Information on EC 1.8.5.1 - glutathione dehydrogenase (ascorbate)

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.8.5.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
glutathione dehydrogenase (ascorbate)
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
2 glutathione + dehydroascorbate = glutathione disulfide + ascorbate
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
-
-
ascorbate glutathione cycle
-
-
ascorbate recycling (cytosolic)
-
-
Glutathione metabolism
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
glutathione:dehydroascorbate oxidoreductase
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9026-38-4
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
broccoli
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P(SAGI2)-IPT modified plants
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lupinus luteus L. cv. Juno
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
alfalfa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Prunus sp.
hybrids P3605 (Prunus amygdalus L. 'Garfi' x Prunus persica L. 'Nemared'), 8-9 (P. cerasifera L. 'P2980' x 'P3605'), 7-7 (Prunus cerasifera L. 'P2175' x Prunus davidiana L.) and 6-5 (Prunus cerasifera L. 'P2175' x Prunus amygdalus L. 'Garfi')
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
variant A101
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 glutathione + dehydroascorbate
glutathione disulfide + ascorbate
show the reaction diagram
glutathione + dehydroascorbate
glutathione disulfide + ascorbate
show the reaction diagram
glutathione + dehydroascorbate
GSSG + ascorbate
show the reaction diagram
GSH + 1,2,3-trioxocyclopentane
GSSG + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GSH + dehydroascorbate
GSSG + ascorbate
show the reaction diagram
GSH + isodehydroascorbate
GSSG + isoascorbate
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-acetylcysteine + dehydroascorbate
N,N'-diacetyl-L-cystine + ascorbate
show the reaction diagram
-
4% of the activity with GSH
-
-
?
L-Cys + dehydroascorbate
? + ascorbate
show the reaction diagram
-
8% of the activity with GSH
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 glutathione + dehydroascorbate
glutathione disulfide + ascorbate
show the reaction diagram
E2RWY6
-
-
-
?
glutathione + dehydroascorbate
GSSG + ascorbate
show the reaction diagram
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
flavin
-
enzyme shows an unusual flavin peak, enzyme might form a flavin adduct
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Ca2+
-
5 mM, 34% loss of activity
Cd2+
-
5 mM CdCl2, complete loss of activity
Cyanate
-
500 mM, 15% inhibition
dehydroascorbate
-
at high concentrations
Fe2+
-
0.1 mM FeSO4, 34% loss of activity
Fe3+
-
1 mM, complete inhibition
imidazole
-
1 mM, 14% loss of activity
iodoacetamide
-
-
iodoacetic acid
Mersalyl
-
-
Mn2+
-
5 mM MnSO4, 82% loss of activity
p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
1 mM, 70% inhibition
Sodium azide
-
1 mM, 32% loss of activity
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-mercaptoethanol
dithiothreitol
-
1 mM, stimulates about 2.7fold
hydrogen peroxide
-
the activity of DHAR significantly increases from 1 d after treatment with 0.1 mM and thereafter declines gradually to the control level
methyl jasmonate
-
0.2 mM, activity increases after methyl jasmonate exposure and remains higher till the 9 days compared to non-treated roots
methyl viologen
-
the activity of DHAR significantly increases from 1 d after treatment with 0.05 mM and thereafter declines gradually to the control level
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.019 - 2.5
dehydroascorbate
0.85 - 11.8
glutathione
0.69 - 5.2
GSH
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0047 - 21150
dehydroascorbate
0.0058 - 99830
glutathione
210 - 490
GSH
additional information
additional information
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
11.62 - 44130
dehydroascorbate
39.34 - 26620
glutathione
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.00568
pH 6.0
0.02632
pH 7.0
0.13
allelic variant A140/E155/E208 of GSTO1-1, dehydroascorbate as substrate, at 30C
0.14
allelic variant A140/E155/K208 of GSTO1-1, dehydroascorbate as substrate, at 30C; allelic variant D140/E155/E208 of GSTO1-1, dehydroascorbate as substrate, at 30C
0.21
allelic variant D140/DELTAE155/K208 of GSTO1-1, dehydroascorbate as substrate, at 30C
0.25
allelic variant A140/DELTAE155/E208 of GSTO1-1, dehydroascorbate as substrate, at 30C
1.77
-
-
11.6
allelic variant D142 of GSTO2-2, dehydroascorbate as substrate, at 30C
13.8
allelic variant N142 of GSTO2-2, dehydroascorbate as substrate, at 30C
53
pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication; pH not specified in the publication, temperature not specified in the publication
350
-
rice recombinant DHAR
360
-
mitochondrial enzyme
400
-
plastid enzyme
additional information
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 7
pH 5.0: about 25% of maximal activity, pH 7.0: about 65% of maximal activity
6 - 8
-
the activity of the enzyme at pH 6 was only 20% of that at pH 8.0
6.5 - 8.5
6.5
41% of maximum activity
8.5
86% of maximum activity
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
30
assay at, activity significantly higher at 30C
additional information
-
assay performed at room temperature
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
15
66% of maximum activity; 66% of maximum activity; 66% of maximum activity
20 - 70
20C: about 60% of maximal activity, 70C: about 35% of maximal activity
55
51% of maximum activity; 51% of maximum activity; 51% of maximum activity
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
8.9
calculated from sequence
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
perivascular
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
basal membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
myelin sheet
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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from striatum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ripening, expression analysis, transcript level of DHAR is highest at the intermediate stage of fruit ripening, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
the highest activity of the sesame DHAR is detected in the 4 week cultures of the hairy roots, after which its activity is rapidly decreased to approximately 80%
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
activity is significantly increased by paraquat treatment and with the increasing of paraquat concentration, particularly in the modified plants (chimeric gene P(SAGI2)-IPT transformed)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
of striatum and cerebellum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
within the myelin sheets
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
DHAR5 mRNA levels are upregulated in Arabidopsis roots and shoots colonized by the beneficial endophyticfungus Piriformospora indica
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
; of neurons
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
two major dehydroascorbate reductases exist in spinach leaves. One form, DHAR-1, originates in chloroplast, the other, DHAR-b, occurs in a subcellular compartment other than chloroplast
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
Ectromelia virus (strain Moscow)
Ectromelia virus (strain Moscow)
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
11000
-
calculated from cDNA
15000
-
SDS-PAGE and electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight (ESI Q-TOF), His-tagged fusion protein
23000
-
gel filtration
24260
calculated from cDNA
25000
-
gel filtration
26000
-
theoretical molecular weight calculated from sequence of cDNA
28000
-
gel filtration
29000 - 40000
gel filtration; gel filtration; gel filtration
29690
molecular mass of the recombinant protein including a 6xHis tag determined by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF/MS
48700
-
gel filtration
86000
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
monomer
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
crystal structures of isoform GSTO1 in complex with ascoric acid, to 1.7 A resolution. Ascorbic acid binds in the glutathione site, where the glutamyl moiety of GSH binds and stacks against a conserved aromatic residue, F34; crystal structures of isoform GSTO2-2, stabilized through site-directed mutagenesis of cysteine residues to serines and determined at 1.9 A resolution in the presence and absence of glutathione
modeling of structure. Protein has a typical glutathione S-transferase structure containing a smaller thioredoxin-like N-terminal domain and a larger helical C-terminal domain; modeling of structure. Protein has a typical glutathione S-transferase structure containing a smaller thioredoxin-like N-terminal domain and a larger helical C-terminal domain
recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli, crystallized by hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method
-
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6 - 11
stable
687254
6.5
-
highest stability at, unstable under acidic and highly alkaline conditions
394028
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
40
-
the activity of DHAR significantly increases from 1 d after incubation at 40C and thereafter declines gradually to the control level
42
-
pH 7.0-8.0, stable up to
53
at 53C, both GSTO2-2 isoforms show a similar loss of activity
55
the recombinant PbDHAR is a thermostable enzyme, retaining 77% of its initial activity at 55C
60
-
10 min, complete inactivation
65
-
complete loss of activity above
75
-
5 min, 90% loss of activity
100
-
the half-life of deactivation of the enzyme at 100C is 8.5 min, and its thermal inactivation rate constant Kd is 0.0652/min
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
resistant to digestion by trypsin and chymotrypsin even at a high enzyme/substrate (w/w) ratio of 1:10
slight decrease in activity with increasing concentration of imidazole to 0.8 M
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
-20C, stable for at least 1 month
-
4C, in presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, stable for several days
-
4C, stable for at least 1 week
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
functional TcGrx is purified by Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid sepharose
-
Ni-agarose affinity chromatography
Ni2+-chealting NiNTA Superflow column chromatography
-
recombinant enzyme
using affinity chromatography
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
a fusion DHAR expressed in an Escherichia coli
enzyme form DHAR-a, expression in Escherichia coli
-
expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana
-
expressed in Escherichia coli
expression in Escherichia coli
expression in Escherichia coli; expression in Escherichia coli; expression in Escherichia coli
gene encoding DHAr, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic tree
overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain using the pET-28a(+) expression vector
-
overexpression in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants
-
overexpression of cytosolic and plastidic isozymes in transgenic potato plants
-
overproduced in Escherichia coli
recombinant protein is overexpressed in Escherichia coli
the coding region is expressed as a His-tagged fusion protein in Escherichia coli
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
DHAR transcript and enzyme activity are significantly up-regulated in the leaves of acerola under cold and salt stress conditions
under dark conditions, there is a sharp and significant decline in the total and reduced ascorbate contents, accompanied by a decrease in the level of transcripts and enzyme activities of the two genes in acerola leaves
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
A140D
no alteration in specific activity compared to the wild type enzyme
E155
the deletion causes a 2-3fold increase in the specific activity with each substrate and a significant decrease in the enzyme's heat stability, it is also linked to abnormal arsenic excretion patterns
E208K
no alteration in specific activity compared to the wild type enzyme
N142D
no effect on the specific activity of the enzyme with any substrate
Y34A
complete loss of activity
D72A
reduction in catalytic efficincy. D72 is a glutathione-site residue
K8A
severe reduction in catalytic efficincy. K8 is a glutathione-site residue
S73A
reduction in catalytic efficincy. S73 is a glutathione-site residue
C23S
-
mutant enzyme has almost no activity
C26S
-
turnover number is 57% of the wild-type value, KM-value for dehydroascorbate is 2fold lower than the wild-type value, KM-value for GSH is 1.6old lower than the wild-type value
C9S
-
turnover number is 86% of the wild-type value, KM-value for dehydroascorbate is 2.8fold lower than the wild-type value, KM-value for GSH is 2fold lower than the wild-type value
C9S/C26S
-
turnover number is 43% of the wild-type value, KM-value for dehydroascorbate is 1.1fold higher than the wild-type value, KM-value for GSH is identical to the wild-type value
C25S
-
has equivalent specificity constants for dehydroascorbate and GSH, but may have a different catalytic mechanism
additional information
Renatured/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
GSTO2-2, using 8 mM urea
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
agriculture
medicine
significant association with the age-at-onset of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease