Information on EC 2.3.1.21 - carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase

Word Map on EC 2.3.1.21
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The enzyme appears in viruses and cellular organisms

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.3.1.21
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine = CoA + L-palmitoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Acyl group transfer
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
mitochondrial L-carnitine shuttle
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carnitine metabolism
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Fatty acid degradation
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
palmitoyl-CoA:L-carnitine O-palmitoyltransferase
Broad specificity to acyl group, over the range C8 to C18; optimal activity with palmitoyl-CoA. cf. EC 2.3.1.7 carnitine O-acetyltransferase and EC 2.3.1.137 carnitine O-octanoyltransferase.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9068-41-1
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
dogfish
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
C57BL/6J mice
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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1041379 A+, 1098587 A+, 1098613 A+, 1098635 A+, 1098641 A+, 1098647 A+, 1157980 A+, 1294292 A+, 1332690 A+, 1333375 A+, 1333710 A+, 1333881 A+, 1334176 A+, 1336520 A+, 1347358 A+, 1419546 A+, 1419553 A+, 1427482 A+, 1427711 A+, 1427968 A+, 1427998 A+, 1428067 A+, 1433003 A+, 1574038 A+, 1640360 A+, 1672487 A+, 1699214 A+, 1699510 A+, 1732275 A+, 1732356 A+, 1734473 A+, 1756795 A+, 1758827 A+, 1805410 A+, 1805449 A+, 1805983 A+, 1806926 A+, 1825297 A+, 1884139 A+, 1884212 A+, 1884290 A+, 1884327 A+, 1884337 A+, 1884347 A+, 1884373 A+, 1884374 A+, 1884383 A+, 1884393 A+, 1884408 A+, 1884429 A+, 1884441 A+, 1884453 A+, 1884464 A+, 1884471 A+, 1884490 A+, 1884493 A+, 1884496 A+, 1884498 A+, 2104415 A+, 2157956 A+, 2294982 A+, 2294998 A+, 2295003 A+, 2295020 A+, 2297200 A+, 2391763 A+, 2405182 A+, 2468960 A+, 2470177 A+, 2497398 A+, 2555321 A+, 2645845 A+, 2668349 A+, 2722239 A+, 2788589 A+, 2863908 A+, 2909927 A+, 2909967 A+, 2909990 A+, 2910015 A+, 2910034 A+, 2910037 A+, 2910042 A+, 2910054 A+, 2910062 A+, 2910094 A+, 672147 A+, 675626 A+, 691684 A+, 691996 A+, 834432 A+, 984608 A+, 1003546 A++, 1098442 A++, 1098496 A++, 1098555 A++, 1098577 A++, 1201837 A++, 1336515 A++, 1495156 A++, 1690920 A++, 1732381 A++, 1776919 A++, 1884224 A++, 1884303 A++, 2294886 A++, 2294903 A++, 2294908 A++, 2294922 A++, 2294936 A++, 2294974 A++, 2294983 A++, 2295017 A++, 2468956 A++, 2470175 A++, 2497678 A++, 2552336 A++, 2552405 A++, 2909865 A++, 2909912 A++, 2909921 A++, 2909953 A++, 2909954 A++, 2909986 A++, 2909988 A++, 2910056 A++, 2910068 A++, 674851 A++, 684893 A++, 1098473 A++, 1098565 A++, 1098634 A++, 1098642 A++, 1333879 A++, 1365572 A++, 1366316 A++, 1366377 A++, 1433756 A++, 1482178 A++, 1688083 A++, 1699492 A++, 1724828 A++, 1732221 A++, 1884178 A++, 1884258 A++, 1884269 A++, 1884331 A++, 2294898 A++, 2294934 A++, 2294960 A++, 2294991 A++, 2737502 A++, 2768995 A++, 2790379 A++, 2909970 A++, 671213 A++, 673451 A++, 676866 A++, 684339 A++, 705248 A++, 1020524 A+++, 1098595 A+++, 1098619 A+++, 1098637 A+++, 1098481 A++++
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
no activity in Pichia pastoris
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
prawn
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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1098423 A+, 1098427 A+, 1098580 A+, 1098585 A+, 1098588 A+, 1098614 A+, 1098627 A+, 1098638 A+, 1102016 A+, 1102548 A+, 1144404 A+, 1201690 A+, 1201718 A+, 1201873 A+, 1286942 A+, 1332885 A+, 1333492 A+, 1333669 A+, 1366289 A+, 1427490 A+, 1427728 A+, 1427736 A+, 1427768 A+, 1427835 A+, 1427845 A+, 1427852 A+, 1427863 A+, 1427897 A+, 1427910 A+, 1427987 A+, 1428030 A+, 1428116 A+, 1428151 A+, 1433840 A+, 1434093 A+, 1456910 A+, 1558185 A+, 1563020 A+, 1572975 A+, 1573676 A+, 1655219 A+, 1676754 A+, 1696930 A+, 1699214 A+, 1704653 A+, 1732219 A+, 1732268 A+, 1732303 A+, 1732354 A+, 1733683 A+, 1734442 A+, 1757201 A+, 1770443 A+, 1829018 A+, 1844600 A+, 1858951 A+, 1870992 A+, 1874875 A+, 1883686 A+, 1883748 A+, 1884041 A+, 1884140 A+, 1884141 A+, 1884145 A+, 1884175 A+, 1884179 A+, 1884186 A+, 1884209 A+, 1884226 A+, 1884252 A+, 1884253 A+, 1884271 A+, 1884275 A+, 1884302 A+, 1884319 A+, 1884326 A+, 1884333 A+, 1884334 A+, 1884343 A+, 1884381 A+, 1884397 A+, 1884406 A+, 1884435 A+, 1884451 A+, 1884468 A+, 1884470 A+, 1884489 A+, 1884494 A+, 2158763 A+, 2294992 A+, 2295000 A+, 2295008 A+, 2295024 A+, 2371005 A+, 2407044 A+, 2408581 A+, 2459809 A+, 2552383 A+, 2743665 A+, 2750473 A+, 2762098 A+, 2779638 A+, 2781926 A+, 2790423 A+, 2909851 A+, 2909869 A+, 2909885 A+, 2909890 A+, 2909915 A+, 2909944 A+, 2909952 A+, 2909957 A+, 2909962 A+, 2909976 A+, 2909982 A+, 2909989 A+, 2909992 A+, 2909996 A+, 2910035 A+, 2910069 A+, 2910089 A+, 2910090 A+, 2910095 A+, 646151 A+, 660676 A+, 672147 A+, 687793 A+, 691132 A+, 702130 A+, 782814 A+, 94478 A+, 955385 A+, 977230 A+, 977363 A+, 1009246 A++, 1020437 A++, 1020508 A++, 1050982 A++, 1097965 A++, 1097973 A++, 1097976 A++, 1098366 A++, 1098367 A++, 1098377 A++, 1098383 A++, 1098385 A++, 1098396 A++, 1098411 A++, 1098413 A++, 1098416 A++, 1098418 A++, 1098424 A++, 1098431 A++, 1098432 A++, 1098435 A++, 1098447 A++, 1098448 A++, 1098451 A++, 1098453 A++, 1098459 A++, 1098461 A++, 1098462 A++, 1098471 A++, 1098476 A++, 1098477 A++, 1098478 A++, 1098496 A++, 1098497 A++, 1098499 A++, 1098500 A++, 1098503 A++, 1098504 A++, 1098506 A++, 1098510 A++, 1098511 A++, 1098518 A++, 1098522 A++, 1098525 A++, 1098528 A++, 1098529 A++, 1098535 A++, 1098539 A++, 1098541 A++, 1098545 A++, 1098546 A++, 1098549 A++, 1098551 A++, 1098554 A++, 1098561 A++, 1098565 A++, 1098567 A++, 1098573 A++, 1098581 A++, 1098582 A++, 1098592 A++, 1098593 A++, 1098611 A++, 1102785 A++, 1336503 A++, 1427207 A++, 1427373 A++, 1427400 A++, 1427452 A++, 1427483 A++, 1433418 A++, 1433908 A++, 1497274 A++, 1498935 A++, 1669509 A++, 1688083 A++, 1720344 A++, 1732102 A++, 1732172 A++, 1732239 A++, 1734417 A++, 1735877 A++, 1770649 A++, 1806666 A++, 1874874 A++, 1883612 A++, 1883672 A++, 1884121 A++, 1884122 A++, 1884125 A++, 1884132 A++, 1884137 A++, 1884143 A++, 1884146 A++, 1884156 A++, 1884162 A++, 1884163 A++, 1884164 A++, 1884170 A++, 1884180 A++, 1884182 A++, 1884187 A++, 1884189 A++, 1884195 A++, 1884196 A++, 1884201 A++, 1884205 A++, 1884206 A++, 1884215 A++, 1884218 A++, 1884231 A++, 1884233 A++, 1884237 A++, 1884241 A++, 1884245 A++, 1884255 A++, 1884280 A++, 1884288 A++, 1884296 A++, 1884298 A++, 1884308 A++, 1884365 A++, 1884439 A++, 1884446 A++, 2155856 A++, 2232293 A++, 2241829 A++, 2294776 A++, 2294782 A++, 2294784 A++, 2294788 A++, 2294791 A++, 2294795 A++, 2294797 A++, 2294800 A++, 2294801 A++, 2294802 A++, 2294803 A++, 2294804 A++, 2294808 A++, 2294809 A++, 2294810 A++, 2294811 A++, 2294812 A++, 2294815 A++, 2294817 A++, 2294818 A++, 2294820 A++, 2294821 A++, 2294826 A++, 2294828 A++, 2294831 A++, 2294833 A++, 2294836 A++, 2294838 A++, 2294840 A++, 2294841 A++, 2294842 A++, 2294846 A++, 2294848 A++, 2294849 A++, 2294853 A++, 2294858 A++, 2294873 A++, 2294874 A++, 2294876 A++, 2294878 A++, 2294880 A++, 2294885 A++, 2294887 A++, 2294888 A++, 2294896 A++, 2294901 A++, 2294908 A++, 2294916 A++, 2294922 A++, 2294924 A++, 2294940 A++, 2294941 A++, 2294961 A++, 2294970 A++, 2294988 A++, 2295015 A++, 2497337 A++, 2497547 A++, 2497553 A++, 2552322 A++, 2750501 A++, 2788524 A++, 2790379 A++, 2838578 A++, 2909530 A++, 2909848 A++, 2909853 A++, 2909859 A++, 2909872 A++, 2909895 A++, 2909916 A++, 2909935 A++, 2910023 A++, 486297 A++, 486535 A++, 486536 A++, 486544 A++, 486550 A++, 486552 A++, 486556 A++, 486566 A++, 486567 A++, 486586 A++, 486589 A++, 486590 A++, 486591 A++, 487414 A++, 645976 A++, 646155 A++, 657815 A++, 657826 A++, 658034 A++, 659245 A++, 659393 A++, 671235 A++, 675740 A++, 684341 A++, 686180 A++, 703293 A++, 703383 A++, 703641 A++, 704107 A++, 836188 A++, 996418 A++, 1029498 A++, 1097962 A++, 1097969 A++, 1097970 A++, 1098379 A++, 1098394 A++, 1098494 A++, 1098517 A++, 1098532 A++, 1098555 A++, 1098570 A++, 1332539 A++, 1360946 A++, 1365781 A++, 1365844 A++, 1366175 A++, 1366203 A++, 1366249 A++, 1375426 A++, 1391796 A++, 1427173 A++, 1427181 A++, 1427206 A++, 1427282 A++, 1427305 A++, 1427308 A++, 1427356 A++, 1427421 A++, 1427540 A++, 1427548 A++, 1429577 A++, 1434038 A++, 1572990 A++, 1699272 A++, 1699790 A++, 1726717 A++, 1727236 A++, 1731641 A++, 1732103 A++, 1732121 A++, 1732196 A++, 1733115 A++, 1734439 A++, 1734467 A++, 1883124 A++, 1883661 A++, 1884124 A++, 1884127 A++, 1884133 A++, 1884142 A++, 1884148 A++, 1884153 A++, 1884155 A++, 1884157 A++, 1884161 A++, 1884165 A++, 1884167 A++, 1884171 A++, 1884191 A++, 1884192 A++, 1884193 A++, 1884197 A++, 1884200 A++, 1884202 A++, 1884204 A++, 1884208 A++, 1884211 A++, 1884216 A++, 1884217 A++, 1884220 A++, 1884221 A++, 1884222 A++, 1884223 A++, 1884224 A++, 1884228 A++, 1884234 A++, 1884238 A++, 1884239 A++, 1884248 A++, 1884260 A++, 1884261 A++, 1884262 A++, 1884263 A++, 1884268 A++, 1884272 A++, 1884278 A++, 1884320 A++, 1884344 A++, 1884352 A++, 1884448 A++, 2138561 A++, 2156305 A++, 2156324 A++, 2156353 A++, 2231455 A++, 2294560 A++, 2294561 A++, 2294777 A++, 2294783 A++, 2294789 A++, 2294790 A++, 2294796 A++, 2294799 A++, 2294805 A++, 2294806 A++, 2294814 A++, 2294816 A++, 2294822 A++, 2294823 A++, 2294824 A++, 2294829 A++, 2294830 A++, 2294834 A++, 2294835 A++, 2294856 A++, 2294862 A++, 2294866 A++, 2294879 A++, 2294890 A++, 2294894 A++, 2294895 A++, 2294902 A++, 2294910 A++, 2294914 A++, 2294925 A++, 2294933 A++, 2294939 A++, 2294949 A++, 2294969 A++, 2294971 A++, 2294983 A++, 2311788 A++, 2370592 A++, 2375816 A++, 2391277 A++, 2468749 A++, 2469218 A++, 2470160 A++, 2470175 A++, 2470176 A++, 2497302 A++, 2552276 A++, 2552304 A++, 2552309 A++, 2552321 A++, 2552336 A++, 2552341 A++, 2552342 A++, 2552948 A++, 2557412 A++, 2673649 A++, 2750497 A++, 2751488 A++, 2762084 A++, 2762201 A++, 2762206 A++, 2788261 A++, 2788265 A++, 2790440 A++, 2790461 A++, 2815636 A++, 2868629 A++, 2889354 A++, 2889359 A++, 2891106 A++, 2909520 A++, 2909521 A++, 2909523 A++, 2909556 A++, 2909845 A++, 2909846 A++, 2909850 A++, 2909854 A++, 2909857 A++, 2909860 A++, 2909863 A++, 2909864 A++, 2909866 A++, 2909874 A++, 2909875 A++, 2909879 A++, 2909883 A++, 2909887 A++, 2909892 A++, 2909898 A++, 2909903 A++, 2909907 A++, 2909914 A++, 2909920 A++, 2909924 A++, 2909934 A++, 2909937 A++, 2909946 A++, 2909970 A++, 2909986 A++, 2910017 A++, 2910079 A++, 391047 A++, 394642 A++, 486296 A++, 486309 A++, 486527 A++, 486582 A++, 642163 A++, 651830 A++, 657877 A++, 672172 A++, 686125 A++, 707355 A++, 736 A++, 756 A++, 834433 A++, 990406 A++, 1098597 A+++, 705508 A+++, 1098368 A++++, 1098369 A++++, 1098371 A++++, 1098373 A++++, 1098374 A++++, 1098375 A++++, 1098376 A++++, 1098380 A++++, 1098384 A++++, 1098386 A++++, 1098389 A++++, 1098390 A++++, 1098392 A++++, 1098398 A++++, 1098400 A++++, 1098401 A++++, 1098402 A++++, 1098403 A++++, 1098404 A++++, 1098405 A++++, 1098407 A++++, 1098408 A++++, 1098409 A++++, 1098410 A++++, 1098412 A++++, 1098414 A++++, 1098415 A++++, 1098419 A++++, 1098420 A++++, 1098421 A++++, 1098422 A++++, 1098428 A++++, 1098429 A++++, 1098430 A++++, 1098433 A++++, 1098434 A++++, 1098436 A++++, 1098437 A++++, 1098438 A++++, 1098443 A++++, 1098444 A++++, 1098445 A++++, 1098446 A++++, 1098452 A++++, 1098454 A++++, 1098455 A++++, 1098456 A++++, 1098457 A++++, 1098465 A++++, 1098467 A++++, 1098468 A++++, 1098469 A++++, 1098472 A++++, 1098474 A++++, 1098475 A++++, 1098479 A++++, 1098480 A++++, 1098482 A++++, 1098484 A++++, 1098485 A++++, 1098486 A++++, 1098490 A++++, 1098495 A++++, 1098501 A++++, 1098509 A++++, 1098512 A++++, 1098514 A++++, 1098515 A++++, 1098516 A++++, 1098519 A++++, 1098520 A++++, 1098521 A++++, 1098523 A++++, 1098534 A++++, 1098538 A++++, 1098543 A++++, 1098544 A++++, 1098548 A++++, 1098550 A++++, 1098552 A++++, 1098557 A++++, 1098558 A++++, 1098562 A++++, 1098563 A++++, 1098568 A++++, 1098571 A++++, 1098575 A++++, 1098583 A++++, 1098586 A++++, 1098644 A++++, 486529 A++++, 486539 A++++, 486541 A++++, 486542 A++++, 486545 A++++, 486546 A++++, 486568 A++++, 486571 A++++, 486580 A++++, 486585 A++++, 659306 A++++, 802297 A++++, 802304 A++++, 834325 A++++, 937303 A++++
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
salmon
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
snake
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
Valanga nigricornis
Burm., grasshopper
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
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Automatic Mining of ENzyme DAta
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
?
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + 4,8-dimethylnonanoyl-L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
acyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-acylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
arachidoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-arachidoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
butyryl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-butyrylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
decanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-decanoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
docosanhexaenoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-docosanhexaenoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
dodecanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-dodecanoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
erucoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-erucoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
hexanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-hexanoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
L-carnitine + palmitoyl-CoA
L-palmitoylcarnitine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
lauroyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-lauroylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
linoleoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-linoleoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
myristoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-myristoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
octanoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-octanoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
oleoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-oleoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
palmitoleoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-palmitoleoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
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activity is 47% higher than with palmitoyl-CoA
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?
palmitoyl-CoA + DL-carnitine
CoA + DL-palmitoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
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-
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r
palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-palmitoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
L-palmitoylcarnitine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
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forward reaction by CPT I and reverse reaction by CPT II
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r
stearoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-stearoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
trans-2-hexadecenoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + trans-2-hexadecenoyl-L-carnitine
show the reaction diagram
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?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
acyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-acylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
CoA + L-palmitoylcarnitine
show the reaction diagram
palmitoyl-CoA + L-carnitine
L-palmitoylcarnitine + CoA
show the reaction diagram
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forward reaction by CPT I and reverse reaction by CPT II
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r
additional information
?
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
11-trimethylamino-undecanoyl-DL-carnitine
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2-bromoacetyl-CoA
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2-Bromopalmitoyl-CoA
2-[5(4-Chlorophenyl)pentyl]-oxirane-2-carboxyl-CoA
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4-hydroxy phenylglyoxylate
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CPT I, greatly reduced inhibition of protease treated enzyme
acetyl-CoA
arachidonic acid
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the enzymatic activity significantly declines by treatment with 0.1 mM for 1 h
Bile acids
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e.g. in cholestatic rats
Bromoacetyl-CoA
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C75-CoA
cardiolipin
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inhibits conversion of palmitoylcarnitine to palmitoyl-CoA, stimulates palmitoylcarnitine formation
carnitine
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CPT I, slightly
chenodeoxycholic acid
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competitive to carnitine
cholate
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only CPTo