Information on EC 2.3.1.7 - carnitine O-acetyltransferase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Opisthokonta

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.3.1.7
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
carnitine O-acetyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
acetyl-CoA + carnitine = CoA + O-acetylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Acyl group transfer
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
acetyl-CoA:carnitine O-acetyltransferase
Also acts on propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (cf. EC 2.3.1.21 carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase and EC 2.3.1.137 carnitine O-octanoyltransferase).
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9029-90-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
A60 MZKIBK (NRLL 2270)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
arabian camel
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
guinea pig
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus BALB/c
BALB/c
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus S3T3(ATCC CCL-92)
S3T3(ATCC CCL-92)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus Sv/129
Sv/129 mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Sprague-Dawley
Sprague-Dawley
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis bovina
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3-keto-4-pentenoyl-CoA + L-(-)carnitine
3-keto-4-pentenoylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetoacetyl-CoA + L-(-)carnitine
O-acetoacetyl(-)carnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
acetyl-CoA + (-)-norcarnitine
acetylnorcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-hydroxy-gamma-dimethylaminobutyrate
-
-
r
acetyl-CoA + (trishydroxymethyl)glycine
acetyl(trishydroxymethyl)glycine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + carnitine
CoA + acetylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
acetyl-CoA + carnitine
CoA + O-acetylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + carnitine
O-acetylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + choline
acetylcholine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity with wild-type enzyme. Mutant enzymes T465V/T467N/R518N and A106M/T465V/T467N/R518N show improved catalytic efficiency toward choline (Kcat/Km) compared with that of the wild type enzyme
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + choline
acetylcholine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + DL-beta-hydroxy-gamma-aminobutyrate
beta-hydroxybutyrate + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
non-methylated derivative of carnitine
-
-
r
acetyl-CoA + DL-norcarnitine
acetylnorcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
beta-hydroxy-gamma-dimethylaminobutyrate
-
-
r
acetyl-CoA + L-(-)carnitine
O-acetylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + tris(hydroxymethyl)aminoethansulfonic acid
acetyl-tris(hydroxymethyl)aminoethansulfonic acid + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acetyl-CoA + tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
acetyl-tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
acyl-CoA + carnitine
acylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
acylcarnitine + CoASH
acyl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
bromoacetyl-CoA + L-(-)carnitine
bromoacetylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
butyryl-CoA + carnitine
CoA + O-butyrylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
decanoyl-CoA + carnitine
CoA + O-decanoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
decanoyl-CoA + carnitine
decanoylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
decanoylcarnitine + CoASH
decanoyl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
hexanoyl-CoA + carnitine
CoA + O-hexanoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
hexanoyl-CoA + carnitine
hexanoylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
hexanoylcarnitine + CoASH
hexanoyl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
isobutyryl-CoA + carnitine
isobutyrylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
isobutyrylcarnitine + CoASH
isobutyryl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
isovaleryl-CoA + carnitine
isovalerylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
isovalerylcarnitine + CoASH
isovaleryl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malonyl-CoA + L-(-)carnitine
malonylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
malonylcarnitine + CoASH
malonyl-CoA + L-(-)carnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
slight transfer of the acyl group to carnitine
-
-
r
n-butyryl-CoA + carnitine
n-butyrylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
n-butyrylcarnitine + CoASH
n-butyryl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
n-valeryl-CoA + carnitine
n-valerylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
n-valerylcarnitine + CoASH
n-valeryl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
O-acetoacetyl(-)carnitine + CoASH
acetoacetyl-CoA + L-(-)carnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
O-acetylcarnitine + CoASH
acetyl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
O-acetylcarnitine + CoASH
acetyl-CoA + L-(-)carnitine
show the reaction diagram
octanoyl-CoA + carnitine
CoA + O-octanoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
octanoyl-CoA + carnitine
octanoylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
octanoylcarnitine + CoASH
octanoyl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + carnitine
CoA + O-palmitoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
-
wild-type enzyme shows no activity, mutant enzymes M564G and D356A/M564G show activity
-
-
?
propionyl-CoA + L-(-)carnitine
propionylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
propionylcarnitine + CoASH
propionyl-CoA + L-(-)carnitine
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acetyl-CoA + carnitine
CoA + O-acetylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
acetyl-CoA + carnitine
O-acetylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
acyl-CoA + carnitine
acylcarnitine + CoASH
show the reaction diagram
acylcarnitine + CoASH
acyl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
O-acetylcarnitine + CoASH
acetyl-CoA + carnitine
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(+)-acetylcarnitine
-
competitive inhibition
(+)-carnitine
-
-
(-)-acetylcarnitine
-
noncompetitive inhibition
(2R,6S:2S,6R)-6-carboxymethyl-2-hydroxy-2,4,4-trimethylmorpholinium chloride
2-bromoacetylcarnitine
3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)-propionate
-
mildronate, competitive (binding to the carnitine binding site)
3-acetoxy-5,5-dimethylhexanoic acid
-
-
3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethylhexanoic acid
-
-
3-keto-4-pentenoyl-CoA
-
inhibitor only in presence of L-carnitine
4-hydroxynonenal
-
-
5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
acetyl-CoA
-
-
acetyl-D-carnitine
-
-
acetyl-L-(-)-carnitine
-
-
acetylcarnitine
Acetylcholine
-
competitively inhibits formation of acetylcarnitine
Bromoacetyl-CoA
-
-
bromoacetylcarnitine
carnitine nitrile
-
-
choline
CoASH
-
-
D-carnitine
deoxycarnitine
-
competitive inhibition
DL-acetyl-beta-methylcholine
-
-
DL-acetylcarnitine
-
competitive inhibition
DL-carnitine
gamma-aminobutyrate
-
-
iodoacetamide
iodoacetic acid
-
-
L-(-)-carnitine
-
-
malondialdehyde
-
-
malonyl-CoA
-
-
Methoxycarbonyl-CoA disulfide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
p-chloromercuribenzoic acid
-
-
p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonic acid
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
palmitoyl-CoA
Prostigmine
-
-
R-(+)-3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethylhexanoic acid
-
-
S-(-)-3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethylhexanoic acid
-
-
tensilon
-
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Clofibrate
diethylhexylphthalate
-
enzyme is induced by
humic acid
-
-
streptozotocin
-
increases enzyme in liver
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.6
(-)-norcarnitine
-
-
0.31
(-)carnitine
-
-
50
(trishydroxymethyl)glycine
-
-
0.012 - 0.498
acetyl-CoA
0.307
acetyl-DL-carnitine
-
-
0.3 - 0.36
acetyl-L-(-)-carnitine
0.019 - 0.639
acetylcarnitine
0.015 - 0.044
Butyryl-CoA
0.48 - 0.66
butyrylcarnitine
0.086 - 300
carnitine
1.1 - 86.4
choline
0.009 - 2
CoASH
0.0287 - 0.064
decanoyl-CoA
0.64 - 0.66
decanoylcarnitine
40
DL-beta-hydroxy-gamma-aminobutyrate
-
-
0.72 - 3.3
DL-carnitine
3.2
DL-norcarnitine
-
-
0.02 - 0.112
Hexanoyl-CoA
2.28 - 2.51
hexanoylcarnitine
0.049
isobutyryl-CoA
-
-
0.039 - 0.244
L-(-)-carnitine
0.11 - 35.9
L-carnitine
0.041
n-Butyryl-CoA
-
-
0.071
n-valeryl-CoA
-
-
0.011 - 0.0503
Octanoyl-CoA
1.27 - 1.62
octanoylcarnitine
0.0072
palmitoyl-CoA
-
mutant enzyme D356A/M564G
0.014 - 0.185
propionyl-CoA
0.65
propionylcarnitine
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
Km acetylcarnitine 1.25 mg/ml
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.24 - 97.6
acetyl-CoA
0.98 - 86.9
carnitine
1.58 - 3.11
choline
1.42 - 104.7
Hexanoyl-CoA
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.25
(+)-acetylcarnitine
-
-
2.1
(+)carnitine
-
-
0.89 - 4.72
(2R,6S:2S,6R)-6-carboxymethyl-2-hydroxy-2,4,4-trimethylmorpholinium chloride
1.6
3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)-propionate
-
0.0625 mM carnitine
4.1
3-acetoxy-5,5-dimethylhexanoic acid
-
reverse direction
8.3
3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethylhexanoic acid
-
-
0.047 - 0.052
acetyl-CoA
0.81 - 0.98
acetyl-L-(-)-carnitine
920
acetylcarnitine
-
substrate DL-carnitine
2.6
Ca2+
-
-
27
choline
-
-
0.015 - 0.021
CoASH
0.0046
Cu2+
-
-
1 - 1.1
D-carnitine
2.3
deoxycarnitine
-
-
1.2
deoxynorcarnitine
-
-
71
DL-acetyl-beta-methylcholine
-
-
0.39
DL-acetylcarnitine
-
-
0.2 - 0.62
DL-carnitine
44
gamma-aminobutyrate
-
-
0.25 - 0.31
L-(-)-carnitine
1.5
Mg2+
-
-
0.016
palmitoyl-CoA
-
-
8 - 18.6
palmityl-CoA
12
Prostigmine
-
-
20.3
R-(+)-3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethylhexanoic acid
-
-
7.5
S-(-)-3-hydroxy-5,5-dimethylhexanoic acid
-
-
15
tensilon
-
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.44
3-(2,2,2-trimethylhydrazinium)-propionate
Columba livia
-
0.0625 mM carnitine
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.002
-
carbon source glucose, peroxisomal enzyme
0.005
-
liver
0.04
-
carbon source serum, peroxisomal enzyme
0.06
-
carbon source glucose, mitochondrial enzyme
0.25
-
skeletal muscle
0.27
-
carbon source serum, mitochondrial enzyme
4.5
-
carbon source triolein, mitochondrial enzyme
8.8
-
carbon source triolein, peroxisomal enzyme
71
-
source heart
78.75
-
-
80
-
cytoplasmic CAT
88
-
peroxisomal CAT
88.5
-
peroxisomal enzyme
120
-
purified from postmitochondrial fraction
220
-
purified from liver homogenate
240
-
purified from mitochondrial fraction
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
7.5 - 7.8
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
4 - 9
-
-
4.5 - 8.5
-
-
5.5 - 10
-
-
6 - 9
-
activity declines rapidly on either side of the optimum pH
6 - 10
-
-
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
strong activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
fetal rat cerebrocortical neuron culture, strong enzyme activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
carnitine acetyltransferase is highly active in neuronal tissues and in neuronal cell cultures relative to choline acetyl transferase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team