Information on EC 2.2.1.6 - acetolactate synthase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
2.2.1.6
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
acetolactate synthase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
2 pyruvate = 2-acetolactate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
C-C bond formation
decarboxylation
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-
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
(R)-acetoin biosynthesis I
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(R)-acetoin biosynthesis II
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(S)-acetoin biosynthesis
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acetoin degradation
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Biosynthesis of antibiotics
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Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
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Butanoate metabolism
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C5-Branched dibasic acid metabolism
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isoleucine metabolism
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L-isoleucine biosynthesis I (from threonine)
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L-isoleucine biosynthesis II
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L-isoleucine biosynthesis III
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L-isoleucine biosynthesis IV
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L-valine biosynthesis
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Metabolic pathways
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Pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis
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pyruvate fermentation to isobutanol (engineered)
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valine metabolism
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Valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
pyruvate:pyruvate acetaldehydetransferase (decarboxylating)
This enzyme requires thiamine diphosphate. The reaction shown is in the pathway of biosynthesis of valine; the enzyme can also transfer the acetaldehyde from pyruvate to 2-oxobutanoate, forming 2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-3-oxobutanoate, also known as 2-aceto-2-hydroxybutanoate, a reaction in the biosynthesis of isoleucine.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9027-45-6
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus subtilis RH33::[pRB63]n
strain RH33::[pRB63]n, gene alsS
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 1-12, 3 types of enzyme: sensitive pH 8.0 enzyme, insensitive pH 6.0 enzyme, insensitive pH 8.0 enzyme
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MG1655, gene ilvBN
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
large subunit
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene als; subsp. lactis biovar. diacetylactis, derived from strain IL594, which is isolated from a starter culture for cheese, gene als
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
collected in South Australia
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. cremonis
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. dubia and var. major, collected in Daisen, Japan
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
collected in Daisen, Japan
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
collected in Daisen, Japan
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
small subunit Moilv6 and large subunit Moilv2; genes ilv2 and ilv6 encoding the catalytic and the regulatory subunit, respectively
G4NC97 and G4MMK2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
small subunit Moilv6 and large subunit Moilv2; genes ilv2 and ilv6 encoding the catalytic and the regulatory subunit, respectively
G4NC97 and G4MMK2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Malachium aquaticum
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
water chickweed collected in summer of 2012 of the putative resistant population AH02 from a wheat field in Qiaotian, Longji, Tianchang, Anhui, China, where tribenuron and pyroxsulam fail to control water chickweed since 2011
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
small subunit
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
catalytic subunit
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
catalytic subunit
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene als
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PCC6803, enzyme sll1981, ORF sll1981, an acetolactate synthase homologue
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene als
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene yerE
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene yerE
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
evolution
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yloxy)propan-2-one + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
1-(2-bromo-5-hydroxyphenoxy)propan-2-one + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
1-(naphthalen-2-yloxy)propan-2-one + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-(phenylsulfanyl)propan-2-one + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
1-naphthaldehyde + pyruvate
(1R)-1-hydroxy-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
1-phenoxypropan-2-one + pyruvate
3-hydroxy-3-methyl-4-phenoxybutan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
1-phenoxypropan-2-one + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2 butane-2,3-dione
acetylacetoin + acetoin
show the reaction diagram
2 pyruvate
(S)-acetoin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
2 pyruvate
(S)-acetolactate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2 pyruvate
2-acetolactate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
2-acetyl-2-hydroxycyclohexanone + pyruvate
1-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)ethanone + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-bromobenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(2-bromophenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
2-chlorobenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(2-chlorophenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
2-chlorobenzaldehyde + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2-fluorobenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(2-fluorophenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
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?
2-hydroxybenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
2-iodobenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(2-iodophenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-methoxybenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
2-methylbenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(2-methylphenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-naphthaldehyde + pyruvate
(1R)-1-hydroxy-1-(naphthalen-2-yl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-nitrobenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(2-nitrophenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-oxobutanoate + lactylthiamine diphosphate
acetohydroxybutanoate + ?
show the reaction diagram
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2-oxobutanoate + pyruvate
2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-oxopentanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
2-oxobutanoate + pyruvate
2-propionyl-2-hydroxybutanoate + ?
show the reaction diagram
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reaction catalyzed by mutant V375A
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?
2-oxobutyrate
2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-3-oxopentanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P00892 and P0ADG1, P00893 and P00894, P08142 and P0ADF8
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ir
2-oxoisovalerate
isobutyraldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
2-oxopropyl 4-bromobenzoate + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
3,4-dihydronaphthalen-2(1H)-one + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
4-(tert-butyl)benzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(4-(tert-butyl)phenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
4-ethoxybenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(4-ethoxyphenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
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?
4-ethylbenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(4-ethylphenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
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?
4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
4-isopropylbenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(4-isopropylphenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
4-phenylbenzaldehyde + pyruvate
(R)-1-hydroxy-1-(4-ethylphenyl)propan-2-one + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
butane-2,3-dione + benzaldehyde
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
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?
butane-2,3-dione + pyruvate
acetylacetoin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
cyclohexane-1,2-dione + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
cyclohexanone + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
dihydro-2H-pyran-3(4H)-one + pyruvate
1-(3-hydroxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-yl)ethanone + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
dihydro-2H-pyran-3(4H)-one + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
ethyl 3-oxobutanoate + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
hexan-3,4-dione + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
hexane-3,4-dione + pyruvate
(S)-3-ethyl-3-hydroxyhexane-2,4-dione + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
hydroxypyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
methylpyruvate + benzaldehyde
(S)-acetoin + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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?
methylpyruvate + pyruvate
? + CO2
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
pyruvate
(S)-2-acetolactate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate
2-acetolactate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate
?
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + 2-oxobutanoate
acetohydroxybutanoate
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + 2-oxobutyrate
(S)-acetohydroxybutyrate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
stereospecific reaction
-
-
?
pyruvate + 2-oxobutyrate
2-aceto-2-hydroxybutyrate
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + 2-oxobutyrate
2-aceto-2-hydroxybutyrate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + benzaldehyde
(R)-phenylacetylcarbinol + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + cyclohexane-1,2-dione
?
show the reaction diagram
-
although cyclohexane-1,2-dione is a substrate of a C-C bond-cleavage reaction catalyzed by CDH, EC 3.7.1.11, wild-type CDH is unable to catalyze C-C bond formation (carboligation) using pyruvate as acyl anion donor and cyclohexane-1,2-dione as the acceptor. The formation of a tertiary alcohol is catalyzed by the enzyme double mutant CDH-H28A/N484A
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?
pyruvate + O2
peracetate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
isozymes AHAS II and AHAS III, oxygen-consuming side reaction
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?
additional information
?
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 pyruvate
2-acetolactate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
2-oxobutyrate
2-ethyl-2-hydroxy-3-oxopentanoate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
P00892 and P0ADG1, P00893 and P00894, P08142 and P0ADF8
-
-
-
ir
2-oxoisovalerate
isobutyraldehyde + CO2
show the reaction diagram
A0A0J9X1P8
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-
-
?
pyruvate
(S)-2-acetolactate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate
2-acetolactate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate
?
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + 2-oxobutyrate
(S)-acetohydroxybutyrate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
-
stereospecific reaction
-
-
?
pyruvate + 2-oxobutyrate
2-aceto-2-hydroxybutyrate
show the reaction diagram
pyruvate + 2-oxobutyrate
2-aceto-2-hydroxybutyrate + CO2
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
ATP
-
activates
FMN
-
stimulates, Km: 0.0013 mM
riboflavin
-
plus 10 mM phosphate, stimulates
thiamine diphosphate
additional information
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
K+
-
mutant D428N, Km-value 19 mM, mutant D428E, Km-value 35 mM
KCl
-
maximal activity required KCl concentrations of greater than 3.5 M
MgATP2-
-
activates
NaCl
-
while raising the NaCl concentration from 1.5 to 3.5 M leads to an increase in enzyme activity, this increase is 3fold lower than that detected in the presence of optimal KCl levels
additional information