Information on EC 2.4.1.115 - anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Magnoliophyta

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
2.4.1.115
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
UDP-D-glucose + an anthocyanidin = UDP + an anthocyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
hexosyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Anthocyanin biosynthesis
-
anthocyanin biosynthesis (cyanidin 3-O-glucoside)
-
anthocyanin biosynthesis (delphinidin 3-O-glucoside)
-
anthocyanin biosynthesis (pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside)
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
Metabolic pathways
-
rose anthocyanin biosynthesis II (via cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside)
-
superpathway of anthocyanin biosynthesis (from cyanidin and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside)
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
UDP-D-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucosyltransferase
The anthocyanidin compounds cyanidin, delphinidin, peonidin and to a lesser extent pelargonidin can act as substrates. The enzyme does not catalyse glucosylation of the 5-position of cyanidin and does not act on flavanols such as quercetin and kaempferol (cf. EC 2.4.1.91 flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase). In conjunction with EC 1.14.11.19, leucocyanidin oxygenase, it is involved in the conversion of leucoanthocyanidin into anthocyanidin 3-glucoside. It may act on the pseudobase precursor of the anthocyanidin rather than on the anthocyanidin itself [3].
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
3-GT
Senecio hybridus
-
-
3GT
A6N928
-
anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Senecio hybridus
-
-
anthocyanidin 3GT
-
identity of UDP glucose-anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase and UDP glucose-flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase
anthocyanidin-3-O-glucosyltransferase
-
-
EC 2.4.1.233
Senecio hybridus
-
EC 2.4.1.233 has been found to be identical to EC 2.4.1.115
glucosyltransferase, uridine diphosphoglucose-anthocyanidin 3-O-
-
-
-
-
Ih3GT
Q5KTF3
-
L3GT
A6N928
-
MrUFGT
D6MPF1
-
pMdUFGT
C9K224
-
UDP glucose-anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
-
identity of UDP glucose-anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase and UDP glucose-flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase
UDP-glucose: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
E2IQH7
-
UDP-glucose: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Q5KTF3
-
UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase
C9K224
-
UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase
A6N928
-
UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucosyltransferase
Senecio hybridus
-
-
UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
-
-
UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin/flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
-
-
UDP-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
Senecio hybridus
-
-
UDP-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
-
-
UDP-glucose:cyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase
-
-
UDP-glucose:cyanidin-3-O-glucosyltransferase
-
-
-
-
UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase
D3Y5N8
-
UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase
D6MPF1
-
UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase
-
-
UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase
P51094
-
UF3GT
D3Y5N8
-
UFGT
P51094
-
UGT78K1
D3Y5N8
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
65607-32-1
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
cultivar Clark line
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Dutch Red Hybrid
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hort. cv. Blue Diamond
Q5KTF3
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars with non-red, pale red and red apple skin
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chinese bayberry, white cultivar Shuijing (SJ), red cultivar Dongkui (DK), dark red-purple cultivar Biqi (BQ)
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expression in Escherichia coli
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme has activity of both EC 2.4.1.115 and EC 2.4.1.116
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Senecio hybridus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tulip, var. Most Miles
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Concord
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
metabolism
C9K224
UDP-sugar biosynthetic pathway to cyanidin 3-galactoside biosynthesis, apple skin coloration with anthocyanin accumulation coincides with transcript levels for the enzyme
metabolism
D6MPF1
anthocyanin biosynthesis, fruit color
metabolism
E2IQH7
the enzyme has a role in anthocyanin glycoside biosynthesis in vitro
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
anthocyanidin + UDP-D-glucose
anthocyanidin 5-O-glucoside + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + 3,7-dihydroxyflavone
UDP + 3-[(beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-7-hydroxyflavone
show the reaction diagram
-
about 10% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
P51094, -
-
-
-
-
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
P51094, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
Q5KTF3
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
first step of a anthocyanin branch
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + ?
show the reaction diagram
Senecio hybridus
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + isorhamnetin
UDP + isorhamnetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
about 25% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + kaempferol
UDP + kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
67% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + pelargonidin
UDP + pelargonidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + pelargonidin
UDP + pelargonidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
Q5KTF3
-
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + pelargonidin
UDP + pelargonidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
37% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + pelargonidin
UDP + pelargonidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
72% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-D-glucose + anthocyanidin
UDP + anthocyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
C9K224
-
-
-
?
UDP-galpha-D-lucose + quercetin
UDP + quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
79% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-galpha-D-lucose + quercetin
UDP + quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
P51094, -
no glucosylation with UDP-galactose, UDP-xylose, UDP-glucuronic acid, UDP-mannose, ADP-glucose, CDP-glucose, GDP-glucose or TDP-glucose
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + anthocyanidin
UDP + anthocyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
A6N928, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
D3Y5N8, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
E2IQH7
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + delphinidin
UDP + delphinidin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
more slowly than cyanidin
-
?
UDP-glucose + delphinidin
UDP + delphinidin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
about 70% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + delphinidin
UDP + delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
P51094, -
-
-
-
-
UDP-glucose + delphinidin
UDP + delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
Q5KTF3
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + delphinidin
UDP + delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
first step of a anthocyanin branch, 95% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + delphinidin
UDP + delphinidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
P51094, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + delphinidin
UDP + delphinidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
A6N928, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + delphinidin
UDP + delphinidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
D3Y5N8, -
when acceptor substrates are supplied below the inhibitory concentration of cyaniding, the enzyme demonstrates highest activity towards the anthocyanidin delphinidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + dihydroquercetin
UDP + dihydroquercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
A6N928, -
worst substrate
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + fisetin
UDP + fisetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
16% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + isorhamnetin
UDP + isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
A6N928, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + isorhamnetin
UDP + isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
D3Y5N8, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + isorhamnetin
UDP + isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
56% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + kaempferol
UDP + kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
A6N928, -
worst substrate
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + kaempferol
UDP + kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
D3Y5N8, -
when acceptor substrates are supplied above the inhibitory concentration of cyanidin, the enzyme demonstrates highest activity for flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol)
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + malvidin
UDP + malvidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
P51094, -
-
-
-
-
UDP-glucose + malvidin
UDP + malvidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
10% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + malvidin
UDP + malvidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
P51094, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + malvidin
UDP + malvidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
D3Y5N8, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + malvidin
UDP + malvidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
10% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + malvidin
UDP + malvidin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
Q5KTF3
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + malvidin
UDP + quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
A6N928, -
best substrate
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + myricetin
UDP + myricetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
104% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + myricetin
UDP + myricetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
D3Y5N8, -
when acceptor substrates are supplied above the inhibitory concentration of cyanidin , the enzyme demonstrates highest activity for flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol)
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + pelargonidin
UDP + pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
more slowly than cyanidin
-
?
UDP-glucose + pelargonidin
UDP + pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
about 90% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + pelargonidin
UDP + pelargonidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
D3Y5N8, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + peonidin
UDP + peonidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
52% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + peonidin
UDP + peonidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
Q5KTF3
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + peonidin
UDP + peonidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
A6N928, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + peonidin
UDP + peonidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
D3Y5N8, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + peonidin
UDP + peonidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
42% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + petunidin
UDP + petunidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
D3Y5N8, -
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + quercetin
UDP + quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
D3Y5N8, -
when acceptor substrates are supplied above the inhibitory concentration of cyanidin , the enzyme demonstrates highest activity for flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol)
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + quercetin
UDP + quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
A6N928, -
while the recombinant enzyme preferentially glucosylates the 3 position of quercetin it is also able to glucosylate position 7 to a small extent in the early stages of the time course
-
-
?
UDPalpha-D-glucose + galangin
UDP + galangin 3-O-bbeta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
about 15% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDPglucose + anthocyanidin
UDP + anthocyanidin-3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in anthocyanine biosynthesis
-
-
?
UDPglucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
?
UDPglucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + fisetin
UDP + fisetin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
about 10% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDPglucose + kaempferol
UDP + kaempferol 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
about 5% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDPglucose + malvidin
UDP + malvidin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDPglucose + malvidin
UDP + malvidin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
about 20% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDPglucose + myricetin
UDP + 3-O-glucoside myricetin
show the reaction diagram
-
about 15% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDPglucose + peonidin
UDP + peonidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
about 85% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDPglucose + petunidin
UDP + petunidin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
about 35% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
UDPglucose + quercetin
UDP + quercetin 3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
about 15% of the activity with cyanidin
-
-
?
anthocyanidin 5-O-glucoside + UDP-D-glucose
anthocyanidin-3,5-O-diglucoside + UDP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
P51094, -
the principal, if not only, role of UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase is to glucosylate anthocyanidins in red fruit ripening
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
identity of UDP glucose-anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase and UDP glucose-flavonol 3-O-glucosyltransferase. The enzyme from wild-type or mutant plants glucosylates flavonols at higher rates than anthocyanidins
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with kaempferol and quercetin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no aglycosylation of apigenin, luteolin, naringenin and dihydroquercetin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no glycosylation of cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-sophoroside, cyanidin 3,4-diglucoside, apigenin, luteolin, naringenin and dihydroquercetin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P51094, -
the enzyme is responsible for a late step in anthocyanin biosynthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no substrate: anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with: 3-hydroxyflavone, morin, catechin, epicatechin, naringenin, taxifolin, 5-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, apigenin, quercetin, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside, and anthocyanins. FaGT1 acts exclusively on anthocyanidins and flavonols in vitro. No product is formed when UDP-Gal and UDP-GlcUA are used as sugar donors with pelargonidin or quercetin as acceptor molecules
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
D3Y5N8, -
no activity is observed for dihydroflavonol (dihydroquercetin), isoflavone (genistin, genistein and daidzein), (epi)-flavan-3-O-beta-Dl (catechin, epicatechin), 3-deoxyanthocyanidin (apigeninidin), flavonol conjugate (flavonol 3-O-beta-D-glucosides) and anthocyanins (anthocyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucosides and cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-galactoside). Galactose can be transferred from UDP-galactose to the 3-position of cyanidin and delphinidin with low specificity relative to the analogous glucosyltransferase reactions
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A6N928, -
the enzyme is not able to further glucosylate cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside and it could not use UDP-galactose as a donor substrate
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + cyanidin
UDP + cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
first step of a anthocyanin branch
-
-
?
UDP-D-glucose + anthocyanidin
UDP + anthocyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
C9K224
-
-
-
?
UDP-glucose + delphinidin
UDP + delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
first step of a anthocyanin branch
-
-
?
UDPglucose + anthocyanidin
UDP + anthocyanidin-3-O-glucoside
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in anthocyanine biosynthesis
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
P51094, -
the principal, if not only, role of UDP-glucose:flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase is to glucosylate anthocyanidins in red fruit ripening
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
Senecio hybridus
-
no cofactors required
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
CaCl2
-
2 mM, 18% inhibition
Cu2+
P51094, -
0.01 mM, over 80% reduction in quercetin glucosylation activity
cyanidin
-
above 0.25 mM
cyanidin
-
above 0.25 mM, strong
cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside
-
5 mM, product inhibition
HgCl2
-
0.1 mM, 85% inhibition
NEM
-
1.25 mM, 30% inhibition
PCMB
-
1.25 mM, 93% inhhibition, 2-mercaptoethanol or cysteine restores activity
UDP-glucose
-
-
Zn2+
P51094, -
-
ZnCl2
-
2 mM, 22% inhibition
Mn2+
P51094, -
-
additional information
-
most of the activity is lost after ultrafiltration or (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, but it is restored or even enhanced by the addition of the ultrafiltrate or ascorbic acid to the assay. Other reducing agents are not able to replace ascorbic acid
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
-
detergent required for maximal activity
2-Methoxyethanol
-
activation
Cetrimide
-
activation
cysteine
-
detergent required for maximal activity
MrMYB1 transcription factor
D6MPF1
strong correlation with anthocyanin content in ripe fruit, which is positively correlated with expression of the enzyme
-
Triton X-100
-
activation
Tween 20
-
detergent required for maximal activity
Tween 80
-
detergent required for maximal activity
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00479
-
cyanidin
A6N928, -
in 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, at 30C
0.018
-
cyanidin
-
pH 8.0. 30C
0.03
-
cyanidin
P51094, -
-
0.07
-
cyanidin
-
-
0.33
-
cyanidin
Senecio hybridus
-
-
0.33
-
cyanidin
-
-
0.4
-
cyanidin
-
pH 6.5, 30C
0.016
-
delphinidin
P51094, -
-
0.028
-
delphinidin
-
pH 8.0. 30C
0.13
-
delphinidin
-
-
0.174
-
kaempferol
D3Y5N8, -
recombinant enzyme, at pH 8.0 and 30C
0.0357
-
malvidin
P51094, -
-
0.13
-
pelargonidin
-
-
0.00216
-
quercetin
A6N928, -
in 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, at 30C
0.015
-
quercetin
P51094, -
-
0.2
-
UDP-glucose
Senecio hybridus
-
-
0.5
-
UDP-glucose
-
-
0.51
-
UDP-glucose
-
pH 6.5, 30C
0.914
-
UDP-glucose
A6N928, -
in 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, at 30C
1.2
-
UDP-glucose
-
pH 8.0. 30C
1.9
-
UDP-glucose
P51094, -
-
0.41
-
UDPglucose
-
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.000704
-
cyanidin
A6N928, -
in 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, at 30C
1.25
-
kaempferol
D3Y5N8, -
recombinant enzyme, at pH 8.0 and 30C
0.000113
-
quercetin
A6N928, -
in 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, at 30C
0.000247
-
UDP-glucose
A6N928, -
in 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, at 30C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.146
-
cyanidin
A6N928, -
in 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, at 30C
8851
0.052
-
quercetin
A6N928, -
in 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, at 30C
16073
0.00027
-
UDP-glucose
A6N928, -
in 100 mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, at 30C
17641
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.035
-
cyanidin
-
-
1
-
UDP-glucose
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0252
-
-
-
11.22
-
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7.5
-
-
-
7.5
-
Senecio hybridus
-
-
8
-
P51094, -
-
8
-
-
reaction with cyanidin and UDP-glucose
8
-
D3Y5N8, -
the recombinant enzyme exhibits a slight buffer preference for HEPES over Tris buffer at pH 8.0
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
8.8
-
pH 6.0: about 44% of maximal activity, pH 8.8: about 60% of maximal activity, reaction with cyanidin and UDP-glucose
6.6
8
-
50% of maximal activity at pH 6.6 and pH 8.0
6.6
9.4
-
pH 6.6: about 40% of maximal activity, pH 9.4: about 50% of maximal activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
30
-
D3Y5N8, -
-
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4.9
-
-
isoelectric focusing, pH 4.0-6.5
4.9
-
-
chromatofocusing
5.54
-
Q5KTF3
calculated from sequence
5.6
-
-
calculated from amino acid sequence
6
-
E2IQH7
calculated from amino acid sequence
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
A6N928, -
pre-veraison exocarp
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Senecio hybridus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
transcripts of FaGT1 are almost undetectable in green fruits. Gene expression increases dramatically in both turning and ripe red fruit, corresponding closely to the accumulation of anthocyanins during fruit ripening. The expression of FaGT1 is fruit associated and negatively regulated by auxin
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D6MPF1
highly expressed only in ripe fruit tissue
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
young rosette leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D3Y5N8, -
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
highest activity in petals of opening flowers of young plants
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
E2IQH7
expression is higher in all of the pigmented petals than in stems and leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D3Y5N8, -
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D3Y5N8, -
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
D3Y5N8, -
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
D6MPF1
barely expressed in root and leaf, not in stem
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
-
no activity in the vacuole
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
26000
-
-
gel filtration
49560
-
Q5KTF3
calculated from sequence
52000
-
Senecio hybridus
-
gel filtration
52000
-
-
gel filtration
56000
-
-
gel filtration
78000
-
-
gel filtration
125000
-
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Q5KTF3
x * 50000, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 49900, calculated from amino acid sequence
?
D3Y5N8, -
x * 49240, calculated from amino acid sequence; x * 49800, SDS-PAGE
?
A6N928, -
x * 50100, calculated from amino acid sequence
?
E2IQH7
x * 48043, calculated from amino acid sequence
dimer
-
2 * 60000, can exist as monomer or dimer, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 60000, can exist as monomer or dimer, SDS-PAGE
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
repeated freeze-thawing inactivates
-
at least three freeze-thaw cycles can be tolerated without apparent loss of activity
P51094, -
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
4C or -20C, 50% glycerol solution, 24 h, no significant loss of activity
D3Y5N8, -
-17C, about 40% loss of activity within 3 months
-
4C, about 40% loss of activity within 1 week
-
-20C, recombinant enzyme is stable for at least 120 h
P51094, -
-80C, recombinant enzyme is stable for many months
P51094, -
4C, recombinant enzyme is stable for at least 120 h
P51094, -
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
recombinant
-
Ni Sepharose column chromatography
E2IQH7
Talon metal affinity column chromatography, gel filtration
D3Y5N8, -
-
Senecio hybridus
-
partial
-
glutathione Sepharose column chromatography
A6N928, -
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
the full-length open reading frame of FaGT1 is cloned into the expression vector pET-29a(1) for heterologous protein expression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) cells and in Petunia grandiflora by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation
E2IQH7
expressed in the Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutant (ugt78d2) deficient in anthocyanidin and flavonol 3-O-beta-D-glucosyltransferase activity and in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) pLysS cells
D3Y5N8, -
expression in Escherichia coli
Q5KTF3
MrMYB1 transcription factor
D6MPF1
expressed in Escherichia coli DE3 pLysS cells
A6N928, -
optimized expression in Escherichia coli
P51094, -
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
transcript level in the unpigmented buds is low, but increases during the pigment-accumulation stages and peaks in fully opened petals. Enzyme expression level is identical in red and pink petals and is lower in yellow petals, and rarely detectable in white petals
E2IQH7
17C + UV-B radiation, 17C without UV-B radiation, 27C + UV-B radiation, 27C without UV-B radiation
C9K224
fruit bagging inhibits anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and expression of transcription factor MrMYB1, and subsequently anthocyanin accumulation, less colored cultivars contain a nonsense mutation in transcription factor MYB1
D6MPF1
the more anthocyanin, the more strongly the enzyme is expressed, only expression in ripe fruit tissues, overexpression of transcription factor MrMYB1 stimulates anthocyanin accumulation
D6MPF1
highest transcript level is found at 4.0 mg/l gibberelic acid treatment
-
gene expression is highest 12 weeks after flowering in the exocarp
A6N928, -
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
synthesis
-
expression of enzyme in Escherichia coli, together with dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, anthocyanidin synthase, flavanone 3beta-hydroxylase. production of pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside or cyanidin 3-O-glucoside from naringenin or eriodyctol, resp., via this recombinant plant pathway. Yields of 0.0056 mg/l pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside, or of 0.006 mg/l cyanidin 3-O-glucoside