Information on EC 1.8.1.9 - thioredoxin-disulfide reductase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Archaea, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.8.1.9
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
thioredoxin-disulfide reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
catalytic mechanism
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
catalytic mechanism
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
inhibition mechanism
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
inhibition mechanism
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
oxidation-reduction cycle of thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
oxidation-reduction cycle of thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
oxidation-reduction cycle of thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
2 conformations possible, termed FR and FO conformation, which differ in their fluorescence spectroscopic behaviour, their accessibility for inhibitors and in the efficiency of electron transfer to FAD, involving position 138 in the wild-type and the mutant C138S
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
conformational change upon reduction wth NADPH or tris-(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
UV-light radical reduction mechanism
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
three-dimensional structure
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
electron transfer in the enzyme complex of apoenzyme, FAD and thioredoxin with NADPH
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
electron transfer in the enzyme complex of apoenzyme, FAD and thioredoxin with NADPH
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
electron transfer in the enzyme complex of apoenzyme, FAD and thioredoxin with NADPH
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
A flavoprotein (FAD)., light
-
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
oxidation-reduction cycle of thioredoxin
Escherichia coli 11
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+ = thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
catalytic mechanism
Escherichia coli Crookes, Escherichia coli M191-6
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
conversions
-
-
Pyrimidine metabolism
-
-
Selenocompound metabolism
-
-
thioredoxin pathway
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
thioredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase
A flavoprotein (FAD).
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
general stress protein 35
-
-
-
-
GSP35
-
-
-
-
NADP-thioredoxin reductase
-
-
-
-
NADPH-thioredoxin reductase
-
-
-
-
NADPH2:oxidized thioredoxin oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
reductase, thioredoxin
-
-
-
-
thioredoxin reductase (NADPH)
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9074-14-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain ATCC 23270
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chinese honeybee
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
EMBL accession numbers Z23109, Z23108
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain RM4018
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
formerly Bacillus brevis
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
guinea pig
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck IAM C-27
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, African green monkey
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Deinococcus radiophilus ATCC 27603
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; 3 isoforms TrxR1, TrxR2, TrxR3, encoded by 3 genes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform TR1 and TR2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme with active site mutation
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
overproducing strain, trxB gene in a pUC vector
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 different isoforms TR1, TR2, TR3; cell line JPX9
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform TR1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
patients with rheumatoid arthritis
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WCFS1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; 3 isoforms TR1, TR2, TR3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Apoe-/- mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kunming mice
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Kunming mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of a dominant-negative 14-3-3h protein mutant (DN 14-3-3h) after induction of experimental diabetes. Marked downregulation of thioredoxin reductase in DN 14-3-3h mice compared to wild-type mice after induction of diabetes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 1291
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 3D7
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KT2442
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas putida KT2442
strain KT2442
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isoforms TR1, TR2, TR3; RN5CATOMT
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform TR1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform TrxR1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform TrxR2
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
male Hooded Lister rats of the Rowett strain
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
recombinant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar rat
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wistar rats
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Rowett
male Hooded Lister rats of the Rowett strain
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rhodobacter sphaeroides Y
Y
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
involvement of thioredoxin reductase in the dimethyl sulphoxide reductase system
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme shows additionally NADH oxidase activity
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain PCC 6803
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain HB8
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; cv. Chineses Spring
Uniprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
ablation of cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (Txnrd1) or mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase (Txnrd2) yields embryonic lethal phenotypes
malfunction
-
cells deficient in isoformTR1 are particularly sensitive to diamide, while isoform TR3-knockdown cells are more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide
malfunction
-
in the absence of NTRC, imbalanced metabolic activities presumably modulate the chloroplast retrograde signals, leading to altered expression of nuclear genes and, ultimately, to the formation of the pleiotrophic phenotypes in ntrc mutant plants
malfunction
-
inhibition of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase leads to oxidation of downstream enzymes such as thioredoxin and peroxiredoxin
malfunction
-
reporter gene transactivation by human p53 is inhibited in budding yeast lacking the TRR1 gene encoding thioredoxin reductase. Decreased reporter gene activity in thioredoxin reductase null cells is due to reduced p53 specific activity rather than reduced p53 protein levels
malfunction
-
stable knockdown of TxnRd1 in both HeLa and FaDu cells nearly abolishes curcumin-mediated radiosensitization. TxnRd1 knockdown cells show decreased radiation-induced reactive oxygen species and sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation
malfunction
-
TrxR knocked out parasites are non-viable
malfunction
-
Txnrd1 knock-out cells cannot be rescued from glutathione depletion-induced cell death either by antioxidants, xCT overexpression, or co-culturing with xCT-overexpressing cells that condition the medium with Cys
malfunction
Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0
-
in the absence of NTRC, imbalanced metabolic activities presumably modulate the chloroplast retrograde signals, leading to altered expression of nuclear genes and, ultimately, to the formation of the pleiotrophic phenotypes in ntrc mutant plants
-
malfunction
Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A
-
reporter gene transactivation by human p53 is inhibited in budding yeast lacking the TRR1 gene encoding thioredoxin reductase. Decreased reporter gene activity in thioredoxin reductase null cells is due to reduced p53 specific activity rather than reduced p53 protein levels
-
metabolism
-
the TrxR/thioredoxin pathway is of central importance in limiting cellular reactive oxygen species
physiological function
-
NADPH thioredoxin reductase C functions as an electron donor to 2-Cys peroxiredoxin and transfers the reducing power from NADPH to the peroxiredoxin, which reduces peroxides in the cyanobacterium under oxidative stress
physiological function
-
NTRC is the most important pathway for chloroplast 2-Cys peroxiredoxins reduction, probably the only one during the night
physiological function
-
transcriptional activation of aniA and norB under microaerobic conditions is dependent on thioredoxin reductase, TrxB plays an important role in promoting the survival of gonococci during cervical infection
physiological function
-
Txnrd1 gene is essential for normal development during embryogenesis, Txnrd2 gene is essential for normal development during embryogenesis
physiological function
-
glutathione deficiency can be rescued by forced expression of xCT (the substrate-specific subunit of the cystine/glutamate antiporter), which additionally requires the presence of functional isoform Txnrd1, but not isoform Txnrd2
physiological function
-
isoform Txnrd1 but not Txnrd2 is required for cerebellar development
physiological function
B9ZYY5
NTRC is maintained at a constant level during hardening and functions as an antioxidant with 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in the acquisition of freezing tolerance of Chlorella
physiological function
-
NTRC regulates several key processes, including chlorophyll biosynthesis and the shikimate pathway, in chloroplasts. NTRC has a critical role in the regulation of photoperiod-dependent metabolic and developmental processes in Arabidopsis
physiological function
-
the thioredoxin reductase-1 splice variant TXNRD1_v3 is an atypical inducer of cytoplasmic filaments and cell membrane filopodia. The glutaredoxin domain of TXNRD1_v3 is an atypical regulator of the cell cytoskeleton that potently induces formation of highly ordered cytoplasmic filaments and cell membrane filopodia
physiological function
-
the thioredoxin system has a large number of functions in DNA synthesis, defense against oxidative stress and apoptosis or redox signaling with reference to many diseases
physiological function
-
the thioredoxin system, comprising thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, and NADPH, is critical for cellular stress response, protein repair, and protection against oxidative damage
physiological function
-
thioredoxin reductase 1 overexpression upregulates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 release in human endothelial cells by 34%. TrxR1 enhances reactive oxygen species generation, NF-kappaB activity and subsequent monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression in endothelial cells, and may promote rather than prevent vascular endothelium from forming atherosclerotic plaque
physiological function
-
thioredoxin reductase-1 mediates curcumin-induced radiosensitization of squamous carcinoma cells. Overexpressing catalytically active TxnRd1 in HEK-293 cells, with low basal levels of TxnRd1, increases their sensitivity to curcumin alone and to the combination of curcumin and ionizing radiation
physiological function
-
Trr2/Trx3 and Trr2/GSH systems exhibit similar capacities for supporting peroxidredoxin 1 catalysis. TRR2 is required for cadmium and hydrogen peroxide resistance promoted by overexpression of peroxiredoxin 1
physiological function
-
TrxR helps maintenance of redox homeostasis in Plasmodium infection. TrxR is essential for the survival of erythrocytic stages of parasites
physiological function
D7PBZ6
TrxR1 plays a key role in protection against oxidant stress
physiological function
-
transcriptional activation of aniA and norB under microaerobic conditions is dependent on thioredoxin reductase, TrxB plays an important role in promoting the survival of gonococci during cervical infection
-
physiological function
Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0
-
NTRC regulates several key processes, including chlorophyll biosynthesis and the shikimate pathway, in chloroplasts. NTRC has a critical role in the regulation of photoperiod-dependent metabolic and developmental processes in Arabidopsis
-
physiological function
Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck IAM C-27
-
NTRC is maintained at a constant level during hardening and functions as an antioxidant with 2-Cys peroxiredoxin in the acquisition of freezing tolerance of Chlorella
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,4-naphthoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2 ferricytochrome c + NADH
2 ferrocytochrome c + NAD+ + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q16881
-
-
-
?
2-Cys peroxiredoxin + NADH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
NADH is a poor electron donor for NTRC activity
-
-
?
2-Cys peroxiredoxin + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
NTRC is able to conjugate NADPH thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin activities for the efficient reduction of 2-Cys peroxiredoxin
-
-
?
2-Cys peroxiredoxin A + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-Cys peroxiredoxin B + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4,4'-bischloro-diphenyl diselenide + NADPH + H+
-
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4,4'-bismethoxy-diphenyl diselenide + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga maritima, Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga maritima, Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + dithiothreitol
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + oxidized dithiothreitol
show the reaction diagram
Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck IAM C-27
B9ZYY5
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
A6XJ27
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Deinococcus radiophilus, Deinococcus radiophilus ATCC 27603
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O89049
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
A6XJ27
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q97W27
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
native thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase fusion protein
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
requires thioredoxin for reduction of DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
requires thioredoxin for reduction of DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
requires thioredoxin for reduction of DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter sphaeroides Y
-
i.e. DTNB, requires thioredoxin for reduction of DTNB
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q8BTW3
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O89049, Q9Z0J5
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
A6XJ27
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P29509
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O62768
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
B9A1H3
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
C-terminal tetrapeptide sequences is Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly. Changing the C-terminal carboxylate of mTR3 to a carboxamide increases the activity of the enzyme. If the selenium content is normalized for both samples, the carboxamide mutant has nearly twice the activity as the semisynthetic wild-type carboxylate enzyme
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
thionitrobenzoic acid + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform TrxR2 displays strikingly lower activity with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) compared to isoform TrxR1
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Deinococcus radiophilus ATCC 27603
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoicacid) + NADPH + H+
5'-thionitrobenzoic acid + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
B0FXK2
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alloxan + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alloxan + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alloxan + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
alloxan + NADPH + H+
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
BAS1 + hydrogen peroxide
?
show the reaction diagram
A6XJ27
-
-
-
?
benzyl viologen + NADH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga maritima, Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109
-
-
-
-
?
benzyl viologen + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
chaetocin + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
competitive and selective substrate for TrxR1
-
-
?
chetomin + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
cytochrome c + NADPH
reduced cytochrome c + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q16881
-
-
-
?
diphenyl diselenide + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
disulfide oxidase + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
Q97W27
-
-
-
?
dithionitrobenzene + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dithiothreitol + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dithiothreitol + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dithiothreitol + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dithiothreitol + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
Entamoeba histolytica thioredoxin disulfide 41 + NADPH + H+
Entamoeba histolytica thioredoxin 41 + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Escherichia coli thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
Escherichia coli thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
gliotoxin + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glutaredoxin 4 + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
GSH + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
GSH + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
GSH + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
GSSG + NADPH
GSH + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of methylselenol
-
-
r
insulin + NADPH + H+
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
juglone + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
juglone + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
juglone + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform TrxR2 displays strikingly lower activity with juglone compared to isoform TrxR1
-
-
?
L-cysteine + NADPH
L-cystine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-prolyl-L-threonyl-L-valyl-L-threonyl-N-[(4R,7R)-4-[(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)carbamoyl]-6-oxo-1,2,5-dithiazocan-7-] + NADPH + H+
L-prolyl-L-threonyl-L-valyl-L-threonylglycyl-L-cysteinyl-L-cysteinylglycinamide + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-prolyl-L-threonyl-L-valyl-L-threonyl-N-[(4R,7R)-4-[(2-amino-2-oxoethyl)carbamoyl]-6-oxo-1,2,5-thiaselenazocan-7-yl]glycinamide + NADPH + H+
L-prolyl-L-threonyl-L-valyl-L-threonylglycyl-L-cysteinyl-3-selanyl-L-alanylglycinamide + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-prolyl-L-threonyl-L-valyl-L-threonyl-N-[(4R,7R)-4-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]-6-oxo-1,2,5-dithiazocan-7-yl]glycinamide + NADPH + H+
L-prolyl-L-threonyl-L-valyl-L-threonylglycyl-L-cysteinyl-L-cysteinylglycine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-prolyl-L-threonyl-L-valyl-L-threonyl-N-[(4R,7R)-4-[(carboxymethyl)carbamoyl]-6-oxo-1,2,5-thiaselenazocan-7-yl]glycinamide + NADPH + H+
L-prolyl-L-threonyl-L-valyl-L-threonylglycyl-L-cysteinyl-3-selanyl-L-alanylglycine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lipoamide + NADPH + H+
dihydrolipoamide + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lipoamide + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
isoform TrxR2 displays strikingly lower activity with lipoamide compared to isoform TrxR1
-
-
?
lipoic acid + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
lipoic acid + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate for isoform TrxR1
-
-
?
menadione + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
menadione + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methaneseleninic acid + NADP+
methaneseleninic acid disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methylseleninate + H2O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
methylseleninate + H2O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
addition of selenocysteine increases the activity by 20%, only wild-type enzyme
-
-
?
methylseleninate + H2O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of methylseleninate
-
-
?
NADH + ubiquinone-10
NAD+ + ubiquinol-10
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
NADPH + H+ + ubiquinone-10
NADP+ + ubiquinol-10
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
NADPH + H+ + ubiquinone-10
NADP+ + ubiquinol-10
show the reaction diagram
-
HEK cells overexpressing TrxR1 reduce ubiquinone-10
-
-
?
NADPH + thioredoxin disulfide
NADP+ + thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
-
mechanism, Cys57 attacks Cys490 in the interchange reaction between the N-terminal dithiol and the C-terminal disulfide
-
-
?
oxidized lipoamide + NADPH
lipoamide disulfide + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxidized lipoate + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
oxidized lipoate + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity with DL-alpha-lipoate
-
-
-
paraquat + NAD(P)H
paraquat radical + NAD(P)+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
paraquat radical + O2
paraquat + O2-
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
Pro-Thr-Val-Thr-Gly-Cys-S-S-Cys-Gly + NADPH + H+
Pro-Thr-Val-Thr-Gly-Cys + Cys-Gly + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
Pro-Thr-Val-Thr-Gly-Cys-S-S-selenoCys-Gly + NADPH + H+
Pro-Thr-Val-Thr-Gly-Cys + selenoCys-Gly + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
protein disulfide isomerase + NADPH
protein disulfide isomerase + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
protein disulfide isomerase with reduced disulfides
r
protein disulfide isomerase like protein 1 + NADPH
protein disulfide isomerase like protein 1 + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
protein disulfide isomerase like protein 1 from rat liver containing a thioredoxin domain
protein disulfide isomerase like protein 1 with reduced disulfides, coupled assay with insulin
?
protein disulfide isomerase like protein 2 + NADPH
protein disulfide isomerase like protein 2 + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
protein disulfide isomerase like protein 2 from rat liver containing a thioredoxin domain
protein disulfide isomerase like protein 2 with reduced disulfides, coupled assay with insulin
?
seleninate + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
selenite + NADPH
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O89049
-
-
-
?
selenite + NADPH + H+
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
selenite + NADPH + H+
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
selenite + NADPH + H2O
Se2- + NADP+ + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
selenocysteine + NADPH
selenocystine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
selenocysteine + NADPH
selenocystine + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
thioredoxin disulfide + reduced 3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
show the reaction diagram
-
wild-type enzyme, mutant enzyme C135S and thioredoxin in subunit complex C135-C32S with the enzyme
-
?
thioredoxin + insulin disulfide
thioredoxin disulfide + insulin
show the reaction diagram
-
thioredixin is the native principal substrate of TrxR1
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
Q9JLT4
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
O89049
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
A6XJ27
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
Q97W27
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with nitroxide reductase
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
wide variety of electron acceptors
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with dithiothreitol
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
native thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase fusion protein
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
Q8VX47
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with DTNB
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay, measurement of NADPH oxidation in presence of insulin and thioredoxin
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay, measurement of NADPH oxidation in presence of insulin and thioredoxin
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay, measurement of NADPH oxidation in presence of insulin and thioredoxin
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay, measurement of NADPH oxidation in presence of insulin and thioredoxin
-
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay, measurement of NADPH oxidation in presence of insulin and thioredoxin
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
Q8VX47
coupled assay, measurement of NADPH oxidation in presence of insulin and thioredoxin
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay, measurement of NADPH oxidation in presence of insulin and thioredoxin
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
NADH in the standard assay, wild-type and chimeric mutants with and without amino acid exchanges
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate e.g. thioredoxin disulfide from phage T4
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate reductase
-
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
coupled assay with ribonucleotide reductase or methionine sulfoxide reductase from E. coli, thioredoxin-2
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, protection of the cell against oxidative damage
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
radical reduction, prevention of cells from UV-generated free radical caused damage on the skin
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
defense against oxidative stress
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
metabolic function of thioredoxin reductase-thioredoxin system: supplies reducing equivalents for a wide variety of acceptors, e.g. : ribonucleotide reductase, nonspecific protein disulfide reductase, methionine sulfoxide reductase, D-proline reductase
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
reduction of free radicals at the surface of the epidermis, enzyme may play a role in physiology of pancreatic beta-cells
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
major anti-oxidant in keratinocytes, melanocytes, melanoma cells
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter sphaeroides Y
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli 11
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q962Y6
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q97W27
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
B9A1H3
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
-
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of NADPH, coupled assay
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of NADPH, coupled assay
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of NADPH, coupled assay
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of NADPH, coupled assay
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q8VX47
in presence of NADPH, coupled assay
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of NADPH, coupled assay
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of NADPH, coupled assay
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Q8VX47
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. DTNB
-
ir
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Rhodobacter sphaeroides Y
-
in presence of NADPH, coupled assay
-
-
r
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli 11
-
in presence of NADPH, coupled assay, i.e. DTNB
-
ir
thioredoxin + tert-butyl-hydroperoxide
?
show the reaction diagram
-
in presence of methylseleninate, coupled assay
-
-
?
thioredoxin 1 + NADP+
thioredoxin 1 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
TrxR2 prefers its endogenous substrate thioredocin 2 over thioredoxin 1 (10fold), whereas isoform TrxR1 efficiently reduces both thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2
-
-
?
thioredoxin 1 + NADP+ +
thioredoxin 1 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin 2 + NADP+
thioredoxin 2 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin 2 + NADP+
thioredoxin 2 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
TrxR2 prefers its endogenous substrate thioredocin 2 over thioredoxin 1 (10fold), whereas isoform TrxR1 efficiently reduces both thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2
-
-
?
thioredoxin 3 + NADP+
thioredoxin 3 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin 41 + NADP+
thioredoxin 41 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin 8 + NADP+
thioredoxin 8 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + insulin
thioredoxin + insulin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + insulin
thioredoxin + insulin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
P0A9P4
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADH + H+
thioredoxin + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADH + H+
thioredoxin + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
A6XJ27
MtNTRC can use either NADPH or NADH as cofactors
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADH + H+
thioredoxin + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Deinococcus radiophilus ATCC 27603
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q5KTZ6
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
thioredoxin-1 from Anopheles gambiae or Plasmodium falciparum, thioredoxin-2 from Drosophila melanogaster
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P0A9P4
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9JMH6
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q16881
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q97W27
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q8BTW3
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O89049
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9Z0J5
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
A9LN30
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P29509
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9JMH6
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
B0FXK2
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
DmTrxR catalyzes the reversible transfer of reducing equivalents from NADPH to DmTrx-2. This process is consistent with the corresponding redox potentials and is essential for GSSG/GSH cycling in Drosophila melanogaster, which is deficient in glutathione reductase
-
-
r
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the tandem system involving thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin proves to be operative for reducing low molecular weight disulfides, including putative physiological substrates as cystine and oxidized trypanothione
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
C-terminal tetrapeptide sequences is Gly-Cys-Sec-Gly. Changing the C-terminal carboxylate of mTR3 to a carboxamide increases the activity of the enzyme. If the selenium content is normalized for both samples, the carboxamide mutant has nearly twice the activity as the semisynthetic wild-type carboxylate enzyme
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
DmTrxR catalyzes the reversible transfer of reducing equivalents from NADPH to DmTrx-2
-
-
r
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
A6XJ27
MtNTRC can use either NADPH or NADH as cofactors
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant HvNTR1 and HvNTR2 exhibit virtually the same affinity toward HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2, whereas HvNTR2 has slightly higher catalytic activity than HvNTR1 with both Trx h isoforms, and HvNTR1 has slightly higher catalytic activity toward HvTrxh1 than HvTrxh2
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is specific for Methanosarcina acetivorans thioredoxin 7, no activity with Methanosarcina acetivorans thioredoxin 2 or Methanosarcina acetivorans thioredoxin 6
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Deinococcus radiophilus ATCC 27603
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
B9A1H3
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide 41 + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin 41 + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide 8 + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin 8 + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide h + NADH
thioredoxin + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Q8VX47
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide h + NADPH
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q8VX47
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin-1 disulfide + NADPH
NADP+ + thioredoxin-1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
methylseleninate + NADPH
CH3SeH + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
also utilizes glutathione instead of NADPH
-
ir
additional information
?
-
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
reduction of thioredoxin by NADPH is virtually complete, equilibrium constant is 48 at pH 7
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
slowly reduces other proteins, e.g. insulin, lipoate and ribonuclease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
slowly reduces other proteins, e.g. insulin, lipoate and ribonuclease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
specific for NADPH, B side of nicotinamide ring
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
specific for NADPH, B side of nicotinamide ring
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
redox system for electron transfer in the complex of apoenzyme, FAD and thioredoxin with NADPH or other electron acceptors
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
redox system for electron transfer in the complex of apoenzyme, FAD and thioredoxin with NADPH or other electron acceptors
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q8VX47
redox system for electron transfer in the complex of apoenzyme, FAD and thioredoxin with NADPH or other electron acceptors
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
redox system for electron transfer in the complex of apoenzyme, FAD and thioredoxin with NADPH or other electron acceptors
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
ribonucleotide reductase, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase constitute a system necessary for the biosynthesis of deesoxyribonucleotides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q16881
HEK-293 cells overexpressing TrxR2 are more resistant to impairment of complex III bypassing function of TrxR2
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme does not reduce ubiquinone-10
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme does not reduce hydrogen peroxide or insulin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
TR3 does not have catalytic preferences for mitochondrial thioredoxin versus cytosolic thioredoxin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q97W27
enzyme shows additionally NADH oxidase activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
EhTRXR and EhTRX41 could be assayed as a functional redox pair that, together with peroxiredoxin, mediates the NADPH-dependent reduction of hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. It is proposed that this detoxifying system could be operative in vivo
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q16881
function of TRXR1 in the self-defense mechanism against self-generated oxidative stress
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
homozygous (-/-) knockout of Txnrd1 is embryonically lethal. No major effect of Txnrd1 hemizygosity and/or Se on male fertility and the viability of offspring, homozygous (-/-) knockout of Txnrd2 is embryonically lethal. No major effect of Txnrd2 hemizygosity and/or Se on male fertility and the viability of offspring
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O89049
mitochondrial respiratory chain and thioredoxin reductase regulate intermembrane Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin system is suggested to be important for scavenging H2O2 independent of light-driven generation of reducing equivalents
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
plants of the ntra ntrb knockout mutant are viable and fertile, although with a wrinkled seed phenotype, slower plant growth, and pollen with reduced fitness. Neither cytosolic nor mitochondrial NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases are essential in plants
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the combination of thioredioxin and thioredoxin reductase revives the activity of glutathione reductase from both the cortex and nucleus of aged clear lenses. In cataract lenses (grade II and grade IV) there is a statistically significant recovery of glutathione reductase activity in the cortex, but not in the nucleus
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme can promote oxidative stress by redox cycling of paraquat: paraquat + O2 + NADPH + H+ --> paraquat radical + O2- radical + NADP+
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
thioredoxin reductase is essential for formate dehydrogenase H production and for labelling the formate dehydrogenase H polypeptide with 75Se-selenite
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
thioredoxin reductase is essential for thiol/disulfide redox control and oxidative stress survival of the anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
after successful cloning, overexpression and purification of PrxIII,18 Trx2 and TRR2, the PrxIII pathway is reconstituted and studied in vitro
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
sulforaphane is an inducer for thioredoxin reductase. The dietary isothiocyanate, sulforaphane, is important in the regulation of thioredoxin reductase/thioredoxin redox system in cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the internal disulfide bond (CD7D5) of human neuroglobin can be reduced by thioredoxin reductase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
NADPH thioredoxin reductase C functions as an electron donor to 2-Cys peroxiredoxin and transfers the reducing power from NADPH to the peroxiredoxin, which reduces peroxides in the cyanobacterium under oxidative stress
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme has protein disulfide reductase activity with a thioredoxin domain at the C-terminus, able to conjugate both activities for 2-Cys peroxiredoxin reduction
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q97W27
TrxRB3 also displays NADH oxidase activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoform TrxR1 shows broad activity with thioredoxins from Escherichia coli, sheep, and Haemonchus contortus, while isoform TrxR2 has high activity only with the mitochondrial Haemonchus contortus thioredoxin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
B9ZYY5
NTRC shows both NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin-like dithiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activities
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P0A9P4
R73G, R73D, and K36A site-directed mutants of thioredoxin are impaired to different extents in their ability to be reduced by TrxR
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q97W27
TrxRB3 is endowed with an additional NADH oxidase activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
in addition, the enzyme exhibits NAD(P)H dependent oxidase activity, which generates hydrogen peroxide from molecular oxygen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme cannot use thioredoxin from Spirulina as an electron acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the yeast enzyme fails to reduce the human and Escherichia coli thioredoxin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
ebselen, 4,4'-bistrifluoromethyl-diphenyl diselenide, 2,4,6,2',4',6-hexamethyldiphenyl diselenide, and 4,4'-biscarboxydiphenyl diselenide are no substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
isoform TrxR2 cannot reduce lipoic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Rhodobacter sphaeroides Y
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109
-
the enzyme cannot use thioredoxin from Spirulina as an electron acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck IAM C-27
B9ZYY5
NTRC shows both NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin-like dithiol-disulfide oxidoreductase activities
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Escherichia coli Crookes, Escherichia coli M191-6
-
reduction of thioredoxin by NADPH is virtually complete, equilibrium constant is 48 at pH 7
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
NADPH + H+ + ubiquinone-10
NADP+ + ubiquinol-10
show the reaction diagram
-
HEK cells overexpressing TrxR1 reduce ubiquinone-10
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
detoxification of hydrogen peroxide, protection of the cell against oxidative damage
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
radical reduction, prevention of cells from UV-generated free radical caused damage on the skin
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
defense against oxidative stress
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
metabolic function of thioredoxin reductase-thioredoxin system: supplies reducing equivalents for a wide variety of acceptors, e.g. : ribonucleotide reductase, nonspecific protein disulfide reductase, methionine sulfoxide reductase, D-proline reductase
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
reduction of free radicals at the surface of the epidermis, enzyme may play a role in physiology of pancreatic beta-cells
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
major anti-oxidant in keratinocytes, melanocytes, melanoma cells
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin + NADP+
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin 1 + NADP+
thioredoxin 1 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
TrxR2 prefers its endogenous substrate thioredocin 2 over thioredoxin 1 (10fold), whereas isoform TrxR1 efficiently reduces both thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2
-
-
?
thioredoxin 1 + NADP+ +
thioredoxin 1 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin 2 + NADP+
thioredoxin 2 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin 2 + NADP+
thioredoxin 2 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
TrxR2 prefers its endogenous substrate thioredocin 2 over thioredoxin 1 (10fold), whereas isoform TrxR1 efficiently reduces both thioredoxin 1 and thioredoxin 2
-
-
?
thioredoxin 3 + NADP+
thioredoxin 3 disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADH + H+
thioredoxin + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Deinococcus radiophilus, Deinococcus radiophilus ATCC 27603
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
O89049, Q9Z0J5
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P29509
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
B0FXK2
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
DmTrxR catalyzes the reversible transfer of reducing equivalents from NADPH to DmTrx-2. This process is consistent with the corresponding redox potentials and is essential for GSSG/GSH cycling in Drosophila melanogaster, which is deficient in glutathione reductase
-
-
r
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
the tandem system involving thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin proves to be operative for reducing low molecular weight disulfides, including putative physiological substrates as cystine and oxidized trypanothione
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Deinococcus radiophilus ATCC 27603
-
-
-
-
?
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH + H+
thioredoxin + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
ribonucleotide reductase, thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase constitute a system necessary for the biosynthesis of deesoxyribonucleotides
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q16881
HEK-293 cells overexpressing TrxR2 are more resistant to impairment of complex III bypassing function of TrxR2
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
EhTRXR and EhTRX41 could be assayed as a functional redox pair that, together with peroxiredoxin, mediates the NADPH-dependent reduction of hydrogen peroxide and tert-butyl hydroperoxide. It is proposed that this detoxifying system could be operative in vivo
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q16881
function of TRXR1 in the self-defense mechanism against self-generated oxidative stress
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
homozygous (-/-) knockout of Txnrd1 is embryonically lethal. No major effect of Txnrd1 hemizygosity and/or Se on male fertility and the viability of offspring, homozygous (-/-) knockout of Txnrd2 is embryonically lethal. No major effect of Txnrd2 hemizygosity and/or Se on male fertility and the viability of offspring
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
O89049
mitochondrial respiratory chain and thioredoxin reductase regulate intermembrane Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase and 2-Cys peroxiredoxin system is suggested to be important for scavenging H2O2 independent of light-driven generation of reducing equivalents
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
plants of the ntra ntrb knockout mutant are viable and fertile, although with a wrinkled seed phenotype, slower plant growth, and pollen with reduced fitness. Neither cytosolic nor mitochondrial NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases are essential in plants
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the combination of thioredioxin and thioredoxin reductase revives the activity of glutathione reductase from both the cortex and nucleus of aged clear lenses. In cataract lenses (grade II and grade IV) there is a statistically significant recovery of glutathione reductase activity in the cortex, but not in the nucleus
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme can promote oxidative stress by redox cycling of paraquat: paraquat + O2 + NADPH + H+ --> paraquat radical + O2- radical + NADP+
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
thioredoxin reductase is essential for formate dehydrogenase H production and for labelling the formate dehydrogenase H polypeptide with 75Se-selenite
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
thioredoxin reductase is essential for thiol/disulfide redox control and oxidative stress survival of the anaerobe Bacteroides fragilis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
NADPH thioredoxin reductase C functions as an electron donor to 2-Cys peroxiredoxin and transfers the reducing power from NADPH to the peroxiredoxin, which reduces peroxides in the cyanobacterium under oxidative stress
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
in addition, the enzyme exhibits NAD(P)H dependent oxidase activity, which generates hydrogen peroxide from molecular oxygen
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme cannot use thioredoxin from Spirulina as an electron acceptor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the yeast enzyme fails to reduce the human and Escherichia coli thioredoxin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermotoga maritima DSM 3109
-
the enzyme cannot use thioredoxin from Spirulina as an electron acceptor
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3-acetylpyridine adenine dinucleotide
-
-
FAD
-
2 FAD per dimer
FAD
-
2 FAD per dimer
FAD
-
2 FAD per dimer
FAD
-
2 FAD per dimer
FAD
Q8VX47
-
FAD
-
wild-type and chimeric mutants partly from Salmonella typhimurium AhpF protein
FAD
-
contains FAD
FAD
-
contains 1.2 mol per mol of enzyme subunit
FAD
Q97W27
wild-type, 0.7 mol per mol of subunit, mutant C147A, 0.3 mol per mol of subunit
FAD
-
the flavin (FAD/FADH2) and disulfide/dithiol couples are very close in thermodynamic potentials
FAD
-
noncovalently bound to HvNTR
FAD
A9LN30
contains one FAD molecule per subunit
FAD
P29509
; one FAD molecule is incorporated in each subunit
FAD
-
contains 6 FAD molecules
FAD
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
FAD
B9ZYY5
-
FAD
B0FXK2
-
FAD
-
1 mol FAD is bound per mol subunit
FAD
-
1.88 mol of FAD per mol native enzyme
FAD
-
flavoprotein
NADH
-
wild-type and mutants
NADH
-
-
NADH
-
as active as NADPH in reduction of ubiquinone-10
NADH
-
-
NADH
A6XJ27
-
NADH
-
the enzyme shows a preference for NADH over NADPH
NADP+
-
-
NADP+
-
-
NADP+
-
contains 6 NADP+ molecules
NADP+
Q962Y6
-
NADPH
-
specific for
NADPH
-
-
NADPH
-
strictly dependent on NADPH, inactive with NADH
NADPH
-
specific for
NADPH
-
specific for
NADPH
Q8VX47
specific for
NADPH
-
wild-type and mutants
NADPH
-
;
NADPH
-
approximately four times more activity was evident with NADPH when compared to NADH
NADPH
A6XJ27
;
NADPH
-
-
NADPH
A9LN30
dependent on
NADPH
-
;
NADPH
-
shows a high affinity for NADPH
NADPH
B9A1H3
-
NADPH
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
NADPH
B9ZYY5
dependent on
NADPH
-
higher affinity and catalytic efficiency with NADPH compared to NADH
NADPH
-
the catalytic efficiency with NADPH is 2500fold higher than with NADH
NADPH
G5DA76
-
NADPH
-
dependent on
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Na2SeO3
Q9JMH6
enhances hepatic TrxR1 activity, but only on the condition that it causes liver injury
Selenite
-
selenium treatment results in increased expression of almost all TrxR1 mRNA variants with increasing concentrations of selenite
selenium
-
selenocysteine-containing enzyme
selenium
-
selenoprotein
selenium
-
selenoenzyme
selenium
-
contains an essential selenocysteine residue
selenium
-
-
selenium
-
0.001 mM, 5fold increase of activity after 7 days
selenium
O89049
selenoprotein. TrxR1 is more sensitive to Se depletion than TrxR2, greater changes in liver than kidney. There is a prioritisation of TrxR2 over TrxR1 during Se deficiency such that TrxR1 expression is more sensitive to Se supply than TrxR2 but this sensitivity of TrxR1 is not fully accounted for by TrxR1 5' or 3'-untranslated region sequences when assessed using luciferase reporter constructs
selenium
-
selenoprotein, expression and function depends on adequate supply of selenium; selenoprotein, expression and function depends on adequate supply of selenium
selenium
-
selenoenzyme
selenium
-
the presence of a selenium atom is not chemically required to catalyze the reduction of the disulfide bond of thioredoxin
selenium
-
selenoenzyme
selenium
-
thioredoxin reductase is a selenoprotein
selenium
-
thioredoxin reductase is a selenoprotein; thioredoxin reductase is a selenoprotein
selenium
-
TrxR1 is a selenoprotein that contains a selenocysteine residue at the penultimate C-terminal
selenium
-
thioredoxin reductase 1 is a selenoprotein, the oxidized enzyme presents a selenenylsulfide motif in trans-configuration, with the selenium atom of selenocysteine-498 positioned beneath the side chain of Tyr-116
selenium
-
the enzyme possesses selenium in the form of selenocysteine in the active site
selenium
-
all three isoenzymes of mammalian TrxR contain an essential selenocysteine residue, which is the target of several drugs in cancer treatment or mercury intoxication
selenium
-
selenoprotein
selenium
-
selenoprotein
selenium
-
selenoprotein
selenium
-
TrxR1 contains a selenocysteine in the active site (Gly-Cys-SeCys-Gly)
selenocysteine
-
contains selenocysteine as part of the redox active selenosulfide in the active center
selenocysteine
-
contains selenocysteine as part of the redox active selenosulfide in the active center; encoded by TGA stop codon
selenocysteine
-
;
selenocysteine
-
-
selenocysteine
-
contains selenocysteine as part of the redox active selenosulfide in the active center; encoded by TGA stop codon
selenocysteine
-
contains selenocysteine as part of the redox active selenosulfide in the active center; heparin affinity depends on the selenium content, binding can be induced by reduction of the enzyme with NADPH or tris-(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine; isoform 1 contains 1 selenium per subunit, the mitochondrial isoform 2 contains 0.5 selenium per subunit
[Fe2S2]2+/+
-
-
additional information
-
TrxR-1(cyto) is not a selenoprotein; TrxR-1(mito) is not a selenoprotein
additional information
-
not a selenoenzyme, but instead contains a highly unusual redox-active Cys-Cys sequence
additional information
-
DmTR shows high catalytic activity without the presence of a selenocysteine
additional information
-
selenoprotein
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-1,7-di-2-furyl-5-hydroxyhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-1-(2-bromophenyl)-5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-5-hydroxy-7-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(5-methyl-2-furyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(5-methyl-2-furyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-(2-thienyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]-1-phenylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
-
(2E,5E)-2,5-bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
-
(2E,5E)-2,5-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
-
(2E,5E)-2,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
-
(2E,5E)-2,5-bis[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclopentanone
-
-
(2E,5E)-2,5-bis[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclopentanone
-
-
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
-
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
-
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
-
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclohexanone
-
-
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclohexanone
-
-
(2E,6E)-2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
-
(2E,6E)-2-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-6-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclohexanone
-
-
(3E,5E)-3,5-bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)piperidin-4-one
-
-
(3E,5E)-3,5-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)piperidin-4-one
-
-
(3E,5E)-3,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxopiperidinium
-
-
(3E,5E)-3,5-bis[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]piperidin-4-one
-
-
(3E,5E)-3,5-bis[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]piperidin-4-one
-
-
(3E,5E)-3-[(2,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-5-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]piperidin-4-one
-
-
(4-ammoniothiophenolato)(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) chloride
-
-
-
(4-ammoniothiophenolato)(4'-toyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) nitrate
-
-
-
(4-hydroxylthiophenolato)(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) chloride
-
-
-
(4-hydroxylthiophenolato)(4'-toyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) chloride
-
-
-
(4-methylpyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-kappaP)gold
-
-
(4-methylpyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)[1,1'-(1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-3,7-diyl-kappaP)diethanone]gold
-
-
(N-acetyl-4-aminothiophenolato)(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) chloride
-
-
-
(N-acetyl-4-aminothiophenolato)(4'-toyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) nitrate
-
-
-
(pyridine-2-thiolato-kappaS)(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-kappaP)gold
-
-
(pyridine-2-thiolato-kappaS)[1,1'-(1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-3,7-diyl-kappaP)diethanone]gold
-
-
(pyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-kappaP)gold
-
-
1,1'-sulfanediylbis(2,4-dinitrobenzene)
-
IC50: 0.004 mM
1,1'-sulfanediylbis(2,4-dinitrobenzene)
-
IC50: 0.0005 mM
1,1'-sulfanediylbis[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene]
-
IC50: 0.15 mM
1,1'-sulfanediylbis[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene]
-
IC50: 0.02 mM
1,2-[bis(1,2-benzisoselenazolone-3(2H)-ketone)]ethane
-
apoptosis induced by the inhibitor is through Bcl-2/Bax and caspase-3 pathways
1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzene
-
IC50: 0.2 mM
1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzene
-
IC50: 0.03 mM
1,4-dihydroxyanthroquinone
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
1,8-dihydroxyanthroquinone
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
i.e. DNCB; irreversible, with NADPH, alkylation of the active site cysteine disulfide, strong increase in oxidation activity of the enzyme against NADPH
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
i.e. DNCB; irreversible, with NADPH, alkylation of the active site cysteine disulfide, strong increase in oxidation activity of the enzyme against NADPH
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
i.e. DNCB; mitochondrial isoform
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
0.1 mM
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
0.01 mM, irreversible inhibition
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
TrxR inhibition by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene results in generation of reactive oxygen species and subsequent activation of stress-inducible kinases without impairment of the cellular antioxidant status or mitochondrial function
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
-
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
-
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
uncompetitive inhibition
1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
irreversible, with NADPH, alkylation of the active site cysteine disulfide, strong increase in oxidation activity of the enzyme against NADPH
1-methyl-1-propyl-2-imidazolyl disulfide
O62768
-
1-methyl-1-propyl-2-imidazolyl disulfide
-
-
13-cis-retinoic acid
-
-
15-deoxy-D-12,14-PGJ2
-
0.06 mM, IC50: 0.00036 mM
2-aminothiazolium [trans-tetrachlorobis(2-aminothiazole)ruthenate(III)]
-
-
2-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde
-
-
2-benzyloxycinnamaldehyde
-
-
2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzene
-
IC50: 0.1 mM
2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzene
-
IC50: 0.008 mM
2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde
-
-
2-hydroxymethyl-5-methoxy-1-methyl-3-[(2,4,6-trifluorophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione
-
maximum inhibition is achieved 5 min after addition of 0.003 mM
2-hydroxymethyl-5-methoxy-1-methyl-3-[(4-nitrophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione
-
-
2-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxy-1-methyl-3-[(4-nitrophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione
-
-
2-pentoxycinnamaldehyde
-
-
3,4-estronequinone
-
0.032 mM, IC50: 0.02 mM
3-(4-[[2-(1-hydroxy-4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-yl)-1H-indol-1-yl]sulfonyl]phenyl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-(4-[[6-fluoro-2-(1-hydroxy-4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-yl)-1H-indol-1-yl]sulfonyl]phenyl)propanoic acid
-
-
3-Bromopropionate
-
-
4,5-dinitro-1,3-benzodioxole
-
IC50: 0.08 mM
4,5-dinitro-1,3-benzodioxole
-
IC50: 0.01 mM
4,6-dinitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
4,6-dinitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.01 mM
4-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
-
4-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
-
4-(1-benzothien-2-yl)-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
-
4-(5-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
-
4-azobenzene sulfonic acid
-
63% residual activity at 5 mM
-
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal
-
0.005-0.025 mM, IC50: 0.0038 mM, irreversible inhibition; 0.05 mM, remarkable lost inhibition
4-hydroxy-4-[1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indol-2-yl]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
-
4-hydroxynonenal
-
0.06 mM, IC50: 0.012 mM
4-nitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.05 mM
4-nitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
4-Vinylpyridine
-
irreversible
4-[6-fluoro-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indol-2-yl]-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
-
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
-
above 0.1 mM
5-fluoro-2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde
-
-
5-methoxy-1,2-dimethyl-3-[1-oxo-2-(2,4,6-trifluorophenyl)ethyl]indole-4,7-dione
-
-
5-methoxy-1-methyl-3-[(2,4,6-trifluorophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione
-
-
5-methoxy-1-methyl-3-[(4-nitrophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione
-
-
5-nitro-1,3-benzodioxole
-
IC50: 0.2 mM
5-nitro-1,3-benzodioxole
-
0.1 mM, 10% inhibition
5-nitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.09 mM
5-nitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.01 mM
6,7-dinitroquinoxaline
-
IC50: 0.14 mM
6,7-dinitroquinoxaline
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
6-methoxy-1-methyl-3-[(2,4,6-trifluorophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione
-
-
6-methoxy-1-methyl-3-[(4-nitrophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione
-
-
6-nitroquinoxaline
-
IC50: 0.2 mM
6-nitroquinoxaline
-
IC50: 0.04 mM
Ag+
-
enzyme activity is moderately reduced (50%) by 1 mM
allyl isothiocyanate
-
0.0205 mM, 50% inhibition after 30 min preincubation in assay with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate
aloe emodin
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
aloin A
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
anthrone
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
arsenic trioxide
-
irreversible. Both the N-terminal redox-active dithiol and the C-terminal selenothiol-active site of reduced TrxR may participate in the reaction with the inhibitor. The inhibition of MCF-7 cell growth by arsenic trioxide is correlated with irreversible inactivation of thioredoxin reductase, which subsequently led to thioredoxin oxidation
arsenite
-
-
arsenite
-
-
arsenite
-
-
arsenite
-
-
auranofin
-
-
auranofin
-
5-10 nM, 50% inhibition, complete inhibition above 15 nM
auranofin
Q97W27
-
auranofin
-
inhibition of thioredoxin reductase by auranofin induces apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells
auranofin
-
about 10% residual activity at 400 nM in the presence of NADPH, less than 5% residual activity at 400 nM for 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) reduction, about 80% residual activity at 400 nM for juglone reduction
auranofin
-
efficient inhibition, about 20% residual activity after 8 h at 0.005 mM, about 7% residual activity after 8 h at 0.05 mM
aurothioglucose
-
IC50: 120 nM
aurothioglucose
-
0.02 mM
aurothioglucose
-
about 90% residual activity after 8 h at 0.005 mM, about 80% residual activity after 8 h at 0.05 mM
azelaic acid
Q97W27
-
Benzyl isothiocyanate
-
0.0033 mM, 50% inhibition after 30 min preincubation in assay with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate
bis-demethoxy curcumin
-
-
Ca2+
-
non-reversible by EDTA
Ca2+
-
-
calveolin
Q9JMH6
overexpression of caveolin 1 inhibits TrxR activity by about 50% whereas a lack of caveolin 1 activates TrxR, both in vitro and in vivo
-
calveolin
-
overexpression of caveolin 1 inhibits TrxR activity by about 50% whereas a lack of caveolin 1 activates TrxR, both in vitro and in vivo
-
Cd2+
-
enzyme activity is drastically reduced (70%) by 1 mM
chaetocin
-
competitive inhibitor with anticancer effects, complete inhibition at 0.015 mM
chrysophanol
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
cisplatin
-
at pharmacological doses inhibits TrxR activity in both ascitic hepatoma 22 cells and kidney, leading to suppression of H22 cells proliferation along with nephrotoxicity. Amifostine, a clinical used cytoprotective agent, protected against CDDP-induced TrxR inactivation in kidney but not in H22 cells
cisplatin
-
heat shock protein 27 protects L929 cells from cisplatin-induced apoptosis by enhancing Akt activation and abating suppression of thioredoxin reductase activity
cisplatin
-
-
cisplatin
-
complete inhibition after 1 h at 0.5 mM
cisplatin
-
i.e. cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II), about 3% residual activity at 400 nM in the presence of NADPH, about 10% residual activity at 400 nM for 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) reduction, about 90% residual activity at 400 nM for juglone reduction
cisplatin
-
about 40% residual activity after 8 h at 0.005 mM or 0.05 mM
Cr6+
-
hexavalent chromium causes pronounced inhibition of TrxR, the inhibition of TrxR is not reversed by removal of residual Cr6+ or by NADPH. In cells treated with 0.025 or 0.050 mM Cr6+ for 90 min, TrxR activity is inhibited by 71 and 77%, respectively, while after 180 min of the same treatments, TrxR is inhibited by 97 and 85%, respectively
Cu2+
-
strong inhibition
Cu2+
-
enzyme activity is drastically reduced (70%) by 1 mM
curcumin
-
IC50: 0.0036 mM
curcumin
-
-
curcumin
O62768
-
curcumin
-
-
curcumin
-
-
curcumin
-
irreversible inhibition
cyclophosphamide
-
250 mg/kg reduces activity reversibly to 25% at 3h after treatment
demethoxy curcumin
-
-
diallyl disulfide
-
0.38 mM, 50% inhibition after 30 min preincubation in assay with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate
diphenylene iodonium
-
IC50: 0.001 mM
ES936
-
i.e. 5-methoxy-1,2-dimethyl-3-[(4-nitrophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione, potent inhibitor
Fe2+
-
strong inhibition
frangulin A
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
Glyoxal
-
93% residual activity at 5 mM
gold
-
potent inhibitor, the inhibition of TrxR1 by the metal compound is not markedly influenced by the presence of EDTA
gold acetate
-
500 nM, 50% inhibition
gold sodium thiomalate
-
500 nM, 50% inhibition
Hg2+
-
potently inhibits (at concentrations of 5-50 nM) TrxR1 activity in both cell-free and intracellular assays
Hg2+
O62768
-
Hg2+
-
-
Hg2+
-
in the presence of NADPH, a ratio of 2 HgCl2 molecules to 1 TrxR dimer leads to a virtually inactive enzyme. On treatment with 0.005 mM selenite and NADPH, TrxR inactivated by HgCl2 displays almost full recovery of activity
Hg2+
-
enzyme activity is drastically reduced (70%) by 1 mM
hypericin
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
ifosfamide
-
inhibition of thioredoxin reductase activity in malignant cells by ifosfamide is highly associated with its anticancer effect and the mechanism of ifosfamide systemic toxicity may be related to multi-organ inhibition of thioredoxin reductase activity
iodacetamide
-
-
Iodine
-
86% residual activity at 5 mM
iodoacetate
-
-
iodoacetate
-
irreversible
K2PdCl4
-
strong and irreversible inhibition, about 30% residual activity at 400 nM in the presence of NADPH, less than 10% residual activity at 400 nM for 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) reduction, about 90% residual activity at 400 nM for juglone reduction
K2PdCl6
-
irreversible inhibition
K2PtCl4
-
irreversible inhibition, about 5% residual activity at 400 nM in the presence of NADPH, complete inhibition of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) reduction at 400 nM, about 90% residual activity at 400 nM for juglone reduction
K2PtCl6
-
irreversible inhibition
KAuCl4
-
irreversible inhibition, about 10% residual activity at 400 nM in the presence of NADPH, less than 5% residual activity at 400 nM for 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) reduction, about 70% residual activity at 400 nM for juglone reduction
leukotriene A4 methyl ester
-
0.06 mM, IC50: 0.513 mM
methylmercury
-
a single administration of methylmercury (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) causes a marked inhibition of kidney TrxR activity, while significant inhibition is observed in the liver 24 h after exposure to 5 and 10 mg/kg. In the brain, methylmercury does not inhibit TrxR activity. Methylmercury can bind to selenocysteine residues present in the catalytic site of TrxR, in turn causing enzyme inhibition that can compromise the redox state of cells
methylmercury
-
in the case of methylmercury, a ratio of 16 molecules per dimer leads to a virtually inactive enzyme
metronidazole
-
metronidazole-modified recombinant enzyme displays considerably reduced thioredoxin reductase activity. By reducing metronidazole, the enzyme renders itself and associated thiol-containing proteins vulnerable to adduct formation
Mg2+
-
slightly
myricetin
-
0.05 mM, strong inhibitory effect, IC50: 0.62 mM
N-ethylmaleimide
-
reaction only with the reduced enzyme
N-ethylmaleimide
-
46% residual activity at 5 mM
NAD+
-
NAD+ acts as poor competitive inhibitor respect to both NADPH and NADH
NADP+
-
product inhibition
NADP+
-
better competitive inhibitor than NAD+
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
with NADPH
p-mercuribenzoate
-
-
palladium
-
potent inhibitor, the inhibition of TrxR1 by the metal compound is not markedly influenced by the presence of EDTA
palmarumycin CP1
-
0.001 mM, the naphthoquinone spiroketal fungal metabolite palmarumycin CP1 is a potent inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase-1, IC50: 0.00035 mM
phenethyl isothiocyanate
-
0.075 mM, 50% inhibition after 30 min preincubation in assay with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate
Phenyl mercuric acetate
-
stabilizes enzyme in one of two possible conformations
physcion
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
platinum
-
the inhibition of TrxR1 by the metal compound is not markedly influenced by the presence of EDTA
Prostaglandin A2
-
0.06 mM, IC50: 0.068 mM
pseudohypericin
O89049, Q9Z0J5
; strong inhibitor of isoform TrxR1
PX-911
-
0.001 mM, a water-soluble prodrug of a palmarumycin CP1 analogue, IC50: 0.0032 mM
PX-916
-
0.001 mM, a water-soluble prodrug of a palmarumycin CP1 analogue, potent inhibitor of purified human thioredoxin reductase-1, IC50: 0.00028 mM
PX-960
-
0.001 mM, a water-soluble prodrug of a palmarumycin CP1 analogue, IC50: 0.00027 mM
quercetin
-
0.05 mM, strong inhibitory effect, IC50: 0.97 mM
reactive oxygen species
-
0.1 mM, ROS generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase enhance the inhibitory effect of flavonoids
-
Rhein
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
sennoside A
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
sennoside B
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
skyrin glucoside
O89049, Q9Z0J5
;
sodium aurothiomalate
-
0.1 mM
sodium aurothiosulfate
-
100 nM, 50% inhibition
sulforaphane
-
0.04 mM, 50% inhibition after 30 min preincubation in assay with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate
theaflavin
O62768
-
theaflavin
-
-
theaflavin-3'-monogallate
O62768
-
theaflavin-3,3'-digallate
O62768
-
theaflavin-3-monogallate
O62768
-
trans,trans-curcumin
-
0.01-0.05 mM, IC50: 0.0015 mM, irreversible inhibition
trans,trans-curcumin
-
IC50: 0.0036 mM, irreversible inhibition after incubation at room temperature for 2 h in vitro
trans,trans-curcumin
-
-
trans-cinnamaldehyde
-
-
trans-[bis(2-amino-5-methylthiazole)tetrachlororuthenate(III)]
-
selective inhibition of TrxR1
triphenyl phosphine gold chloride
-
75 nM, 50% inhibition
trisodium (4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole-2-thiolato-kappaS2)[3,3',3''-(phosphanetriyl-kappaP)tribenzenesulfonato(3-)]aurate(3-)
-
-
trisodium [3,3',3''-(phosphanetriyl-kappaP)tribenzenesulfonato(3-)](pyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)aurate(3-)
-
-
Zinc
-
0.05 mM, 50% inhibition
Zn2+
-
strong inhibition
Zn2+
-
0.1-0.2 mM and above
Zn2+
-
enzyme activity is drastically reduced (70%) by 1 mM
[(iPr2Im)2Au]Cl
-
mainly inhibits isoform TrxR2, about 30% residual activity after 8 h at 0.005 mM or 0.05 mM
-
[Au(d2pype)2]Cl
-
mainly inhibits isoform TrxR1, about 30% residual activity after 8 h at 0.005 mM, about 10% residual activity after 8 h at 0.05 mM
-
[Au(d2pypp)2]Cl
-
about 30% residual activity after 8 h at 0.005 mM, about 10% residual activity after 8 h at 0.05 mM
-
[Pt(2,2'-bipyridine)(ethylenediamine)]Cl2
-
the platinum(II) complex acts as an inhibitor by binding with the active site of the enzyme
Mn2+
-
strong inhibition
additional information
-
no inhibition with dinitrohalobenzene analogues: 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1-chloro-4-nitrobenzene, 1-chloro-3,4-dinitrobenzene, 1-chloro-2,5-dinitrobenzene
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by Ca2+ or Co2+
-
additional information
-
transfection of HeLa cells with siRNA targeted against TrxR1 effectively decreases TrxR1 protein levels and activity relative to control cells. Trx1 oxidation is not an inevitable consequence of TrxR1 inhibition
-
additional information
-
quinols irreversible inhibit mammalian TrxR by targeting the penultimate C-terminal selenocysteine residue
-
additional information
-
hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase system and H2O2 in rheumatoid arthritis cells decrease thioredoxin reductase activity, which is found to be unchanged in osteoarthritis cells. H2O2 and superoxide anion cause a time-dependent accumulation of oxidized thioredoxin reductase and induces the formation of carbonyl groups in thioredoxin reductase protein in rheumatoid arthritis cells rather than osteoarthritis cells, and oxidizes the selenocysteine of the active site. The oxidation in thioredoxin reductase protein is irreversible in rheumatoid arthritis cells but not in osteoarthritis cells
-
additional information
-
2-[(1-methylpropyl)dithio]-1H-imidazole (IV-2) causes the oxidation of cysteine residues from both thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin, with only the latter leading to irreversible inhibition of protein function
-
additional information
-
SecTRAPs (selenium compromised thioredoxin reductase-derived apoptotic proteins) can be formed from the selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase by targeting of its selenocysteine residue with electrophiles, or by its removal through C-terminal truncation. SecTRAPs are devoid of thioredoxin reductase activity but can induce rapid cell death in cultured cancer cell lines by a gain of function. Human and rat SecTRAPs induce cell death in human A549 and HeLa cells
-
additional information
-
black tea extract and theaflavins (mixture of theaflavin, theaflavin-3-monogallate, theaflavin-3'-monogallate and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate) inhibit the purified TrxR1 with IC50 44 mg/ml and 21 mg/ml, respectively. Kinetics of theaflavins exhibit a mixed type of competitive and non-competitive inhibition, with Kis 4 mg/ml and Kii 26 mg/ml against coenzyme NADPH, and with Kis 12 mg/ml and Kii 27 mg/ml against substrate 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by trans-cinnamaldehyde and 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde after 1 h of incubation
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde and cinnamic acid after 1 h of incubation
-
additional information
-
tetrahydrocurcumin has no significant effect on TxnRd activity at doses of up to 0.05 mM
-
additional information
-
the enzyme is not inhibited by dimedone even at 150fold excess
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
carbon tetrachloride
Q9JMH6
causes marked increases in hepatic TrxR1 activity
cysteine
-
part of the active site
cysteine
-
part of the active site
cysteine
-
part of the active site
cysteine
-
part of the active site
cysteine
-
1 redox-active disulfide per subunit
cysteine
Q8VX47
-
cysteine
-
1 pair of redox active cysteines at the N-terminal active center and 1 pair of selenenylsulfide at the C-terminus, crucial for the reduction of thioredoxin
cysteine
-
part of the active site
cysteine
-
part of the active site
cysteine
-
at the active center, C88 and C93
cysteine
-
2 pairs of cysteine residues, C32, C35 and C135, C138
cysteine
-
C-terminal redox active disulfide; part of the active site
cysteine
-
C-terminal redox active disulfide
cysteine
-
C-terminal redox active selenocysteine motif
EDTA
-
4% activity remaining without
EDTA
-
if the concentration of EDTA in the reaction mixture is higher than 0.1 mM the enzyme shows full activity
FADH2
-
activates
phosphate
-
2fold activation
phosphate
-
under growth conditions
Thioacetamide
Q9JMH6
causes marked increases in hepatic TrxR1 activity
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0186
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
0.049
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
-
0.088
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme
0.09
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM EDTA, at 25C
0.0906
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
0.094
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
0.0971
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
0.105
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
isoform TrxR1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.0, at 37C
0.114
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
full length enzyme, in 100 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 25C
0.139
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
purified, recombinant, tetrameric enzyme
0.17
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
full-length Drosophila enzyme with C-terminal sequence SCCS
0.2156
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
purified, recombinant, dimeric enzyme
0.22
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
0.39
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
isoform TrxR2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.0, at 37C
0.41
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
0.42
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme
0.45
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
0.463
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), at 22C
0.47
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
full-length mouse enzyme with C-terminal sequence GCUG
0.53
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated thioredoxin reductase missing its final eight amino acids, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
0.7
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
pH 7.4
0.7
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
mutant U498C
0.71
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated recombinant enzyme (lacking the last two amino acids Sec597-Gly598), in 100 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 25C
0.75
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
pH 7, 25C
0.83
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated thioredoxin reductase missing its final eight amino acids, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
0.92
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated enzyme (missing residues CCS from the C-terminus) so that Ser488 is the C-terminal amino acid
1.1
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R/H108Y/A119N/V478E
1.1
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
1.4
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
1.7
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
pH 7.0, 25C
2.4
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
TrxR-16, TrxR lacking the last 16 C-terminal amino acids
2.72
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated mutant enzyme (missing residues CUG from the C-terminus) so that Gly521 is the C-terminal amino acid
3.3
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R
4.1
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated thioredoxin reductase missing its final eight amino acids, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
4.5
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R/H108Y
172.4
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
-
0.00227
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
0.00698
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
0.02374
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
0.33
alloxan
-
-
0.0095
BAS1
A6XJ27
-
-
0.089
benzyl viologen
-
at pH 9.5 and 80C
0.0046
chaetocin
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), at 22C
0.0161
chetomin
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), at 22C
1.25
dithionitrobenzene
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.05
DTNB
-
mutant enzyme H509Q
0.116
DTNB
-
-
0.147
DTNB
-
mutant enzyme H509A
0.212
DTNB
-
wild-type enzyme
0.38
DTNB
-
cytosolic TrxR1 isoform
0.41
DTNB
-
mitochondrial TrxR1 isoform
0.66
DTNB
-
-
0.0036
Entamoeba histolytica thioredoxin disulfide 41
-
pH 7.0, 25C
-
0.0046
Escherichia coli thioredoxin disulfide
-
pH 7.0, 25C
-
0.0169
gliotoxin
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), at 22C
0.0333
glutaredoxin 4
-
-
-
0.015
GSSG
-
-
2.5
H2O2
-
wild-type enzyme, Km-value can be reduced by addition of selenocysteine
0.00112
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h1
-
pH 7.4, HvNTR2
-
0.00118
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h1
-
pH 7.4, HvNTR1
-
0.0009
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h2
-
pH 5.7, HvNTR2
-
0.00129
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h2
-
pH 7.4, HvNTR2
-
0.00145
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h2
-
pH 5.7, HvNTR1
-
0.00179
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h2
-
pH 7.4, HvNTR1
-
0.0033
human thioredoxin
-
wild-type enzyme
-
6.6
hydrogen peroxide
-
semisynthetic enzyme with 91% content of selenium
0.0019
Lipoamide
-
isoform TrxR1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, at 37C
0.0043
Lipoamide
-
isoform TrxR2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, at 37C
2.89
Lipoamide
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
3.68
Lipoamide
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
5.59
Lipoamide
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
0.0027
lipoic acid
-
isoform TrxR1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, at 37C
0.134
methaneseleninic acid
-
at pH 6.1 and 37C
-
0.011
NADH
A6XJ27
; pH 7.5
0.023
NADH
-
with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.0302
NADH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), at 22C
0.073
NADH
-
at pH 9.5 and 80C
0.1
NADH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
0.6
NADH
Q8VX47
; wild-type
0.736
NADH
-
cosubstrate: 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0004
NADPH
Q8VX47
; wild-type
0.0008
NADPH
-
at 4C
0.001
NADPH
-
cytosolic and mitochondrial TrxR1 isoform
0.0012
NADPH
-
at 25C
0.0017
NADPH
Q97W27
pH 5.5, 60C
0.0018
NADPH
-
with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.00235
NADPH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
0.0024
NADPH
A6XJ27
; pH 7.5
0.003
NADPH
-
-
0.003
NADPH
-
-
0.0032
NADPH
-
-
0.0045
NADPH
-
pH 7.0, 25C, cosubstrate: 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
0.006
NADPH
-
-
0.0063
NADPH
-
cosubstrate: 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0125
NADPH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), at 22C
0.088
NADPH
-
wild type enzyme
0.7
NADPH
-
mutant U498C
0.78
NADPH
-
at pH 6.5 and 80C
1
NADPH
-
TrxR-1(cyto); TrxR-1(mito)
1.1
NADPH
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R/H108Y/A119N/V478E
2.4
NADPH
-
TrxR-16, TrxR lacking the last 16 C-terminal amino acids
3.3
NADPH
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R
3.6
NADPH
-
-
4.5
NADPH
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R/H108Y
0.035
protein disulfide-isomerase
-
-
-
0.0025
reductase
-
thioredoxin from rat, bovine substrate
-
0.0033
reductase
-
-
-
0.62
selenocysteine
-
-
0.00031
thioredoxin
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
0.0004
thioredoxin
-
SeC498C mutant, human thioredoxin
0.00076
thioredoxin
-
substrate: thioredoxin from E. coli
0.00076
thioredoxin
Q8VX47
assay with DTNB instead of NADPH
0.00088
thioredoxin
-
mutant C136S
0.0011
thioredoxin
-
recombinant enzyme
0.00125
thioredoxin
-
wild-type
0.00141
thioredoxin
-
rat thioredoxin as substrate
0.00157
thioredoxin
-
Escherichia coli thioredoxin as substrate
0.0017
thioredoxin
-
at 4C
0.0017
thioredoxin
-
mutant C139S
0.00183
thioredoxin
-
human thioredoxin as substrate
0.002
thioredoxin
-
substrate wild-type, thioredoxin P34S, pH 8.0
0.00236
thioredoxin
-
human thioredoxin as substrate
0.0025
thioredoxin
-
substrate: thioredoxin from calf and rat
0.00256
thioredoxin
-
Escherichia coli thioredoxin as substrate
0.0028
thioredoxin
-
at 25C
0.0028
thioredoxin
-
-
0.003
thioredoxin
-
-
0.003
thioredoxin
-
-
0.0037
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin from rat
0.0047
thioredoxin
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.0051
thioredoxin
-
rat thioredoxin as substrate
0.006
thioredoxin
-
human thioredoxin
0.0062
thioredoxin
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.007
thioredoxin
-
cytosolic TrxR1 isoform
0.0085
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin-1 from Anopheles gambiae, pH 7.4
0.009
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin-2 from Drosophila melanogaster, pH 7.4
0.0144
thioredoxin
-
substrate: thioredoxin from E. coli
0.019
thioredoxin
-
mitochondrial TrxR1 isoform
0.033
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin-1 from Plasmodium falciparum, pH 7.4
0.034
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin from E. coli
0.036
thioredoxin
Q8VX47
wild-type, thioredoxin from E. coli
0.0441
thioredoxin
Q97W27
pH 5.5, 60C
0.045
thioredoxin
-
substrate: thioredoxin from E. coli
0.07
thioredoxin
-
-
0.07
thioredoxin
-
E. coli thioredoxin
0.07
thioredoxin
-
-
0.077
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin from Escherichia coli, mutant TR-GCCS
0.1047
thioredoxin
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), at 22C
0.219
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin from Escherichia coli, mutant TR-SCCS
0.33
thioredoxin
-
-
0.61
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin from Escherichia coli, wild type enzyme
6.6
thioredoxin
-
mutant enzyme U489C
12.3
thioredoxin
-
-
35
thioredoxin
-
semisynthetic enzyme with 63% content of selenium
67.6
thioredoxin
-
semisynthetic enzyme with 91% content of selenium
0.0013
thioredoxin 1
-
wild type enzyme, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0006
thioredoxin 2
-
wild type enzyme, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.0009
thioredoxin 2
-
mutant enzyme K137A, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.0011
thioredoxin 3
-
wild type enzyme, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.0023
thioredoxin 41
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
-
0.0036
thioredoxin 41
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
-
0.0028
thioredoxin 8
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
-
0.0029
thioredoxin 8
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
-
0.00047
thioredoxin C-2
-
-
-
0.00099
thioredoxin disulfide
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
0.00106
thioredoxin disulfide
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
0.00143
thioredoxin disulfide
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
0.0032
thioredoxin disulfide
-
purified, recombinant, tetrameric enzyme
0.0036
thioredoxin disulfide
-
purified, recombinant, dimeric enzyme
0.00637
thioredoxin disulfide
-
full length enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 25C
0.017
thioredoxin disulfide
-
-
0.032
thioredoxin disulfide
-
full-length mouse enzyme with C-terminal sequence SCCS
0.0676
thioredoxin disulfide
-
full-length mouse enzyme with C-terminal sequence GCUG
0.086
thioredoxin disulfide
-
Methanosarcina acetivorans thioredoxin 7, cosubstrate: NADPH, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.123
thioredoxin disulfide
-
full-length mouse enzyme with C-terminal sequence GCCG
0.141
thioredoxin disulfide
-
full-length Drosophila enzyme with C-terminal sequence SCCS
0.173
thioredoxin disulfide
-
pH 7, 25C
0.0036
thioredoxin disulfide 41
-
pH 7, 30C
-
0.0028
thioredoxin disulfide 8
-
pH 7, 30C
-
0.0076
thioredoxin disulfide h
Q8VX47
-
-
0.0067
thioredoxin K36R
-
substrate mutant, pH 8.0
-
0.007
thioredoxin-1 disulfide
-
TrxR(cyto)
-
0.019
thioredoxin-1 disulfife
-
TRxR(mito)
-
0.0044
thioredoxin-II
-
-
-
0.125
thioredoxin-R
-
substrate mutant, thioredoxin-CAC, pH 8.0
-
0.018
methylseleninate
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
Km-values are pH-dependent
-
additional information
additional information
-
additionally to the Arabidopsis thaliana thioredoxin, several other thioredoxins have been tested, Km-values
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
KM-values of truncated enzymes forms
-
additional information
additional information
-
KM-values of semisynthetic truncated mTR3 enzymes
-
additional information
additional information
-
effects of paraquat on reaction kinetics of NADH and NADPH in lung cell extracts
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.012
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
mutant U498C
0.018
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R/H108Y/A119N/V478E
0.075
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R/H108Y
0.23
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.25
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.52
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R
0.55
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
TrxR-16, TrxR lacking the last 16 C-terminal amino acids
0.62
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
A6XJ27
; pH 7.5
1.2
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated recombinant enzyme (lacking the last two amino acids Sec597-Gly598), in 100 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 25C
1.6
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
full-length Drosophila enzyme with C-terminal sequence SCCS
1.77
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
2.23
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme
2.23
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
2.4
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated enzyme (missing residues CCS from the C-terminus) so that Ser488 is the C-terminal amino acid
2.53
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated thioredoxin reductase missing its final eight amino acids, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
2.62
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
pH 7, 25C
2.62
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
5.5
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
pH 7.4
8.28
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
isoform TrxR2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.0, at 37C
9
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
-
15.6
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated mutant enzyme (missing residues CUG from the C-terminus) so that Gly521 is the C-terminal amino acid
16
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
full length enzyme, in 100 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 25C
18.73
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
isoform TrxR1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.0, at 37C
20.83
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
full-length mouse enzyme with C-terminal sequence GCUG
20.85
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
21.6
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated thioredoxin reductase missing its final eight amino acids, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
30.02
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM EDTA, at 25C
33.08
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
purified, recombinant, tetrameric enzyme
33.33
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme
47.72
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
48.42
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated thioredoxin reductase missing its final eight amino acids, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
49.87
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
70.3
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
106.3
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
purified, recombinant, dimeric enzyme
24.1
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
52.75
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
174.3
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
167
alloxan
-
-
0.16
DTNB
-
mutant enzyme H509A
0.233
DTNB
-
mutant enzyme H509Q
4.58
DTNB
-
wild-type enzyme
29.5
DTNB
-
-
50.3
DTNB
-
chimeric enzyme mutant, partly from Salmonella typhimurium AhpF protein
66.7
DTNB
-
-
8
glutaredoxin 4
-
-
-
5.1
GSSG
-
-
2.25
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h1
-
pH 7.4, HvNTR1
-
3.26
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h1
-
pH 7.4, HvNTR2
-
0.43
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h2
-
pH 5.7, HvNTR1
-
0.8
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h2
-
pH 5.7, HvNTR2
-
1.31
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h2
-
pH 7.4, HvNTR1
-
2.98
Hordeum vulgare thioredoxin disulfide h2
-
pH 7.4, HvNTR2
-
1.183
hydrogen peroxide
-
semisynthetic enzyme with 91% content of selenium
6.08
hydrogen peroxide
-
semisynthetic enzyme with 91% content of selenium
1.6
Lipoamide
-
isoform TrxR2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, at 37C
2 - 3.7
Lipoamide
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
3.3
Lipoamide
-
isoform TrxR1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, at 37C
27.6
Lipoamide
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
31.2
Lipoamide
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
1.8
lipoic acid
-
isoform TrxR1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, at 37C
16.05
methaneseleninic acid
-
at pH 6.1 and 37C
-
12
methylseleninate
-
recombinant protein
14
methylseleninate
-
-
23
methylseleninate
-
-
0.06
NADH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
0.2
NADH
-
with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.817
NADH
-
cosubstrate: 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.25
NADPH
-
with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.35
NADPH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
0.61
NADPH
Q97W27
pH 5.5, 60C
0.65
NADPH
-
cosubstrate: 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), pH and temperature not specified in the publication
500
protein disulfide-isomerase
-
-
-
1.83
rat thioredoxin
-
insulin coupled assay
-
1600
selenocysteine
-
-
0.016
thioredoxin
-
Escherichia coli thioredoxin as substrate
0.02
thioredoxin
-
mutant enzyme U489C
0.052 - 2.1
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin from Escherichia coli, wild type enzyme
0.243
thioredoxin
-
SeC498C mutant enzyme, human thioredoxin
0.38
thioredoxin
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
0.5
thioredoxin
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
1.25
thioredoxin
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
1.3
thioredoxin
Q97W27
pH 5.5, 60C
2.38
thioredoxin
-
mutant C136S
3.5
thioredoxin
-
human thioredoxin as substrate
4.03
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin from Escherichia coli, mutant TR-SCCS
5.3
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin from Escherichia coli, mutant TR-GCCS
5.58
thioredoxin
-
insulin coupled assay method
8.1
thioredoxin
-
human thioredoxin as substrate
10.17
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin from Escherichia coli, wild type enzyme
13.2
thioredoxin
-
mutant C139S
14.3
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin-2 from Drosophila melanogaster, pH 7.4
15.4
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin-1 from Anopheles gambiae, pH 7.4
15.7
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin-1 from Plasmodium falciparum, pH 7.4
19.97
thioredoxin
-
human thioredoxin as substrate
22
thioredoxin
-
wild-type
22.8
thioredoxin
-
wild-type, pH 8.0
25
thioredoxin
-
semisynthetic enzyme with 63% content of selenium
25.78
thioredoxin
-
human thioredoxin as substrate
27.4
thioredoxin
-
rat thioredoxin as substrate
29.5
thioredoxin
-
Escherichia coli thioredoxin as substrate
37
thioredoxin
-
semisynthetic enzyme with 91% content of selenium
37.88
thioredoxin
-
rat thioredoxin as substrate
41.7
thioredoxin
-
wild-type enzyme, human thioredoxin
46.57
thioredoxin
-
Escherichia coli thioredoxin as substrate
50
thioredoxin
-
-
63.2
thioredoxin
-
-
1030
thioredoxin
-
human thioredoxin
1200
thioredoxin
-
-
1300
thioredoxin
-
thioredoxin from E. coli
43.7
thioredoxin 1
-
wild type enzyme, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
42.9
thioredoxin 2
-
wild type enzyme, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
-
47.1
thioredoxin 2
-
mutant enzyme K137A, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
-
34
thioredoxin 3
-
wild type enzyme, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
-
2
thioredoxin 41
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
-
2.2
thioredoxin 41
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
-
2.6
thioredoxin 8
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
-
2.7
thioredoxin 8
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
-
0.083
thioredoxin disulfide
-
full-length mouse enzyme with C-terminal sequence SCCS
0.13
thioredoxin disulfide
-
full-length mouse enzyme with C-terminal sequence GCCG
1.175
thioredoxin disulfide
-
Methanosarcina acetivorans thioredoxin 7, cosubstrate: NADPH, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
4.99
thioredoxin disulfide
-
pH 7, 25C
5.8
thioredoxin disulfide
-
full-length Drosophila enzyme with C-terminal sequence SCCS
19.2
thioredoxin disulfide
-
-
30
thioredoxin disulfide
-
full length enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 25C
37
thioredoxin disulfide
-
full-length mouse enzyme with C-terminal sequence GCUG
40.98
thioredoxin disulfide
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
44.85
thioredoxin disulfide
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
47 - 73
thioredoxin disulfide
-
purified, recombinant, tetrameric enzyme
94.17
thioredoxin disulfide
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
114.1
thioredoxin disulfide
-
purified, recombinant, dimeric enzyme
2.2
thioredoxin disulfide 41
-
pH 7, 30C
-
1.43
thioredoxin disulfide 8
-
pH 7, 30C
-
22.7
thioredoxin K36E, thioredoxin P34S
-
mutant, pH 8.0
-
10.3
thioredoxin-CAC, thioredoxin-R
-
mutant, pH 8.0
-
31
methylseleninate
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
transhydrogenase activity of mutants and wild-type enzyme with thioredoxin and FAD
-
additional information
additional information
-
wild-type and recombinant chimeric mutants in a coupled assay
-
additional information
additional information
-
turnover number of truncated enzyme forms
-
additional information
additional information
-
turnover number of semisynthetic truncated mTR3 enzymes
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.17
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
221
0.22
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
221
0.23
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
221
4.78
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated thioredoxin reductase missing its final eight amino acids, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
221
5.27
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated thioredoxin reductase missing its final eight amino acids, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
221
5.45
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
221
21.2
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
isoform TrxR2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.0, at 37C
221
45.33
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
221
58.33
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated thioredoxin reductase missing its final eight amino acids, in 50 mM potassium phosphate at pH 7.0
221
95
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
221
178
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
isoform TrxR1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.0, at 37C
221
183.3
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
purified, recombinant, tetrameric enzyme
221
333.5
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, 10 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 10 mM EDTA, at 25C
221
495
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
purified, recombinant, dimeric enzyme
221
513.3
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
221
526.7
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
221
748.3
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
221
7343
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
1344
7557
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
1344
10620
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
1344
5.6
Lipoamide
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
925
7.5
Lipoamide
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
925
372
Lipoamide
-
isoform TrxR2, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, at 37C
925
1737
Lipoamide
-
isoform TrxR1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, at 37C
925
667
lipoic acid
-
isoform TrxR1, in 50 mM Tris-HCl, 1 mM EDTA, pH 8.0, at 37C
2025
0.6
NADH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
8
1.1
NADH
-
cosubstrate: 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), pH and temperature not specified in the publication
8
84
NADH
-
with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoicacid) as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
8
103.3
NADPH
-
cosubstrate: 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid), pH and temperature not specified in the publication
5
140
NADPH
-
with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
5
150
NADPH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
5
75
thioredoxin
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
121
260
thioredoxin
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
121
1230
thioredoxin
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 1 mM EDTA, temperature not specified in the publication
121
34000
thioredoxin 1
-
wild type enzyme, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
3921
52000
thioredoxin 2
-
mutant enzyme K137A, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0
73000
thioredoxin 2
-
wild type enzyme, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0
31000
thioredoxin 3
-
wild type enzyme, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0
600
thioredoxin 41
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0
880
thioredoxin 41
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0
890
thioredoxin 8
-
with NADH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0
950
thioredoxin 8
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0
13.7
thioredoxin disulfide
-
Methanosarcina acetivorans thioredoxin 7, cosubstrate: NADPH, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
476
14920
thioredoxin disulfide
-
purified, recombinant, tetrameric enzyme
476
31700
thioredoxin disulfide
-
purified, recombinant, dimeric enzyme
476
41450
thioredoxin disulfide
-
mutant enzyme Y116I, in TE buffer, at 20C
476
42150
thioredoxin disulfide
-
mutant enzyme Y116T, in TE buffer, at 20C
476
65940
thioredoxin disulfide
-
wild type enzyme, in TE buffer, at 20C
476
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.25 - 1.3
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.000024
15-deoxy-D-12,14-PGJ2
-
-
0.001
3,4-estronequinone
-
-
0.0008
4-hydroxynonenal
-
-
0.013
auranofin
Q97W27
pH 5.5, 60C
0.054
azelaic acid
Q97W27
pH 5.5, 60C
0.313
NAD+
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
1.478
NAD+
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.007
NADP+
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.015
NADP+
-
at 25C
0.026
NADP+
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.0045
Prostaglandin A2
-
-
0.033
leukotriene A4 methyl ester
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
kinetics of theaflavins exhibit a mixed type of competitive and non-competitive inhibition, with Kis 4 mg/ml and Kii 26 mg/ml against coenzyme NADPH, and with Kis 12 mg/ml and Kii 27 mg/ml against substrate 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0018
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0137
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.003
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0017
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0063
(1E,4E)-1,5-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)penta-1,4-dien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0383
(1E,4Z,6E)-1,7-di-2-furyl-5-hydroxyhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.05
(1E,4Z,6E)-1-(2-bromophenyl)-5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0622
(1E,4Z,6E)-1-[4-(dimethylamino)phenyl]-5-hydroxy-7-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0003
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0016
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1,7-bis(5-methyl-2-furyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0005
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(5-methyl-2-furyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.001
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.02
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-(2-thienyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.02
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.057
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0138
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0233
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.002
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0008
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)hepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0013
(1E,4Z,6E)-5-hydroxy-7-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furyl]-1-phenylhepta-1,4,6-trien-3-one
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0081
(2E,5E)-2,5-bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0042
(2E,5E)-2,5-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0033
(2E,5E)-2,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)cyclopentanone
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0407
(2E,5E)-2,5-bis[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclopentanone
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.00052
(2E,5E)-2,5-bis[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclopentanone
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0048
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0089
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0241
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0453
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclohexanone
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0064
(2E,6E)-2,6-bis[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclohexanone
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0051
(2E,6E)-2-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0249
(2E,6E)-2-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-6-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]cyclohexanone
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.0462
(3E,5E)-3,5-bis(3,4-dihydroxybenzylidene)piperidin-4-one
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0046
(3E,5E)-3,5-bis(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)piperidin-4-one
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.071
(3E,5E)-3,5-bis(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxopiperidinium
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0306
(3E,5E)-3,5-bis[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]piperidin-4-one
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.00086
(3E,5E)-3,5-bis[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylidene]piperidin-4-one
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0184
(3E,5E)-3-[(2,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]-5-[(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylidene]piperidin-4-one
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.00007442
(4-ammoniothiophenolato)(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) chloride
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, at 37C
-
0.00007002
(4-ammoniothiophenolato)(4'-toyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) nitrate
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, at 37C
-
0.00006977
(4-hydroxylthiophenolato)(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) chloride
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, at 37C
-
0.00005826
(4-hydroxylthiophenolato)(4'-toyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) chloride
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, at 37C
-
0.00000096
(4-methylpyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-kappaP)gold
-
isoform TrxR1, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000406
(4-methylpyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-kappaP)gold
-
isoform TrxR2, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000155
(4-methylpyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)[1,1'-(1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-3,7-diyl-kappaP)diethanone]gold
-
isoform TrxR1, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000586
(4-methylpyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)[1,1'-(1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-3,7-diyl-kappaP)diethanone]gold
-
isoform TrxR2, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00007426
(N-acetyl-4-aminothiophenolato)(2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) chloride
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, at 37C
-
0.00007786
(N-acetyl-4-aminothiophenolato)(4'-toyl-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine)platinum(II) nitrate
-
in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, at 37C
-
0.00000161
(pyridine-2-thiolato-kappaS)(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-kappaP)gold
-
isoform TrxR1, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000412
(pyridine-2-thiolato-kappaS)(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-kappaP)gold
-
isoform TrxR2, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000154
(pyridine-2-thiolato-kappaS)[1,1'-(1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-3,7-diyl-kappaP)diethanone]gold
-
isoform TrxR1, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.0000062
(pyridine-2-thiolato-kappaS)[1,1'-(1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-3,7-diyl-kappaP)diethanone]gold
-
isoform TrxR2, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000192
(pyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-kappaP)gold
-
isoform TrxR1, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000673
(pyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)(1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphatricyclo[3.3.1.13,7]decane-kappaP)gold
-
isoform TrxR2, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.0005
1,1'-sulfanediylbis(2,4-dinitrobenzene)
-
IC50: 0.0005 mM
0.004
1,1'-sulfanediylbis(2,4-dinitrobenzene)
-
IC50: 0.004 mM
0.02
1,1'-sulfanediylbis[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene]
-
IC50: 0.02 mM
0.15
1,1'-sulfanediylbis[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzene]
-
IC50: 0.15 mM
0.03
1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzene
-
IC50: 0.03 mM
0.2
1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzene
-
IC50: 0.2 mM
0.2
1,4-dihydroxyanthroquinone
O89049, Q9Z0J5
IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.2
1,8-dihydroxyanthroquinone
O89049, Q9Z0J5
IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.00036
15-deoxy-D-12,14-PGJ2
-
0.06 mM, IC50: 0.00036 mM
0.0086
2-aminothiazolium [trans-tetrachlorobis(2-aminothiazole)ruthenate(III)]
-
-
0.017
2-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde
-
1 h incubation with recombinant TrxR, in TE buffer, at 25C
0.0994
2-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde
-
1 h incubation with recombinant TrxR, in TE buffer, at 25C
0.0636
2-benzyloxycinnamaldehyde
-
1 h incubation with recombinant TrxR, in TE buffer, at 25C
0.008
2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzene
-
IC50: 0.008 mM
0.1
2-chloro-1,3-dinitro-5-(trifluoromethyl)benzene
-
IC50: 0.1 mM
0.0253
2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde
-
1 h incubation with recombinant TrxR, in TE buffer, at 25C
0.000146
2-hydroxymethyl-5-methoxy-1-methyl-3-[(2,4,6-trifluorophenoxy)methyl]indole-4,7-dione
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at 22C
0.1
2-pentoxycinnamaldehyde
-
1 h incubation with recombinant TrxR, in TE buffer, at 25C
0.02
3,4-estronequinone
-
0.032 mM, IC50: 0.02 mM
0.0083
3-(4-[[2-(1-hydroxy-4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-yl)-1H-indol-1-yl]sulfonyl]phenyl)propanoic acid
-
pH 7.5, determined after 60 min incubation of recombinant rat TrxR with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate, irreversible
0.0098
3-(4-[[6-fluoro-2-(1-hydroxy-4-oxocyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-yl)-1H-indol-1-yl]sulfonyl]phenyl)propanoic acid
-
pH 7.5, determined after 60 min incubation of recombinant rat TrxR with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate, irreversible
0.01
4,5-dinitro-1,3-benzodioxole
-
IC50: 0.01 mM
0.08
4,5-dinitro-1,3-benzodioxole
-
IC50: 0.08 mM
0.002
4,6-dinitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
0.01
4,6-dinitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.01 mM
0.0065
4-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
pH 7.5, determined after 60 min incubation of recombinant rat TrxR with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate, irreversible
0.0761
4-(1,3-benzoxazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
pH 7.5, determined after 60 min incubation of recombinant rat TrxR with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate, irreversible
0.1043
4-(1-benzothien-2-yl)-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
pH 7.5, determined after 60 min incubation of recombinant rat TrxR with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate, irreversible
0.0063
4-(5-fluoro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
pH 7.5, determined after 60 min incubation of recombinant rat TrxR with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate, irreversible
0.0038
4-hydroxy-2-nonenal
-
0.005-0.025 mM, IC50: 0.0038 mM, irreversible inhibition
0.0029
4-hydroxy-4-[1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indol-2-yl]cyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
pH 7.5, determined after 60 min incubation of recombinant rat TrxR with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate, irreversible
0.012
4-hydroxynonenal
-
0.06 mM, IC50: 0.012 mM
0.002
4-nitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
0.05
4-nitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.05 mM
0.0027
4-[6-fluoro-1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1H-indol-2-yl]-4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-one
-
pH 7.5, determined after 60 min incubation of recombinant rat TrxR with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate, irreversible
0.007
5-fluoro-2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde
-
1 h incubation with recombinant TrxR, in TE buffer, at 25C
0.0844
5-fluoro-2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde
-
1 h incubation with recombinant TrxR, in TE buffer, at 25C
0.000082
5-methoxy-1,2-dimethyl-3-[1-oxo-2-(2,4,6-trifluorophenyl)ethyl]indole-4,7-dione
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at 22C
0.2
5-nitro-1,3-benzodioxole
-
IC50: 0.2 mM
0.01
5-nitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.01 mM
0.09
5-nitro-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole
-
IC50: 0.09 mM
0.002
6,7-dinitroquinoxaline
-
IC50: 0.002 mM
0.14
6,7-dinitroquinoxaline
-
IC50: 0.14 mM
0.04
6-nitroquinoxaline
-
IC50: 0.04 mM
0.2
6-nitroquinoxaline
-
IC50: 0.2 mM
0.0205
allyl isothiocyanate
-
25C, 30 min preincubation in assay with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate
0.18
aloe emodin
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.2
aloe emodin
O89049, Q9Z0J5
IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.2
aloin A
O89049, Q9Z0J5
IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.2
anthrone
O89049, Q9Z0J5
IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.00000074
auranofin
-
isoform TrxR1, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000245
auranofin
-
isoform TrxR2, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00012
aurothioglucose
-
IC50: 120 nM
0.0033
Benzyl isothiocyanate
-
25C, 30 min preincubation in assay with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate
0.004
chaetocin
-
using 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate, in 100 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), at 22C
0.181
chrysophanol
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.194
chrysophanol
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.0025
Cu2+
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.0036
curcumin
-
IC50: 0.0036 mM
0.0382
curcumin
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.38
diallyl disulfide
-
25C, 30 min preincubation in assay with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate
0.001
diphenylene iodonium
-
IC50: 0.001 mM
0.2
frangulin A
O89049, Q9Z0J5
IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.049
hypericin
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.198
hypericin
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.513
leukotriene A4 methyl ester
-
0.06 mM, IC50: 0.513 mM
0.0000171
methylmercury
-
TrxR from liver, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.000078
methylmercury
-
TrxR from kidney, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.62
myricetin
-
0.05 mM, strong inhibitory effect, IC50: 0.62 mM
0.00035
palmarumycin CP1
-
0.001 mM, the naphthoquinone spiroketal fungal metabolite palmarumycin CP1 is a potent inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase-1, IC50: 0.00035 mM
0.075
phenethyl isothiocyanate
-
25C, 30 min preincubation in assay with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate
0.132
physcion
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.185
physcion
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.068
Prostaglandin A2
-
0.06 mM, IC50: 0.068 mM
0.0046
pseudohypericin
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.0079
pseudohypericin
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.0032
PX-911
-
0.001 mM, a water-soluble prodrug of a palmarumycin CP1 analogue, IC50: 0.0032 mM
0.00028
PX-916
-
0.001 mM, a water-soluble prodrug of a palmarumycin CP1 analogue, potent inhibitor of purified human thioredoxin reductase-1, IC50: 0.00028 mM
0.00027
PX-960
-
0.001 mM, a water-soluble prodrug of a palmarumycin CP1 analogue, IC50: 0.00027 mM
0.97
quercetin
-
0.05 mM, strong inhibitory effect, IC50: 0.97 mM
0.084
Rhein
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.123
Rhein
O89049, Q9Z0J5
isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.2
sennoside A
O89049, Q9Z0J5
IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.2
sennoside B
O89049, Q9Z0J5
IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.2
skyrin glucoside
O89049, Q9Z0J5
IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR1, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4); IC50 above 0.2 mM, isoform TrxR2, at 25C in 0.2 M Na, K-phosphate buffer (pH 7.4)
0.04
sulforaphane
-
25C, 30 min preincubation in assay with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as substrate
0.06
theaflavin
O62768
IC50 above 0.06 mM, in 50 mM potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.5
0.0191
theaflavin-3'-monogallate
O62768
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.5
0.0216
theaflavin-3,3'-digallate
O62768
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.5
0.018
theaflavin-3-monogallate
O62768
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.5
0.0015
trans,trans-curcumin
-
0.01-0.05 mM, IC50: 0.0015 mM, irreversible inhibition
0.0036
trans,trans-curcumin
-
IC50: 0.0036 mM, irreversible inhibition after incubation at room temperature for 2 h in vitro
0.01
trans,trans-curcumin
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0713
trans-cinnamaldehyde
-
1 h incubation with recombinant TrxR, in TE buffer, at 25C
0.0238
trans-[bis(2-amino-5-methylthiazole)tetrachlororuthenate(III)]
-
-
0.00000167
trisodium (4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole-2-thiolato-kappaS2)[3,3',3''-(phosphanetriyl-kappaP)tribenzenesulfonato(3-)]aurate(3-)
-
isoform TrxR1, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000682
trisodium (4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole-2-thiolato-kappaS2)[3,3',3''-(phosphanetriyl-kappaP)tribenzenesulfonato(3-)]aurate(3-)
-
isoform TrxR2, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000062
trisodium [3,3',3''-(phosphanetriyl-kappaP)tribenzenesulfonato(3-)](pyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)aurate(3-)
-
isoform TrxR1, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.00000695
trisodium [3,3',3''-(phosphanetriyl-kappaP)tribenzenesulfonato(3-)](pyrimidine-2-thiolato-kappaS)aurate(3-)
-
isoform TrxR2, in 0.2 M Na/K phosphate buffer (pH 7.4), at 37C
0.0034
Zn2+
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.0, 2 mM EDTA at 30C
0.000158
methylmercury
-
TrxR from brain, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
additional information
additional information
-
black tea extract and theaflavins (mixture of theaflavin, theaflavin-3-monogallate, theaflavin-3'-monogallate and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate) inhibit the purified TrxR1 with IC50 44 mg/ml and 21 mg/ml, respectively
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.003
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R/H108Y/A119N/V478E
0.007
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R/H108Y
0.016
-
TrxR-16 mutant K29R
0.025
-
TrxR-16, TrxR lacking the last 16 C-terminal amino acids
0.035
-
mutant U498C
0.2
-
purified double mutant C535S/C88A as homodimer, insulin coupled assay
0.22
-
mutant H509Q, coupled assay with DTNB
0.3
-
purified mutant C535S as homodimer, insulin coupled assay
0.3
-
activity with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and NADPH, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.4
-
homodimer of mutant C88A, insulin coupled assay; purified double mutant C535S/C88A as heterodimer with the wild-type, insulin coupled assay
0.5
-
activity with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and NADH, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.595
-
purified enzyme
0.77
-
enzyme from cell-free extract, with NADPH, in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), at 22C
1.5
-
purified mutant C535A as heterodimer with the wild-type, insulin coupled assay
2.2
-
purified mutant C88A as heterodimer with the wild-type, insulin coupled assay
3.9
-
purified wild-type enzyme, insulin coupled assay
4.3
-
mutant H509A, coupled assay with DTNB; wild-type enzyme, coupled assay with DTNB
4.6
-
purified enzyme, coupled assay with DTNB
5.1
-
mutant enzyme C145S, in 50 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), at 20C
5.5
-
mutant enzyme C142S, in 50 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), at 20C
5.6
-
mutant enzyme C145A, in 50 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), at 20C
6.4
-
mutant enzyme C142A, in 50 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), at 20C
10.3
-
GSSG + NADPH
13.9
-
mitochondrial isoform
14.1
B9A1H3
using thioredoxin disulfide and NADPH as substrates, at 25C
17.5
-
thioredoxin disulfide + NADPH
22
-
purified enzyme, coupled assay with DTNB
29.7
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM potassium phosphate (pH 7.0), at 20C
31
-
DTNB coupled assay, purified enzyme
33.8
-
purified enzyme
35
-
purified enzyme, coupled assay with DTNB
36.4
B9A1H3
using thioredoxin disulfide, insulin, and NADPH as substrates, at 25C
42
-
purified enzyme, coupled assay with DTNB
58
-
purified enzyme
67
-
purified enzyme
103
-
purified enzyme
150.6
B9A1H3
using 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and NADPH as substrates, at 25C
367.7
-
after 478fold purification, with NADPH, in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), at 22C
additional information
-
3 different assay methods
additional information
-
coupled assay
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
enzyme quantification by immunochemical method, investigation of cross-reactivity of specific antibodies with enzymes from other species, calf tissue overview
additional information
-
quantification by DTNB coupled assay method
additional information
-
several mutants with different substrates
additional information
-
wild-type and chimeric mutants with and without amino acid exchanges
additional information
-
-
additional information
-
hemolysate TR activity ranges from 0.05-1.212 mU/mg hemoglobin at baseline and 0.06-1.98 mU/mg hemoglobin at 6 months
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.5
-
the truncated enzyme shows a pH optimum for the reduction of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) at pH 6.5
6.5
-
with NADPH as cosubstrate
7
-
assay at
7
-
assay at
7
-
assay at
7
-
wild-type enzyme
7
-
wild-type fusion protein
7
-
wild-type enzyme
7.1
-
cytosolic and mitochondrial TrxR1 isoform; TrxR-1(cyto); TrxR-1(mito)
7.4
-
assay at
7.5
-
-
7.5
-
the truncated enzyme shows a pH optimum for the reduction of 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) at pH 7.5
7.7
-
about
8
-
mutant enzyme Sec489C
9
-
SeC498C mutant enzyme, broad optimum
9
-
around, mutant enzyme, broad optimum
9.5
-
with NADH as cosubstrate
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4.2 - 10.5
-
wild-type and mutant
5.5 - 9
-
wild-type fusion protein
6 - 6.5
-
around 60% activity at pH 6.0 and 6.5
6.5 - 10
-
mutant enzyme, 50% activity at pH 6.5
6.5 - 8.5
-
pH 6.5: about 50% of maximal activity, pH 8.5: about 60% of maximal activity
6.5 - 9
-
pH 6.5: about 40% of maximal activity, pH 9.0: about 50% of maximal activity, wild-type enzyme
6.5 - 9.5
-
pH 6.5: 45% of maximal activity, pH 9.5: about 50% of maximal activity, mutant enzyme Sec489C
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
-
assay at
25
-
assay at
25
-
assay at
25
-
assay at
25
-
assay at
37
-
assay at
40
-
reduction of insulin
52
-
reduction of DTNB
TEMPERATURE RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
70 - 95
-
70C: about 50% of maximal activity, 95C: about 95% of maximal activity
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4.5
-
isoelectric focusing
5.3
-
calculated from amino acid sequence
5.93
-
TrxR-1(cyto)
5.94
-
calculated from sequence
6.2
G5DA76
calculated from amino acid sequence
7.4
D7PBZ6
calculated from amino acid sequence
8.15
-
TrxR-1(mito)
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
human lung non-small cell carcinoma
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
TXNRD1_v3 is induced by estradiol or testosterone treatments
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
human kidney renal cell carcinoma
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
development and differentiation of the cells from transgenic mice lacking Txnrd2 expression is not significantly impaired
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
prolonged selenium-deficient diet in MsrA knockout mice lowers thioredoxin reductase activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A6XJ27
from dry and germinating seeds
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mouse embryos homozygous for a targeted null mutation of the txnrd1 gene, encoding the cytosolic thioredoxin reductase, are viable at embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) but not at E9.5. Txnrd1 is required for correct patterning of the early embryo and progression to later development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
genetic polymorphisms in the human selenoprotein P gene is associated with differences in thioredoxin reductase 1 concentrations
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
TXNRD1_v3 is induced by estradiol or testosterone treatments
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
human colon cell adenocarcinoma
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
transcription of TXNRD1 involves alternative splicing, leading to a number of transcripts also encoding isoforms of TrxR1 that differ from each other at their N-terminal domains. The TXNRD1_v3 isoform contains an atypical N-terminal glutaredoxin domain. Expression of the transcript of this isoform is found predominantly in testis but is also detected in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
overexpression of TrxR1 inhibits migration of HEK-293 cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
HEK-293 cells show low basal levels of TxnRd1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high and low affinity form with respect to heparin
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
heparin affinity depends on the selenium content
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
TXNRD1_v3 is induced by estradiol or testosterone treatments
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
Bach1 repression of ferritin and thioredoxin reductase1 is heme-sensitive in cells and in vitro and coordinates expression with heme oxygenase1, beta-globin, and NADP(H) quinone (oxido) reductase1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
HEK cell overeexpressing TrxR1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
lead exposure causes a marked increase in the thioredoxin reductase-1 activity in the kidney of rats. This is the only parameter affected by low lead doses both after acute and chronic exposure
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
transcription of TXNRD1 involves alternative splicing, leading to a number of transcripts also encoding isoforms of TrxR1 that differ from each other at their N-terminal domains. The TXNRD1_v3 isoform contains an atypical N-terminal glutaredoxin domain. Expression of the transcript of this isoform is found predominantly in testis but is also detected in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Rowett
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
although the OsNTRC gene is expressed in roots and shoots of seedlings, the protein is exclusively found in shoots and mature leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8VX47
from mature plants, high accumulation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A6XJ27
NTRC may be involved in the scavenging of peroxides produced in green tissues during the day or the night and in seeds during germination
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col-0
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
TXNRD1_v3 is predominantly expressed in the Leydig cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isoform TR1, normal and tumor
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
liver biopsy sections from hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Elevated exresssion level in tumor tissue compared to internal control
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
thioredoxin reductase activity is significantly increased by Picual extra virgin olive oil, but not by Arbequina extra virgin olive oil as compared with palm oil intervention
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
transcription of TXNRD1 involves alternative splicing, leading to a number of transcripts also encoding isoforms of TrxR1 that differ from each other at their N-terminal domains. The TXNRD1_v3 isoform contains an atypical N-terminal glutaredoxin domain. Expression of the transcript of this isoform is found predominantly in testis but is also detected in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Rowett
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
adenocarcinoma cell line NCI-H441
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
adenocarcinoma cells, high and low affinity form with respect to heparin
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
MLE-15 cell line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
quantification of the expression of alternative mRNA forms (alpha1/2, alpha6, alpha7/8, alpha10/11, alpha13, gamma2-4, and beta1) in six different human malignant mesothelioma cell lines of epithelioid (STAV-AB and M-14-K), sarcomatoid (STAV-FCS and ZL34), or mixed phenotype (M-28-K and M-9-K). The lowest level of TrxR1 is seen for the two sarcomatoid forms (STAV-FCS and ZL34), whereas the epithelioid phenotypes generally show very high levels of TrxR1. The major transcript form expressed in all cell lines is alpha1/2, followed by alpha7/8. The lowest level is observed for alpha6, which comprises less than 1% of the total a forms
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
TXNRD1_v3 is induced by estradiol or testosterone treatments
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
TXNRD1_v3 is induced by estradiol or testosterone treatments
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
mice lacking Txnrd1 in the nervous system are significantly smaller and display ataxia and tremor. A strikingly patterned cerebellar hypoplasia is observed. Proliferation of the external granular layer is strongly reduced and fissure formation and laminar organisation of the cerebellar cortex is impaired in the rostral portion of the cerebellum. Purkinje cells are ectopically located and their dendrites stunted. The Bergmann glial network is disorganized and shows a pronounced reduction in fiber strength. Neuron-specific inactivation of Txnrd1 does not result in cerebellar hypoplasia, suggesting a vital role for Txnrd1 in Bergmann glia or neuronal precursor cells, nervous system-specific Txnrd2 null mice develop normally
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
O89049
TGF-betA1-treatment up-regulated thioredoxin reductase 1
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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TR1 is uniquely overexpressed in cancer cells and its knockdown in a mouse cancer cell line driven by oncogenic k-ras results in orphological changes characteristic of parental (normal) cells, without significant effect on cell growth under normal growth conditions. When grown in serum-deficient medium, TR1 deficient cancer cells lose self-sufficiency of growth, manifest a defective progression in their S phase and a decreased expression of DNA polymerase alpha
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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H157, U1810 and H611. Selenium treatment results in increased expression of almost all TrxR1 mRNA variants with increasing concentrations of selenite
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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in some case of glucocorticoid-resistant alopecia areata patients, the expression of TrxR1 is decreased in outer root sheath
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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transcription of TXNRD1 involves alternative splicing, leading to a number of transcripts also encoding isoforms of TrxR1 that differ from each other at their N-terminal domains. The TXNRD1_v3 isoform contains an atypical N-terminal glutaredoxin domain. Expression of the transcript of this isoform is found predominantly in testis but is also detected in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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inhibition of thioredoxin reductase by auranofin induces apoptosis in cisplatin-resistant human ovarian cancer cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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transcription of TXNRD1 involves alternative splicing, leading to a number of transcripts also encoding isoforms of TrxR1 that differ from each other at their N-terminal domains. The TXNRD1_v3 isoform contains an atypical N-terminal glutaredoxin domain. Expression of the transcript of this isoform is found predominantly in testis but is also detected in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Abeta-resistant PC-12 cells display higher levels of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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TrxR activity declines in during the first 21 days in milk. TrxR may be an important antioxidant defense mechanism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells that is compromised during the periparturient period
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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thioredoxin reductase activity is reduced in placentas from pregnant women living at high altitude
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8VX47
from 2-4-day-old seedlings, high accumulation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8VX47
aleurone layer, scutellum, starchy endosperm, low accumulation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A6XJ27
more abundant in cotyledons from dry and germinating seeds
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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although mRNA encoding both Trx h isoforms (HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2) is present in embryo and aleurone layers, the corresponding proteins differ in spatiotemporal appearance. HvNTR1 resides in the starchy endosperm during germination, although mRNA encoding both Trx h isoforms (HvTrxh1 and HvTrxh2) is present in embryo and aleurone layers, the corresponding proteins differ in spatiotemporal appearance. HvNTR2 resides in the starchy endosperm during germination
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8VX47
root and shoot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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although the OsNTRC gene is expressed in roots and shoots of seedlings, the protein is exclusively found in shoots and mature leaves
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q8VX47
from 2-4-day-old seedlings, high accumulation
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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U1906E and U1906L. Selenium treatment results in increased expression of almost all TrxR1 mRNA variants with increasing concentrations of selenite
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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human cell glioblastoma
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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transcription of TXNRD1 involves alternative splicing, leading to a number of transcripts also encoding isoforms of TrxR1 that differ from each other at their N-terminal domains. The TXNRD1_v3 isoform contains an atypical N-terminal glutaredoxin domain. Expression of the transcript of this isoform is found predominantly in testis but is also detected in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A6XJ27
NTRC may be involved in the scavenging of peroxides produced in green tissues during the day or the night and in seeds during germination
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q16881
thioredoxin reductase 1 is upregulated in synovial cell from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. TRXR1 suppresses hydrogen peroxide and inhibits apoptosis of rheumatoid arthritis synovial cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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thioredoxin reductase activity in rheumatoid arthritis cells is significantly higher than in osteoarthritis cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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development and differentiation of the cells from transgenic mice lacking Txnrd2 expression is not significantly impaired
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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transcription of TXNRD1 involves alternative splicing, leading to a number of transcripts also encoding isoforms of TrxR1 that differ from each other at their N-terminal domains. The TXNRD1_v3 isoform contains an atypical N-terminal glutaredoxin domain. Expression of the transcript of this isoform is found predominantly in testis but is also detected in ovary, spleen, heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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isoform TrxR3 is primarily present in testis