS1, CSS2, and CSS3 contain two glycosyltransferase domains, beta-3 domain at the N-terminal region and beta-4 domain at the C-terminal region and exhibit dual enzymatic activities of N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-II, GalNAcTII, and glucuronyltransferase-II, GlcAT-II. Chondroitin sulfate glucuronyltransferase, similarly containing two glycosyltransferase domains, shows only GlcAT-I activity, EC 2.4.1.135
-
-
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Co2+
Q8IZ52
17% and 31% as effective as Mn2+ for glucuronyltransferase and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities, respectively
Mg2+
A2V663
-
Mn2+
Q8IZ52
best metal ion, optimal concentration is 10 mM for both activities
Mn2+
-
activates
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
chondroitin synthase-1
A2V663
co-expressed with chondroitin synthase-1 CSS3 also exhibits polymerase activity
-
chondroitin-polymerizing factor
A2V663
co-expressed with ChPF (chondroitin-polymerizing factor) enzyme shows chondroitin polymerase activity
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.027
-
C11-oligosaccharide of chondroitin sulfate A
Q8IZ52
pH 6.2, 37C, CSS2
-
0.0653
-
chondroitin sulfate undecasaccharide
Q9P2E5
-
-
0.263
-
UDP-alpha-D-glucuronate
Q8IZ52
pH 6.2, 37C, CSS2
0.051
-
UDP-glucuronic acid
-
-
0.0824
-
UDP-glucuronic acid
Q9P2E5
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.00000004
-
Q8IZ52
glucuronyltransferase of recombinant wild-type enzyme secreted from COS-1 cells
0.0000006
-
-
recombinant CSS2B variant in COS-7 cells, pH 6.2, 37C
0.0000024
-
-
recombinant CSS2A variant in COS-7 cells, pH 6.2, 37C
0.00000314
-
Q8IZ52
glucuronyltransferase of recombinant mutant fusion protein consisting of enzyme and chondroitin polymerizing factor secreted from COS-1 cells
additional information
-
-
highest at the middle prenatal stage in the bovine and chicken sera, highest at the late prenatal stage in the rat serum
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
Q9P2E5
-
additional information
-
Q8IZ52
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.5
6
-
sodium acetate buffer
6.2
-
Q8IZ52
assay at
6.2
-
-
assay at
6.5
-
Q8IZ52
assay at
6.5
-
A2V663
assay at; assay at
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
37
-
Q9P2E5
enzyme assay
37
-
Q8IZ52
assay at
37
-
A2V663
assay at; assay at
37
-
-
assay at
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
fetal bovine serum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
by in situ hybridization and real time RT-PCR of developing cartilage, CSGal-NAcT-1 exhibits the highest level of expression among other glycosyltransferases involved in chondroitin sulphate synthesis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in heterozygote and homozygote aggrecan-null cartilage where aggrecan transcription is decreased, CSGal-NAcT-1 transcription diminishs accordingly
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8IZ52
CSS2, high level expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8IZ52
CSS2, high level expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8IZ52
CSS2, high level expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8IZ52
CSS2, high level expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8IZ52
CSS2, high level expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Q8IZ52
CSS2 is ubiquitously expressed
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
RT-PCR expression analysis of CHSY1, CHSY3 and CSGlcA-T from macroscopically normal and pathological specimens, overview. CHSY1 expression is increased by about 7fold in the adjacent normal tissue of the benign tumors compared to the tumor and healthy control tissues. In the tumor specimens, CHSY1 expression is high during the early stages. The CHSY3 gene is expressed equally and at very low levels in the macroscopically normal and tumor specimens. In benign tumors, CSGlcA-T is markedly elevated by about 40fold compared to the adjacent normal and healthy tissues, while in the cancer specimens it is decreased
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
CSGlcAT/ChSy-3 quantitative tissue expression analysis by realtime RT-PCR, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
both splice variants CSS2A and CSS2B
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
both splice variants CSS2A and CSS2B
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
both splice variants CSS2A and CSS2B
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
both splice variants CSS2A and CSS2B
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8IZ52
enzyme is a type II membrane protein
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
Q8IZ52
structure modeling of the C-terminus
additional information
-
homology modeling of the N-terminal domain of CSS2 variants, three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of CSS2 variants showing differences in the catalytic sites, overview
additional information
Mus musculus C57/BL6
-
homology modeling of the N-terminal domain of CSS2 variants, three-dimensional structure of the N-terminal domain of CSS2 variants showing differences in the catalytic sites, overview
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
partially
-
-
Q9P2E5
a soluble form of CSGlcA-T is generated by replacing the first 57 amino acids of the protein with a cleavable insulin signal sequence and a protein A IgG-binding domain. The soluble protein is expressed in COS-1 cells as a recombinant protein fused with the protein A IgG-binding domain. The fusion protein secreted into the medium is adsorbed onto IgG-Sepharose beads for purification to eliminate endogenous glycosyltransferases, and then the protein-bound beads are used as an enzyme source
A2V663
recombinant FLAG-tagged soluble catalytic domain from COS-7 cells
Q8IZ52
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, expression of putative catalytic domains of CSGlcAT-II and CSS2 in COS-7 cells as FLAG-tagged soluble proteins, which possesses glucuronyltransferase and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities as the wild-type enzyme
Q8IZ52
enzyme domain containing beta-3-glycosyltransferase motifs, expressed in COS-7 cells ATCCCRL 1651
Q9P2E5
expressed in COS-1 cells; expressed in COS-1 cells
A2V663
genetic organization, coexpression of enzyme and chondroitin polymerizing factor as fusion protein in COS-1 cells, secretion into the cell culture medium
Q8IZ52
CSGlcAT/ChSy-3 quantitative tissue expression analysis by realtime RT-PCR, overview
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individual overexpression of soluble forms of FLAG- and Myc-tagged splice variants CSS2A and CSS2B in COS-7 cells, co-expression with CSS1. Whereas CSS2A facilitates chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis, CSS2B inhibits it. Analysis of transcription levels of CSS2 variants
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RT-PCR expression analysis of CHSY1, CHSY3 and CSGlcA-T from macroscopically normal and pathological specimens, overview
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
D184A
A2V663
mutant protein which lacks any glycosyltransferase activity but interacts with other ChSy family members shows that the glycosyltransferase activity of CSGlcA-T plays an important role in chondroitin polymerization
additional information
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adenoviral gene delivery of the enzyme into intervertebral discs of 4-month -old ICR mice displays a substantial increase in the level of chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis; overexpression of the enzyme in chondrocytic cells further enhances chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis but not that of the aggrecan core protein, indicating that the enzyme activity is not saturated in the cells and that aggrecan synthesized in the overexpressing cells is heavier than the native molecule
additional information
A2V663
overexpression of CSGlcA-T increases the amount of chondroitin sulfate in HeLa cells, whereas the RNA interference of CSGlcA-T results in a reduction of the amount of chondroitin sulphate in the cells; overexpression of CSS3 increases the amount of chondroitin sulfate in HeLa cells, while the RNA interference of CSS3 results in a reduction in the amount of CS in the cells
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
medicine
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CSGalNAcT-1 plays a critical role in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis in cartilage
medicine
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CSGalNAcT-1 plays a critical role in chondroitin sulphate biosynthesis in cartilage