Information on EC 1.8.1.7 - glutathione-disulfide reductase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.8.1.7
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
glutathione-disulfide reductase
-
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
; activity is dependent on a redox-active disulfide in each of the active centres; a dimeric flavoprotein (FAD)
-
-
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
GSSG-binding site; mechanism
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
ping-pong mechanism
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
substrate and cofactor binding site, three-dimensional structure
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
cofactor binding of glutathione reductase with FAD analogues, reconstitution; mechanism
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
cofactor binding of glutathione reductase with FAD analogues, reconstitution
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
inhibition mechanism
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
analogous to trypanothione reductase
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
branching mechanism
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
molecular modeling of enzyme inactivation by peroxynitrite, structure analysis
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
member of pyridine-nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase family of flavoenzymes; substrate and cofactor binding site, three-dimensional structure
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
sulfhydryl groups and histidine residues are essential for the catalytic properties of the enzyme
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
catalytic cycle; mechanism; member of pyridine-nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase family of flavoenzymes; substrate and cofactor binding site, three-dimensional structure
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
member of pyridine-nucleotide disulfide oxidoreductase family of flavoenzymes; recombinant glutathione-trypanothione reductase-like enzyme, substrate binding, three dimensional structure, complex formation
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
mechanism
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
enzyme contains a catalytic selenocysteine
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
active site structure
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
active site structure, Cys39/Cys44 are involved
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
the multifunctional enzyme possesses both thioredoxin reductase activity, EC 1.8.1.9, glutathione reductase activity, EC 1.8.1.7, and glutaredoxin activity
-
2 glutathione + NADP+ = glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
the enzyme follows the Ping Pong mechanism
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
the enzyme shows also S-nitrosoglutathione reductase activity
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
glutathione redox reactions I
-
-
glutathione redox reactions II
-
-
glutathione metabolism
-
-
Glutathione metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
glutathione:NADP+ oxidoreductase
A dimeric flavoprotein (FAD); activity is dependent on a redox-active disulfide in each of the active centres.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
EC 1.6.4.2
-
-
formerly
-
EC 1.6.4.2
-
formerly
EC 1.6.4.2
-
formerly
EC 1.6.4.2
-
formerly
EC 1.6.4.2
-
formerly
EC 1.6.4.2
-
formerly
EC 1.6.4.2
formerly
EC 1.6.4.2
-
formerly
EC 1.6.4.2
-
formerly
EC 1.6.4.2
-
formerly
EC 1.6.4.2
-
formerly
EC 1.6.4.2
-
formerly
GLR
Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL-Y1140
-
;
-
glutahione reductase
-
-
glutathione disulfide reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
-
-
glutathione reductase
Amphiprora kufferathii
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
Colwellia sp.
-
-
glutathione reductase
Colwellia sp. MH2
-
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL-Y1140
-
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
glutathione reductase
Pibocella sp.
-
-
glutathione reductase
Pibocella sp. MH3
-
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
Plasmodium falciparum FcB1
-
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
Sulfitobacter sp.
-
-
glutathione reductase
Sulfitobacter sp. MH1
-
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase
-
glutathione reductase
-
-
glutathione reductase (NADPH)
-
-
-
-
glutathione reductase 3
-
glutathione reductase Glr1
-
-
glutathione S-reductase
-
-
-
-
glutathione: NADP(+) oxidoreductase
-
-
glutathione: NADP(+) oxidoreductase
-
-
glutathione: NADP+ oxidoreductase
-
-
glutathione: NADP+ oxidoreductase
-
-
glutathione:NADP+ oxidoreductase
-
-
glutathione:NADP+ oxidoreductase
-
-
glutathione:NADP+ oxidoreductase
-
-
GOR1
-
-
-
-
GOR2
-
-
-
-
GR
Euglena gracilis Z
-
-
-
GR1
-
cytosolic isoform, about 65% of the total glutathione reductase activity is attributed to isoform GR1
GR1
-
chloroplastic isoform
GR2
-
isoform dual-targeted to chloroplasts and mitochondria, about 35% of the total glutathione reductase activity is attributed to isoform GR2
GR2
-
cytosolic isoform
Gr3
-
chloroplastic isoform
Gr3
isoform
GRase
-
-
-
-
GSH reductase
-
-
-
-
GSSG reductase
-
-
-
-
multifunctional thioredoxin-glutathione reductase
-
-
NADPH-glutathione reductase
-
-
-
-
NADPH-GSSG reductase
-
-
-
-
NADPH-reduced GR
-
-
NADPH: oxidized glutathione oxidoreductase
-
-
NADPH:oxidized glutathione oxidoreductase
-
-
NADPH:oxidized-glutathione oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
OBP29
-
-
-
-
reductase, glutathione
-
-
-
-
thioredoxin glutathione reductase
-
-
thioredoxin glutathione reductase
-
chimeric enzyme able to transport reducing equivalents from NADPH to both GSH/GSSG and thioredoxin systems via the fusion of the thioredxin reductase and glutathione reductase domains
thioredoxin glutathione reductase
multifunctional enzyme involving a fusion of two proteins, glutaredoxin and thioredoxin reductase
thioredoxin/glutathione reductase
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9001-48-3
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
iron-grown, AP19-3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans AP19-3
iron-grown, AP19-3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Amphiprora kufferathii
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PCC 7120, cyanobacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 7119, filamentous cyanobacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Anabaena sp. 7119
strain 7119, filamentous cyanobacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ecotype Col-0
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cyanobacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
calf
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
toad
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Colwellia sp.
strain MH2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Colwellia sp. MH2
strain MH2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
yeast, IFO 0895
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 011
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain S33
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli 11
strain 011
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli S33
strain S33
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Euglena gracilis Z
Z
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sea urchin, review
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Ehimehadaka no. 1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
i.e. CBS2359
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain NRRL-Y1140
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL-Y1140
i.e. CBS2359
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL-Y1140
strain NRRL-Y1140
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
alfalfa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cestode
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme is a bifunctional selenoprotein
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Drosophila melanogaster
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Trypanosoma sp.
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Taichung Native 1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Tainung 67
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Taichung Native 1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Nipponbare
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 24466 and 24467
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pibocella sp.
strain MH3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pibocella sp. MH3
strain MH3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes from the cold-hardened strains GR-1H and GR-2H and noncold-hardened strains GR1NH and GR-2NH; red spruce
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chloroquine-resistant and chloroquine-sensitive strains, overview, intraerythrocytic parasite
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Plasmodium falciparum FcB1
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chinese brake fern
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
7-week-old Wistar rats
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme is a bifunctional selenoprotein
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
Wistar
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
chromate-tolerant mutant chr1-663T displays a significantly decreased specific glutathione reductase activity coded by the pgr1 (+) gene compared with its parental strain
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Gladiator
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sulfitobacter sp.
strain MH1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Sulfitobacter sp. MH1
strain MH1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
parasite isolated from mice, enzyme is a multifunctional thioredoxin-glutathione reductase TGR
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Trachemys scripta elegans
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
2 charge- and mass-separable isoforms in chloroplasts and cytosol
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. cv. Chinese spring
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
parasitic protozoa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
parasitic protozoa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars EPACE-1 and 1183
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli
TrEMBL
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Alice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
deletion of isoform GR1 prevents survival due to a pollen lethal phenotype
malfunction
-
in addition to a decrease in GSH and increase in GSSG, inhibition of glutathione reductase increases the ratios of NADH/NAD+ and NADPH/NADP+. Significant protein glutathionylation is observed. However, the inhibition does not affect the formation of reactive oxygen species or expression of antioxidant defense enzyme systems (glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase)
malfunction
-
glutathione reductase inhibition significantly enhances cancer sensitivity to X-ray irradiation through glutathione disulfide increase
malfunction
-
enzyme-deficient mice exhibit increased morbidity and mortality but do not exhibit a greater sensitivity to lipopolysaccharide than do wild type mice. Neutrophils of enzyme-deficient mice reveal impaired phagocytosis
malfunction
-
cells lacking the enzyme show decreased resistance to oxidative stress (H2O2) and 2fold higher levels of reactive oxygen species and catalase activity than the wild type strain
malfunction
Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL-Y1140
-
cells lacking the enzyme show decreased resistance to oxidative stress (H2O2) and 2fold higher levels of reactive oxygen species and catalase activity than the wild type strain
-
metabolism
-
the enzyme is involved in glucose metabolism
metabolism
Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL-Y1140
-
the enzyme is involved in glucose metabolism
-
physiological function
-
thioredoxin glutathione reductase binding to retinoic acid receptor is required for the retinoic acid-dependent retinoic acid receptor association with chromatin, retinoic acid receptor activity damaged by oxidative stress is restored by thioredoxin glutathione reductase
physiological function
-
the enzyme's physiological function is the reduction of glutathione disulfide or GSNO but not the opposite
physiological function
-
glutathione reductase is the crucial enzyme to maintain high glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio and physiological redox status in cells
physiological function
-
glutathione reductase is essential for host defense against bacterial (group B Streptococcus) infection. The oxidative defense mechanism mediated by the enzyme is required for an effective innate immune response against bacteria, probably by preventing phagocyte dysfunction due to oxidative damage
physiological function
rice enzyme expression in yeast increases the ability of the cells to adapt and recover from H2O2-induced oxidative stress and various stimuli including heat shock and exposure to menadione, heavy metals (iron, zinc, copper, and cadmium), SDS, ethanol, and sulfuric acid
physiological function
the enzyme is involved in salt stress response and biotic stress tolerance
physiological function
-
the enzyme plays an essential central role in cell defense against reactive oxygen metabolites. The enzyme plays an important role in plant protection against various forms of stress
physiological function
-
the enzyme plays a crucial role in daylength-dependent redox signaling. The Arabidopsis glutathione reductase1 gene plays a crucial role in leaf responses to intracellular hydrogen peroxide and in ensuring appropriate gene expression through both salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling pathways
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium falciparum FcB1
-
-
-
-
?
1,4-naphthoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium falciparum FcB1
-
-
-
-
?
1,4-naphthoquinone + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-dimethylquinoxaline-5,8-dione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dimethylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,5-bis(ethylamino)-3,6-di(aziridinyl)-1,4-benzoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) + NADPH + H+
2-nitro-5-thiobenzoate + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium falciparum FcB1
-
-
-
-
?
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium falciparum FcB1
-
-
-
-
?
6,7-dimethylquinoline-5,8-dione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
6-methylquinoline-5,8-dione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
7-methylquinoline-5,8-dione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
9,10-phenanthrene quinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ajoene + NADPH
4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. (E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene-9-oxide, substrate and inhibitor, also formation of single-electron reduced product and concomitantly superoxide anion radicals
-
?
ajoene + NADPH
4,8,9,13-tetrathiahexadeca-1,6,1,15-tetraene + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
i.e. (E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene-9-oxide, substrate and inhibitor, also formation of single-electron reduced product and concomitantly superoxide anion radicals
-
?
AuCl4- + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
formation of gold nanoparticles at the active site of glutathione reductase that are tightly bound through the catalytic cysteines. The nanoparticles can be removed from the glutathione reductase active site with thiol reagents such as 2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
?
bis-N-chloro-gamma-L-glutamyl derivative of GSSG + NADPH + H+
? + glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
diallyl trisulfide + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
diethyl [2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diyl]biscarbamate + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
2 glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
NADH is used as a coenzyme with a lower efficiency (32.7%) than NADPH
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli S33
-
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADH + H+
glutathione + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans AP19-3
-
-
-
-
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
antioxidant enzyme, protects the pancreatic cell against reactive oxygen species involved in the diabetogenic agent-induced dysfunction of pancreatic-beta-cells
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is required for disposal of peroxides and radicals especially in the brain
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme produces glutathione in spermatozoa which is required for reduction and antioxidant defense by glutathione peroxidase, enzyme is involved in protection of the cells against oxidative damage, regulatory of pentose phosphate pathway, pathway overview
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme in maintaining the reducing environment in the cell, maintainance of sulfhydryl redox potential in the cytoplasm
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme contains an active site disulfide/dithiol depending on the redox status
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
optimum ionic strength is 0.75 M using Tris-HCl buffer in presence of EDTA
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
optimum ionic strength is 435 mM
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
using levels up to 300 mM NADP+ and 1 mM glutathione, the enzyme does not catalyse the reverse reaction, indicating that its physiological function is the reduction of GSSG or GSNO but not the opposite
ir
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Plasmodium falciparum FcB1
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL-Y1140
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?, r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity
-
-
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
methylene blue as electron acceptor
-
?, r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
ferricyanide and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol as electron acceptors
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?, ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?, ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reverse reaction only if very high concentration of NADP+ and glutathione present
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
slight activity with D,L-lipoate
-
?, ir, r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
mixed disulfide between coenzyme A and glutathione
-
?, ir, r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
mixed disulfide between coenzyme A and glutathione
-
?, ir, r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
mixed disulfide between coenzyme A and glutathione
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
mixed disulfide between coenzyme A and glutathione
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
mixed disulfide between coenzyme A and glutathione
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
mixed disulfide between coenzyme A and glutathione
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
mixed disulfide between coenzyme A and glutathione
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
mixed disulfide between coenzyme A and glutathione
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
slight activity with bis-N,N'-(gamma-glutamylcystine)
-
?, r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
methylene blue and L-cystine slowly
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
S-sulfoglutathione and some mixed disulfides, with the exception of the mixed disulfide of coenzyme A and GSH, are poor substrates
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific for GSSG
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific for GSSG
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific for GSSG
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
highly specific for GSSG
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
glutathione-S-sulfonate
-
?, r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
high intracellular concentration of glutathione is important for functionality of thiol groups of cellular proteins
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
maintenance of glutathione/GSSG ratio is a protective mechanism for intracellular thiols during growth in atmospheric oxygen
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
maintenance of glutathione/GSSG ratio is a protective mechanism for intracellular thiols during growth in atmospheric oxygen
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
maintenance of glutathione/GSSG ratio is a protective mechanism for intracellular thiols during growth in atmospheric oxygen
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
serves in detoxification
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
serves in detoxification
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
serves in detoxification
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme plays a key role in nutrient-induced increase in the thiol content of pancreatic-islet cells and this increase itself participates in the coupling of metabolic to secretory events
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
role in cell division cycle and in stress adaption on cellular level
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
probably major source of NADP+ for the pentose phosphate pathway in the lens
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
specific for GSSG
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
production of substrate for: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9, glutathione-homocystine oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.1, glutathione-protein disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
production of substrate for: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9, glutathione-homocystine oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.1, glutathione-protein disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
production of substrate for: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9, glutathione-homocystine oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.1, glutathione-protein disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
high GSSG level in dormant stage
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
special role in cells that do no longer produce macromolecules
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
maintenance of high levels of GSH in cytoplasm
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Anabaena sp. 7119
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli S33
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis Z
-
highly specific for GSSG
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis Z
-
highly specific for GSSG
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans AP19-3
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli 11
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli Crookes
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?, r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli Crookes
-
production of substrate for: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9, glutathione-homocystine oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.1, glutathione-protein disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli M191-6
-
glutathione or other disulfides, e.g.: bis-L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cystinyl-bis-beta-alanine
-
?, r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli M191-6
-
production of substrate for: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9, glutathione-homocystine oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.1, glutathione-protein disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Rattus norvegicus Wistar
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
GSH + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
GSH + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH + H+
GSH + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
?
peroxynitrite + NADPH
nitrite + H2O + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
quinoline-5,8-dione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
quinoxaline-5,8-dione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
S-nitrosoglutathione + NADPH + H+
? + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trimethyl-aziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
trypanothione + NADPH
reduced trypanothione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
trypanothione + NADPH
reduced trypanothione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
recombinant glutathione-trypanothione reductase-like enzyme
-
?
menadione + NADPH + H+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
-
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
active with diverse FAD analogues, dependent on orientation of the cofactor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
glutathione redox cycle
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
not: cysteamine
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
bisubstrate mechanism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
low transhydrogenase activity with oxidized pyridine nucleotide analogs and diaphorase activity with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol as acceptor substrates, NADPH and NADH as donors
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
branched mechanism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
branched mechanism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
branched mechanism
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
oxidized lipoamide and oxidized lipoic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no substrates: dithiolethiones and dithiolones
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
drug resistance to doxorubicin or selenite does not influence the enzyme activity in lung cancer cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme forms a disulfide bond formation system together with glutathione peroxidase GPx4
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme forms a disulfide bond formation system together with glutathione peroxidase GPx4, selenium regulates the enzyme expression pattern
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is connected to neuronal loss during progression of neurodegenerative disorders
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is connected to neuronal loss during progression of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
modulation of the redox state of tubulin by an artificial glutathione/glutaredoxin reductase system, repair of peroxynitrite-induced disulfides in porcine brain tubulin, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the antioxidant enzyme is important in the parasite sensitive to oxidative stress
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme can catalyze isomerization of protein and interprotein disulfide bonds, the function is localized in the thiol domain
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
the enzyme has the ability to utilize both NADPH and NADH as electron donors
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
prior inhibition of glutathione reductase activity protects against the toxicity of Cr6+ to a significant extent, suggesting that it reduces Cr6+ to a toxic metabolite
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme is not effective to reduce cystine, lipoamide, nor trypanothione disulfide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with L-gamma-glutamyl-2-methyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine disulfide
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Anabaena sp. 7119
-
branched mechanism
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9NL96
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P48642
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
antioxidant enzyme, protects the pancreatic cell against reactive oxygen species involved in the diabetogenic agent-induced dysfunction of pancreatic-beta-cells
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme is required for disposal of peroxides and radicals especially in the brain
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme produces glutathione in spermatozoa which is required for reduction and antioxidant defense by glutathione peroxidase, enzyme is involved in protection of the cells against oxidative damage, regulatory of pentose phosphate pathway, pathway overview
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme in maintaining the reducing environment in the cell, maintainance of sulfhydryl redox potential in the cytoplasm
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
P48642
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q7XEM9
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Plasmodium falciparum FcB1
-
-
-
?
glutathione disulfide + NADPH + H+
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Kluyveromyces lactis NRRL-Y1140
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
high intracellular concentration of glutathione is important for functionality of thiol groups of cellular proteins
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
maintenance of glutathione/GSSG ratio is a protective mechanism for intracellular thiols during growth in atmospheric oxygen
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
maintenance of glutathione/GSSG ratio is a protective mechanism for intracellular thiols during growth in atmospheric oxygen
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
maintenance of glutathione/GSSG ratio is a protective mechanism for intracellular thiols during growth in atmospheric oxygen
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
serves in detoxification
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
serves in detoxification
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
serves in detoxification
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme plays a key role in nutrient-induced increase in the thiol content of pancreatic-islet cells and this increase itself participates in the coupling of metabolic to secretory events
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
role in cell division cycle and in stress adaption on cellular level
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
probably major source of NADP+ for the pentose phosphate pathway in the lens
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
specific for GSSG
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
production of substrate for: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9, glutathione-homocystine oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.1, glutathione-protein disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
production of substrate for: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9, glutathione-homocystine oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.1, glutathione-protein disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
production of substrate for: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9, glutathione-homocystine oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.1, glutathione-protein disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
high GSSG level in dormant stage
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
special role in cells that do no longer produce macromolecules
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
maintenance of high levels of GSH in cytoplasm
-
?
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli S33
-
-
-
r
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis Z
-
-
-
ir
GSSG + NADPH
glutathione + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli Crookes, Escherichia coli M191-6
-
production of substrate for: glutathione peroxidase EC 1.11.1.9, glutathione-homocystine oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.1, glutathione-protein disulfide oxidoreductase EC 1.8.4.2
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
glutathione redox cycle
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
drug resistance to doxorubicin or selenite does not influence the enzyme activity in lung cancer cells
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme forms a disulfide bond formation system together with glutathione peroxidase GPx4
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme forms a disulfide bond formation system together with glutathione peroxidase GPx4, selenium regulates the enzyme expression pattern
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is connected to neuronal loss during progression of neurodegenerative disorders
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is connected to neuronal loss during progression of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
modulation of the redox state of tubulin by an artificial glutathione/glutaredoxin reductase system, repair of peroxynitrite-induced disulfides in porcine brain tubulin, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the antioxidant enzyme is important in the parasite sensitive to oxidative stress
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
prior inhibition of glutathione reductase activity protects against the toxicity of Cr6+ to a significant extent, suggesting that it reduces Cr6+ to a toxic metabolite
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
no activity with L-gamma-glutamyl-2-methyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine disulfide
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
deamino-NADPH
-
69% of the activity with NADPH
FAD
-
5 thiol groups per FAD
FAD
-
4 thiol groups per FAD
FAD
-
2 mol of FAD per mol of enzyme; FAD enzyme
FAD
-
2 mol of FAD per mol of enzyme
FAD
-
2 mol of FAD per mol of enzyme
FAD
-
2 mol of FAD per mol of enzyme; FAD enzyme
FAD
-
amino acid sequence of FAD-binding domain; FAD enzyme
FAD
-
activity with diverse FAD analogues; FAD enzyme; properties of glutathione reductase reconstituted with FAD analogues
FAD
-
FAD enzyme
FAD
-
FAD enzyme; properties of glutathione reductase reconstituted with FAD analogues
FAD
-
1 mol of FAD per mol of subunit; FAD enzyme
FAD
-
1 mol of FAD per mol of subunit; 2 mol of FAD per mol of enzyme; FAD enzyme
FAD
-
FAD enzyme
FAD
-
2 mol of FAD per mol of enzyme
FAD
-
2 mol of FAD per mol of enzyme
FAD
-
2 mol of FAD per mol of enzyme; FAD enzyme
FAD
-
FAD enzyme
FAD
-
FAD enzyme
FAD
-
FAD enzyme
FAD
-
required for activity
FAD
-
flavoenzyme, interaction with Asp311 and Leu352, binding domain structure
FAD
-
1.2 mol per mol of enzyme subunit bound
FAD
-
-
FAD
-
each mol of enzyme subunit binds 0.97 mol of FAD
ferricyanide
-
-
flavin
-
flavoprotein
flavin
-
1.06 mol of flavin per mol of subunit
flavin
-
flavoprotein
flavin
-
flavoprotein
flavin
-
flavoprotein
flavin
-
-
NADH
-
low activity with NADH
NADH
-
20times less activity than with NADPH
NADH
-
2% activity of that with NADPH
NADH
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
enzyme can utilize both NADH and NADPH, more active with NADPH
NADH
-
1.3% activity of that with NADPH
NADH
-
activity relative to NADPH: 0.5%
NADH
-
200times less effective than NADPH
NADH
-
low activity with NADH
NADH
-
-
NADH
-
a single enzyme uses both NADPH and NADH as hydrogen donors
NADH
-
20times higher activity with NADH than with NADPH
NADH
-
10% activity of that with NADPH
NADH
-
low activity with NADH
NADH
-
low activity with NADH
NADH
-
10% activity of that with NADPH
NADH
-
specific for NADH
NADH
-
less than 1% activity of that with NADPH
NADH
-
3% activity of that with NADPH
NADH
-
8.5% of the activity with NADPH
NADH
-
-
NADH
-
low activity with NADH
NADH
-
48fold less activity than with NADPH
NADH
-
NADH is used as a coenzyme by rat kidney glutathione reductase but with a lower efficiency (32.7%) than NADPH
NADPH
-
can utilize both NADPH and NADH, more active with NADPH
NADPH
-
can utilize both NADPH and NADH, more active with NADPH
NADPH
-
-
NADPH
-
20times more activity than with NADH; can utilize both NADPH and NADH, more active with NADPH
NADPH
-
diphosphate group is bound at the C-terminal edge of a parallel stranded beta-sheet as is common in nucleotide-binding proteins
NADPH
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
can utilize both NADPH and NADH, more active with NADPH
NADPH
-
best electron donor
NADPH
-
200times more activity than with NADH
NADPH
-
best electron donor; NADPH promoted aggregation of the enzyme
NADPH
-
a single enzyme uses both NADPH and NADH as hydrogen donors
NADPH
-
5% of the activity with NADH, 3fold higher affinity of root enzyme compared to chloroplast enzyme
NADPH
-
absolute specificity for NADPH
NADPH
-
absolute specificity for NADPH
NADPH
-
absolute specificity for NADPH
NADPH
-
-
NADPH
-
absolute specificity for NADPH
NADPH
-
absolute specificity for NADPH
NADPH
-
absolute specificity for NADPH
NADPH
-
can utilize both NADPH and NADH, more active with NADPH
NADPH
-
48fold more activity than with NADH
NADPH
-
can utilize both NADPH and NADH, more active with NADPH
NADPH
-
best electron donor
NADPH
-
-
NADPH
-
from pentose phosphate pathway
NADPH
-
binding site structure
NADPH
-
dependent on
NADPH
-
dependent on
NADPH
-
utilizes NADPH but not NADH as electron donor
flavin
-
-
additional information
-
no activity with FMN
-
additional information
-
no activity with FMN
-
additional information
-
total lack of activity with 3-acetylpyridine NADH
-
additional information
-
no activity with FMN
-
additional information
-
as malaria brings riboflavin deficiency, in effection regions a large portion of enzymes miss FAD, but are as well active
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Cd2+
-
0.05 mM, 2fold stimulation
diphosphate
-
activates
KBr
-
below 0.1 M
KCl
-
IC50: 0.51 M
KH2PO4
-
below 0.1 M
Mg2+
-
slight activation
Mg2+
-
activates
Na+
-
activates
NaBr
-
activates
NaCl
-
activates
NaF
-
below 0.1 M
NH4+
-
activates
NH4Cl
-
below 0.1 M
phosphate
-
activates
phosphate
-
optimum concentration of potassium phosphate: 0.1 M
selenium
-
regulates the enzyme expression pattern, enzyme contains a catalytic selenocysteine
SO42-
-
stimulates
Sodium acetate
-
activates
Sodium citrate
-
activates
Sodium phosphate
-
activates
Zn2+
-
glutathione reductase is non-competitively inhibited up to 2 mM and activated above this concentration
Mn2+
-
activates
additional information
-
optimum ionic strength of enzyme is 50 mM TrisHCl
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(1R(S),2R(S),3S(R),4S(R))-2,3-dihydroxycyclo-hexane-1,4-diyl dinitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
(1R(S),2R(S),4R(S),5R(S))-2,5-dihydroxycyclo-hexane-1,4-diyl dinitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
(1S(R),2S(R),5R(S),6R(S))-5-bromo-9-oxabicyclo[4.2.1] nonan-2-yl nitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
(1S(R),3S(R),4S(R),6S(R))-4,6-dihydroxycyclo-hexane-1,3-diyl dinitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
(2R(S),7R(S))-7-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl nitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
(2S(R),7R(S))-7-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.1] heptan-2-yl nitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
(9R(S))-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methano-naphthalen-2R(S)-yl nitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
1,2-bis[methylsulfonyl]-1-[2-[chloroethyl]-2-(methylamino)carbonyl]hydrazine
-
0.05 mM, 28% inhibition
1,2-Cyclohexanedione
-
-
1,3-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea
-
significant inhibition of recombinant isoform GR1 is observed at high concentrations of 1 mM and above
1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl) 1-nitrosourea
-
physiological effects of enzyme inhibition in spermatozoa are increase of lipid peroxidation and impairment of sperm motility
1,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl) 1-nitrosourea
-
irreversible inhibition
1,3-Bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea
-
-
1,3-Bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea
-
time- and dose-dependent irreversible inhibition
1,3-Bis-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea
-
-
1,3-bis[2-chloroethyl]-2-nitrosourea
-
0.05 mM, 84% inhibition
1,3-bis[2-chloroethyl]-2-nitrosourea
-
0.05 mM, 94% inhibition
1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
-
-
1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mM
1,4-Naphthoquinone
-
inhibitits activity with GSSG
1,4-Naphthoquinone
-
-
1,4-Naphthoquinone
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mM
1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
-
-
1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mM
1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-nitrosourea
-
-
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
reversible
1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
reversible
1-methyl-4-(2-methyl-1,3-dioxo-2,3,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-5(1H)-yl)pyridinium
-
poor inhibitor
11-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)undecanoic acid
-
-
2,3-Butanedione
-
-
2,3-dimethylquinoxaline-5,8-dione
-
inhibitits activity with GSSG
2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonate
-
reversible
2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonate
-
-
2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonate
-
0.02 mM, 92% inhibition
2,4-dihydroxybenzylamine
-
specific inhibitor, complete inhibition at 0.001 mM
-
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
-
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dimethylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
-
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
-
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
-
2,5-bis(ethylamino)-3,6-di(aziridinyl)-1,4-benzoquinone
-
-
2,5-bis(ethylamino)-3,6-di(aziridinyl)-1,4-benzoquinone
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mM
2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
-
2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
74% inhibition at 0.05 mM
2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxy-ethylsulfanylthio carbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid
-
irreversible and selective glutathione reductase inhibitor, almost complete inhibition at 0.1 mM for 1 h, thereafter, the enzyme activity starts to return and reaches 63% of the control at the end of 8 h
2-acetylamino-3-[4-(2-acetylamino-2-carboxyethylsulfanylthiocarbonylamino)phenylthiocarbamoylsulfanyl]propionic acid
-
irreversible glutathione reductase inhibitor
2-Chloroethylisocyanate
-
-
2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
-
2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mM
2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
-
2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mM
2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
-
2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mM
2-methyl-5-(1-naphthyl)-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
-
2-methyl-5-pyridin-4-yl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
-
3'-hydroxy-4'-O-methylisoscutellarein 7-O-[6'''-O-acetyl-beta-D-allopyranosyl-(1->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
-
3-(2-chloro-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)-N,N-dimethylpropan-1-aminium
-
-
3-[5-[8-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)octyl]-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]propanenitrile
-
-
4,5-dichloro-N-octylisothiazol-3-one
-
-
5,8-Dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
-
5,8-Dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
58% inhibition at 0.05 mM
5-(1-anthryl)-2-methyl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
-
5-(1-anthryl)-2-methyl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
poor inhibitor
5-(3alpha,12alpha-dihydroxy-5-beta-cholanamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide
-
-
5-(3alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-cholanamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide
-
-
5-(4-chlorophenyl)-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
-
5-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-fluoro-2-methyl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
-
5-(pentafluorophenyl)-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
-
5-chloro-N-methylisothiazol-3-one
-
-
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
-
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
65% inhibition at 0.05 mM
5-nitro-2-furoic acid
-
-
5-nitroindole
-
-
6,7-dimethylquinoline-5,8-dione
-
inhibitits activity with GSSG
6-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
-
inhibitits activity with GSSG
6-[2-(3-fluoromethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinolyl]hexanoic acid
-
IC50: 0.0041 mM, irreversible inhibition
6-[2-(3-fluoromethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinolyl]hexanoic acid
-
IC50: 0.0064 mM, at pH 6.9 and 25C in the presence of 1 mM GSSG, irreversible inhibition
6-[2-(3-methyl)-1,4-naphthoquinolyl]hexanoic acid
-
IC50: 0.0032 mM, uncompetitive inhibitor
6-[2-(3-methyl)-1,4-naphthoquinolyl]hexanoic acid
-
IC50: 0.0045 mM, at pH 6.9 and 25C in the presence of 1 mM GSSG, uncompetitive inhibitor
7-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
-
inhibitits activity with GSSG
8-azido-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-methyl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
-
9,10-phenanthrene quinone
-
-
9,10-phenanthrene quinone
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mM
acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate
-
the enzyme activity is inhibited to 48.1% after treatment with 2.96 mM acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate, the enzyme activity (from hepatocytes lysate) is decreased to 79%, 67%, and 397%, in 0.37, 1.48 and 3.7 mM concentration of the conjugate, respectively, at pH 7.6 at 25C
acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate
-
the enzyme activity is inhibited to 52.7% after treatment with 2.96 mM acetaminophen-glutathione conjugate, at pH 7.6 at 25C
acylfulvene
-
reversible inhibition, less than 10% residual activity at 1.25 mM, inhibition by 1.0 or 1.25 mM acylfulvene is reduced by 30% in the presence of NDPH
ajoene
-
i.e. (E,Z)-4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene-9-oxide, natural compound from garlic, Allium sativum, covalent inhibition, but also substrate; time- and temperature-dependent inhibition, mixed disulfide between cative site Cys58 and the inhibitor, modified enzyme shows a markedly increased oxidative activity
allyl isothiocyanate
-
-
apigenin
-
flavonone, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
arsenite
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
-
arsenite
-
inhibition increased by NADPH
arsenite
-
slightly
auranofin
-
complete inhibition of both enzyme reductase activities at 10 nM
Baicalin
-
slightly, flavone glycoside, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
Benzyl isothiocyanate
-
-
Benzylselenosulfate
-
-
Ca2+
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
-
Ca2+
-
inhibition is non-competitive with respect to GSSG and uncompetitive with respect to NADPH
captopril
-
20 mM, 46.6% decrease of activity
carmustine
-
irreversible inhibito of enzyme in reduced state
carmustine
-
-
carmustine
-
-
carmustine
-
i.e. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-urea, irreversible inhibitor, complete inhibition at 0.625 mM
catechin
-
slightly, catechin, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
Cd2+
-
brain enzyme, strong inhibition
Cd2+
-
competitive
Cd2+
-
non-competitive inhibition with respect to both NADPH and GSSG
Cd2+
-
noncompetitive inhibition with respect to both glutathione disulfide and NADPH
cefodizime
-
competitive inhibition, in vitro
cefodizime
-
competitive, 21% inhibition in vivo, effect decreases with time
cefotaxime
-
noncompetitive inhibition, in vitro
cefotaxime
-
noncompetitive, 46% inhibition in vivo, effect decreases with time
ceftazidime
-
competitive inhibition
ceftriaxone
-
competitive inhibition
cefuroxime
-
competitive inhibition
Chloramphenicol
-
competitive inhibition
chromate
-
probably irreversible
chrysin
-
slightly, flavonone, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
cisplatin
-
0.01-0.2 mM
Co2+
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
Co2+
-
slightly
Co2+
-
GRase-1 is moderately sensitive to inhibition by Co2+
Co2+
-
most powerful inhibitor, competitive inhibition
Cr3+
-
competitive inhibition
Cr6+
-
GRd activity is markedly inhibited during the reduction of Cr (VI)
Cr6+
-
during the metabolism of Cr VI, glutathione reductase activity is inhibited
Cu2+
-
no inhibition
Cu2+
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
-
Cu2+
-
root enzyme inhibited, chloroplast enzyme only slightly
Cu2+
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
Cu2+
-
competitive
Cu2+
-
in the presence of 1 mM Cu2+, approximately 5% of residual activity is detected
Cu2+
-
GRase-1 is very sensitive to inhibition by Cu2+
dantrolene
-
non-competitive inhibition
diclofenac sodium
-
competitive inhibition
diethyl dicarbonate
-
chloroplast enzyme, 100% inhibition at 4 mM, 23% inhibition at 1 mM
diethyl [2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diyl]biscarbamate
-
-
diethyldicarbonate
-
-
Dinitrosated isomers of N,N'-bis[N(2-chloroethyl)-N-carbonyl]cysteamine
-
-
-
epicatechin
-
slightly, catechin, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
Epicatechin gallate
-
slightly, catechin, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
epigallocatechin
-
slightly, catechin, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
epigallocatechin gallate
-
catechin, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
ethyl [5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxo-3,5,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-2(1H)-yl]acetate
-
-
ethyl [5-(3-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxo-3,5,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-2(1H)-yl]acetate
-
-
etomidate
-
competitive inhibition
Fe2+
-
root enzyme inhibited, chloroplast enzyme only slightly
Fe2+
-
addition of exogenous Fe2+ (but not Fe3+) potentiates NADPH-induced inactivation of glutathione reductase, after a 2 min incubation period, 0.05 mM Fe2+ plus 0.3 mM NADPH induce 57% loss of enzyme activity
Fe2+
-
competitive inhibition
fisetin
-
flavonol, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
gadopentetic acid
-
non-competitive inhibition
gallic acid
-
slightly
glutathione
-
product inhibition
glutathione
-
1 mM
glutathione
-
-
glutathione
-
product inhibition
glutathione
-
product inhibition
glutathione
-
product inhibition
glutathione
-
GSSG, 12 mM, 25% inhibition
glutathione
-
uncompetitive product inhibition
glutathione
-
product inhibition
glutathione
-
inhibits the turtle liver GR only at high concentrations (6 mM), although this I50 value is within the physiological range of GSH concentrations in most cell types
glutathione
-
competitive
glutathione
-
GSH functions as an inhibitor at relatively high concentrations (41 mM), and also only in the lower substrate concentration range
glutathione
-
product inhibition
GSH
-
With regard to GSSG as variable substrate at fixed NADPH concentration (0.1 mM), GSH is a non-competitive inhibitor. With regard to NADPH as variable substrate at fixed GSSG concentration, GSH is a non-competitive inhibitor
Haemin
-
mediates covalent cross-linking and degradation of the enzyme
Hg2+
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
-
Hg2+
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
hydroxymethylacylfulvene
-
irreversible inhibition, less than 10% residual activity at 1.25 mM, inhibition by 0.625 or 1.25 mM hydroxymethylacylfulvene is reduced by 45% in the presence of NDPH
hypolaetin 7-O-[6'''-O-acetyl-beta-D-allopyranosyl-(1->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
-
Imipenem
-
competitive inhibition
iodoacetate
-
in presence but not in absence of reduced coenzyme
iodoacetate
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
-
iodoacetate
-
-
isoscutellarein 7-O-[6'''-O-acetyl-beta-D-allopyranosyl-(1->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside
-
-
-
K+
-
inhibitory in 0.1-1.0 M concentration range
kaempferol
-
slightly, flavonol, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
KCl
-
IC50: 0.51 M
Ketoprofen
-
competitive inhibition
ketotifen
-
non-competitive inhibition
L-gamma-glutamyl-2-methyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine disulfide
-
competitive inhibitor
-
lornoxicam
-
competitive inhibition
Melarsen oxide
-
2-step process
Melarsen oxide
-
i.e. p-(4,6-diamono-s-triazin-2-yl)aminophenylarsenoxide; potent inhibitor, reversible by excess of thiols, more sensitive with NADPH
Melatonin
-
0.08 mM and above
meloxicam
-
non-competitive inhibition
menadione
-
IC50: 0.0275 mM
menadione
-
IC50: 0.042 mM, at pH 6.9 and 25C in the presence of 1 mM GSSG
menadione
-
inhibitits activity with GSSG
mercuric sulfate
-
-
Mg2+
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
-
Mg2+
-
non-competitive inhibition
Mn2+
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
-
Mn2+
-
40% inhibition
Mn2+
-
non-competitive inhibition
morin
-
slightly, flavonol, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
morphine
-
competitive inhibition
myricetin
-
flavonol, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
N,N'-Bis(trans-4-hydroxychlorohexyl)-N'-nitrosourea
-
-
-
N,N,2-trimethyl-3-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propan-1-amine
-
-
N,N-dimethyl-1-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propan-2-amine
-
-
N,N-dimethyl-3-(10H-phenothiazin-10-yl)propan-1-aminium
-
-
N,N-dimethyl-3-[2-(trifluoromethyl)-10H-phenothiazin-10-yl]propan-1-aminium
-
-
N-(2-cyanoethyl)-9-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)nonanamide
-
-
N-Acetylimidazole
-
-
N-Alkylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
slight
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
root enzyme is slightly more sensitive than chloroplast enzyme
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
N-ethylmaleimide
-
chloroplast enzyme, 90% inhibition at 1 mM, partially reversible by GSSG 0.5 mM
N-ethylmaleimide
-
-
Na+
-
inhibitory in 0.1-1.0 M concentration range
Na2S2O3
-
-
Na2SO4
-
IC50: 0.45 M
NaBr
-
above 0.2 M
NaCl
-
IC50: 0.55 M
NADH
-
-
NADH
-
at concentration above 0.3 mM
NADH-X
-
-
NADP+
-
1 mM
NADP+
-
competitive against NADPH
NADP+
-
competitive against NADPH
NADP+
-
competitive against NADPH
NADP+
-
competitive against NADPH
NADP+
-
product inhibition
NADP+
-
competitive
NADP+
-
With regard to GSSG as variable substrate at fixed NADPH concentration, NADP+ is an uncompetitive inhibitor. With regard to NADPH as variable substrate at fixed GSSG concentration, NADP+ is a competitive inhibitor
NADP+
-
competitive product inhibition regarding NADPH and non-competitive product inhibition regarding glutathione disulfide, however, NADP+ (up to 1m M) is not inhibitor when assays are performed at 1 mM glutathione disulfide and 300 mM NADPH
NADP+
-
product inhibition
NADPH
-
-
NADPH
-
promotes formation of aggregates, reversible by thiols, e.g. glutathione or 2-mercaptoethanol
NADPH
-
derivatives
NADPH
-
no inhibition
NADPH
-
at concentration above 0.3 mM
NADPH
-
reversible reductive inactivation with isozyme GR-1H and slightly with GR-2H
NADPH
-
protection by NADP+
NADPH
-
chloroplast enzyme, 50% inhibition at 0.1 mM
NADPH
-
slow inactivation in vitro due to inter- or intramolecular disulfide formation
NADPH
-
58% inhibition at 0.3 mM after 60 min incubation, exogenously added antioxidants including ethanol, dimethylsulfoxide and 2-deoxyribose do not protect glutathione reductase against NADPH-induced inactivation, whilst addition of exogenous Fe2+ (but not Fe3+) potentiates the inactivation, removal of oxygen from the medium leads to increased inhibition of glutathione reductase, whereas pre-incubation of the Fe2+-containing medium for 30 min under normoxic conditions prior to the addition of GR abolishes the enzyme inactivation by NADPH
NADPH-X
-
-
NH4+
-
inhibitory in 0.1-1.0 M concentration range
NH4Cl
-
IC50: 0.62 M
Ni2+
-
80% inhibition
Ni2+
-
slightly
Ni2+
-
inhibition is competitive with respect to GSSG and uncompetitive with respect to NADPH
Ni2+
-
non-competitive inhibition with respect to GSSG and uncompetitive inhibition with respect to NADPH
Ni2+
-
noncompetitive inhibition with respect to glutathione disulfide and uncompetitive with respect to NADPH
Nicotine
-
0.5 mg/kg, significant inhibition of enzymatic activity in liver (61.5%), lung (65%), heart (70.5%), stomach (72.5%), kidney (64%) and testicle (71.5%)
Nitrofurantoin
-
; non-competitive
Nitrofurantoin
-
-
nitrofurazone
-
-
Nitrogen mustard
-
-
ornidazole
-
competitive inhibition
oxaliplatin
-
0.01-0.2 mM
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
-
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
chloroplast enzyme, 96% inhibition at 1 mM
p-Chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
chloroplast enzyme is slightly more sensitive than root enzyme
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
peroxynitrite
-
inactivation of enzyme by formation of nitrotyrosine near the catalytic center, 2.5fold increased Km-value and 1.7fold decreased Vmax, molecular modeling
peroxynitrite
-
inactivation by modification of Tyr114 and Tyr106
peroxynitrite
-
40% inhibition of activity with 0.1 mM, 72% inhibition of activity with 0.2 mM
phenethyl isothiocyanate
-
-
phenyl mercuric acetate
-
-
phenyl mercuric acetate
-
total inhibition
Phenylarsonous acid
-
-
Phenylglyoxal
-
slightly
Phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride
-
i.e. PMSF, chloroplast enzyme, slight inhibition
phenyramidol
-
competitive inhibition
Phosphate buffer
-
-
-
propofol
-
noncompetitive inhibition
putrescine
-
the early decrease of glutathione reductase activity in leaves treated with polyamines can be due to a direct interaction of these compounds with the enzyme
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
70% inactivation, due to specific modification of an epsilon-amino group lysine residue
quercetin
-
flavonol, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
quinoxaline-5,8-dione
-
inhibitits activity with GSSG
riboflavin
-
-
rifamycin
-
competitive inhibition
rutin
-
slightly, flavonol glycoside, non-competitive with both NADPH and GSSG, influence on glutathione recognition
S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-glutathione
-
-
Sn2+
-
non-competitive inhibition
Sodium acetate
-
IC50: 0.77 M
spermidine
-
the early decrease of glutathione reductase activity in leaves treated with polyamines can be due to a direct interaction of these compounds with the enzyme
spermine
-
the early decrease of glutathione reductase activity in leaves treated with polyamines can be due to a direct interaction of these compounds with the enzyme
sulfanylacetamide
-
competitive inhibition
sulfhydryl reagents
-
in presence but not in absence of reduced coenzyme
sulforaphane
-
-
tenoxicam
-
competitive inhibition
tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
-
tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mM
TH-302
-
TH-302 at 300 mg/kg significantly inhibits glutathione reductase activity by 60% as compared with the controls, at 3 h after the injection
trans-(1S(R),2S(R))-2-hydroxycyclohexyl nitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
trans-(1S(R),2S(R))-2-hydroxycyclooctyl nitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
trans-(1S(R),6S(R))-6-hydroxycyclohex-3-enyl nitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
trans-(1S(R),8S(R),Z)-8-hydroxycyclooct-4-enyl nitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
trans-(R(S))-2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl nitrate
-
non-competitive inhibition
trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
-
trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
84% inhibition at 0.05 mM
trimethyl-aziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
-
trimethyl-aziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
complete inhibition at 0.05 mM
Urea
-
activation: 0.4-0.6 M, inactivation at higher concentration
Vancomycin
-
noncompetitive inhibition
Zn2+
-
root enzyme inhibited, chloroplast enzyme very slightly
Zn2+
-
inhibition increased by NADPH
Zn2+
-
75% inhibition
Zn2+
-
chloroplast enzyme, 94% inhibition at 0.5 mM, reversible and competitive to GSSG
Zn2+
-
Zn acetate at concentrations of 0.1 mM or greater inactivate glutathione reductase via an NADPH-dependent mechanism. Zn2+ is a highly effective inhibitor of glutathione reductase activity in astrocytes. This inhibition impairs their capacity to detoxify H2O2
Zn2+
-
glutathione reductase is non-competitively inhibited up to 2 mM and activated above this concentration
Zn2+
-
in the presence of 1 mM Zn2+, approximately 55% of residual activity is detected
Zn2+
-
GRase-1 is very sensitive to inhibition by Zn2+
Zn2+
-
non-competitive inhibition with respect to both NADPH and GSSG
Zn2+
-
competitive inhibition
Zn2+
-
noncompetitive inhibition with respect to both glutathione disulfide and NADPH
[4-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)phenyl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0014 mM
[4-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)phenyl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0077 mM, at pH 6.9 and 25C in the presence of 1 mM GSSG
[4-[3-(fluoromethyl)-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl]phenyl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.0035 mM
[4-[3-(fluoromethyl)-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl]phenyl]acetic acid
-
IC50: 0.002 mM, at pH 6.9 and 25C in the presence of 1 mM GSSG
[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxo-3,5,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-2(1H)-yl]acetic acid
-
binds to the large helices-containing cavity at the dimer interface
[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxo-3,5,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-2(1H)-yl]acetic acid
-
-
[{1-phenyl-2,5-di(2-pyridyl)phosphole}AuCl]
-
gold-phosphole inhibitor, 1 nM, 50% inhibition, reversible
monohydrated complex of cisplatin
-
0.01-0.2 mM
additional information
-
regulation by inactivation in vivo, e.g. by disulfide bridging
-
additional information
-
cytotoxic effect of selenite on drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cell lines, overview
-
additional information
-
bis-nitro-enzyme form is impaired in peptide substrate binding with a 20fold increased Km for glutathione disulfide, overview
-
additional information
-
ethyl [5-(3-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxo-3,5,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-2(1H)-yl]acetate and 1-methyl-4-(2-methyl-1,3-dioxo-2,3,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-5(1H)-yl)pyridinium are no inhibitors for the parasite enzyme, numerous noncompetitive inhibitors bind to the large helices-containing cavity at the dimer interface which therefore is a target for selective drugs
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by 1,2-bis[methylsulfonyl]-1-[2-[chloroethyl]-2 ](methylamino)carbonyl hydrazine
-
additional information
-
acetaldehyde has no inhibitory effect
-
additional information
-
vitamin E restores the inhibition of glutathione reductase due to nicotine administration in liver, lung, heart, stomach and kidney tissue, but not in testicle tissue
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by chlorambucil, melphalan, busulfan and carboplatin
-
additional information
-
NADP+ does not inhibit turtle GR activity
-
additional information
-
IC50 for quinoline-5,8-dione is above 0.15 mM
-
additional information
-
IC50 for quinoline-5,8-dione is above 0.13 mM
-
additional information
-
not inhibited by Ca2+, addition of imidazole up to 0.8 M has no significant effect on the activity
-
additional information
-
glutathione reductase activity is not inhibited by up to 1 mM sodium arsenate
-
additional information
-
glutathione reductase is not influenced by Al3+, Ba2+, Mn2+, and Li+ at 0.01-0.1 mM, and by Ca2+ and Mo6+ at 0.005-0.125 mM
-
additional information
-
up to 2 mM, illudin S does not inhibit glutathione reductase activity
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
abscisic acid
-
0.1 mM, significant enhancement of activity 24 h after treatment
alpha-crystallin
-
2 mg/ml causes 37% increase in activity, 1 mg/ml causes 20% enhancement
-
amikacin
-
-
amoxicillin
-
-
ampicillin
-
leads to slight activation in vivo
cadmium
-
100 mM, 111% and 100% enhancement of enzyme activity in root tissue after 7 and 14 days, respectively
captopril
-
5-10 mM, the best enhancement (30%) is achieved using 10 mM
clindamycin
-
-
cysteine
-
redox active disulfide at the catalytic site
DL-dithiothreitol
-
0.25-4 mM, the best enhancement of activity (96.6%) is obtained by a concentration of 1 mM
doxorubicin
-
differences between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells, overview
FAD analogues
-
properties of glutathione reductase reconstituted with FAD analogues
-
FAD analogues
-
properties of glutathione reductase reconstituted with FAD analogues
-
FAD analogues
-
-
-
gentamycin sulfate
-
leads to slight activation in vivo
GSH
-
0.25 mM, 37% enhancement of activity
H2O2
increases enzyme activity
Lincomycin
-
-
NaBr
-
non-linear
NaCl
-
non-linear
NaCl
increases enzyme activity involving plasma membrane NADPH-oxidase
NADP+
-
stimulates
NADPH
-
substrate inhibition by excess of NADPH
Nicotine
-
0.5 mg/kg, 11.8% enhancement of enzymatic activity in brain
penicillin G
-
leads to slight activation in vivo
phenanthrene
-
exposure to 0.5 microM phenanthrene results in significant increases in the levels of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, with the levels of total glutathione and ascorbate doubling, and the activities of GR increasing by 20fold after 72 h of exposure to PHEN
Selenite
-
4fold increase in activity in U-1256 cells, less pronounced in presence of doxorubicin, differences between drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cells, overview
Sodium acetate
-
non-linear
Sodium citrate
-
non-linear
Sodium phosphate
-
activates at sub-saturating concentrations, linear
Sodium phosphate
-
-
streptomycin sulfate
-
leads to slight activation in vivo
teicoplanin
-
leads to slight activation in vivo
Thiamphenicol
-
leads to slight activation in vivo
thioltransferase
-
1 unit, 43% enhancement of activity
-
Melatonin
-
0.02 mM
additional information
NaCl and H2O2 induce enzyme expression in roots
-
additional information
-
oxidative agents, e.g. cumene hydroperoxide or xanthine, increase the flux through the pentose phosphate pathway and enzyme activity
-
additional information
-
glutathione reductase activity is not activated by up to 1 mM sodium arsenate
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.8
(E)-ajoene
-
-
0.38
(Z)-ajoene
-
-
0.158
1,4-Naphthoquinone
-
25C
0.172
1,4-Naphthoquinone
-
25C
0.114
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
full length enzyme, in 100 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 25C
0.71
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
truncated recombinant enzyme (lacking the last two amino acids Sec597-Gly598), in 100 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 25C
0.0858
6,7-dimethylquinoline-5,8-dione
-
25C
0.413
6,7-dimethylquinoline-5,8-dione
-
25C
0.4104
6-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
-
25C
0.4208
6-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
-
25C
0.224
7-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
-
25C
0.404
7-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
-
25C
11.6
bis-N,N'-(gamma-glutamylcystine)
-
-
0.16
diallyl trisulfide
-
-
0.00052
FAD
-
-
0.56
ferricyanide
-
-
0.023
glutathione
-
erythrocyte enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.036
glutathione
-
brain enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.04
glutathione
-
liver enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.057
glutathione
-
liver enzyme
0.059
glutathione
-
liver enzyme
0.065
glutathione
-
-
0.065
glutathione
-
erythrocyte enzyme
0.101
glutathione
-
calf liver enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.117
glutathione
-
brain enzyme
5.9
glutathione
-
purified enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 22C
6.8
glutathione
-
crude enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 22C
7.7
glutathione
-
chloroplast enzyme
8.2
glutathione
-
root enzyme
0.0123
glutathione disulfide
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)
0.0138
glutathione disulfide
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)
0.015
glutathione disulfide
-
pH 7.8, 25C
0.025
glutathione disulfide
-
-
0.0355
glutathione disulfide
-
at pH 7.5 and 50C
0.04
glutathione disulfide
-
0.045
glutathione disulfide
-
chloroquine-sensitive strain D10, pH 6.9, 25C
0.0465
glutathione disulfide
-
crude enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 22C
0.05
glutathione disulfide
-
purified enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 22C
0.0531
glutathione disulfide
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 4 mM EDTA, at 37C
0.06
glutathione disulfide
-
at 30C and pH 7.5
0.065
glutathione disulfide
-
chloroquine-resistant strain FCR3, pH 6.9, 25C
0.065
glutathione disulfide
-
-
0.071
glutathione disulfide
-
chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7, pH 6.9, 25C
0.072
glutathione disulfide
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.073
glutathione disulfide
-
chloroquine-sensitive strain S106, pH 6.9, 25C
0.074
glutathione disulfide
-
chloroquine-resistant strain Dd2, pH 6.9, 25C
0.076
glutathione disulfide
-
chloroquine-sensitive strain HB3, pH 6.9, 25C
0.077
glutathione disulfide
-
in 100 mM K2HPO4/KH2PO4 buffer, at pH 7.4
0.08
glutathione disulfide
-
chloroquine-resistant strain 7G8, pH 6.9, 25C
0.088
glutathione disulfide
-
chloroquine-resistant strain K1, pH 6.9, 25C
0.095
glutathione disulfide
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.114
glutathione disulfide
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), at 25C
0.154
glutathione disulfide
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.59
glutathione disulfide
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, at 37C
1.65
glutathione disulfide
-
mutant enzyme, pH 7.4, 25C
2.31
glutathione disulfide
-
mutant enzyme, pH 7.4, 25C
0.25
glutathione-S-sulfonate
-
-
0.00446
GSSG
-
anoxic enzyme in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mM GSSG and 0.2 mM NADPH
0.01
GSSG
-
root enzyme
0.01
GSSG
-
-
0.019
GSSG
-
0.03 M phosphate buffer
0.0213
GSSG
-
-
0.0263
GSSG
-
-
0.028
GSSG
-
chloroplast enzyme
0.032
GSSG
-
-
0.04
GSSG
-
-
0.04
GSSG
-
chloroplast enzyme
0.05
GSSG
-
isozmes GR-1 and GR-2
0.054
GSSG
-
-
0.056
GSSG
-
isozyme GR-1H
0.058
GSSG
-
-
0.058
GSSG
-
-
0.059
GSSG
-
-
0.061
GSSG
-
pH 7.5, wild-type enzyme
0.062
GSSG
-
-
0.065
GSSG
-
pH 7.5
0.066
GSSG
-
-
0.07
GSSG
-
-
0.0715
GSSG
-
truncated recombinant enzyme (lacking the last two amino acids Sec597-Gly598), in 150 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 37C
0.073
GSSG
-
isozyme GR-1NH
0.0746
GSSG
native Glr1
0.076
GSSG
-
-
0.076
GSSG
-
-
0.097
GSSG
-
pH 7.5, mutant enzyme N21R
0.101
GSSG
-
-
0.107
GSSG
-
-
0.12
GSSG
-
pH 7.5, mutant enzyme N101D/K105D
0.121
GSSG
-
-
0.125
GSSG
-
0.3 M phosphate buffer
0.131
GSSG
-
isozyme GR-2NH
0.139
GSSG
-
isozyme GR-2H
0.16
GSSG
-
recombinant enzyme
0.205
GSSG
-
full length enzyme, in 150 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 37C
0.21
GSSG
-
-
0.21
GSSG
-
-
0.2625
GSSG
recombinant Glr1
0.0312
menadione
-
25C
0.0822
menadione
-
25C
3.3
mixed disulfide of CoA and glutathione
-
-
0.017
NADH
-
-
0.25
NADH
-
pH 6.05
0.35
NADH
-
-
0.377
NADH
-
-
0.67
NADH
-
pH 6.8
0.68
NADH
-
-
1.12
NADH
-
recombinant enzyme
0.03
NADP+
-
purified enzyme at pH 7.0 and 22C
0.048
NADP+
-
crude enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 22C
0.22
NADP+
-
root and chloroplast enzyme
0.0015
NADPH
-
-
0.0023
NADPH
-
root enzyme
0.003
NADPH
-
-
0.003
NADPH
-
chloroplast enzyme
0.003
NADPH
-
chloroplast enzyme
0.003
NADPH
-
pH 7.8, 25C
0.0037
NADPH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)
0.004
NADPH
-
erythrocyte enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.0047
NADPH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)
0.005
NADPH
-
liver enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.0059
NADPH
-
-
0.00682
NADPH
-
anoxic enzyme in 50 mM potassium phosphate, pH 7.4, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1 mM GSSG and 0.2 mM NADPH
0.007
NADPH
-
isozyme GR-1
0.00706
NADPH
-
at pH 7.5 and 50C
0.008
NADPH
-
-
0.008
NADPH
-
-
0.008
NADPH
-
-
0.008
NADPH
-
brain enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.008
NADPH
-
liver enzyme
0.009
NADPH
-
pH 6.8
0.009
NADPH
-
-
0.009
NADPH
-
-
0.009
NADPH
-
liver enzyme
0.009
NADPH
-
-
0.009
NADPH
-
erythrocyte enzyme
0.0095
NADPH
-
0.03 M phosphate buffer
0.013
NADPH
-
0.3 M phosphate buffer
0.013
NADPH
-
-
0.014
NADPH
-
at 30C and pH 7.5
0.0143
NADPH
-
-
0.015
NADPH
-
chloroplast enzyme
0.015
NADPH
native Glr1
0.0153
NADPH
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 4 mM EDTA, at 37C
0.016
NADPH
-
-
0.018
NADPH
-
-
0.019
NADPH
-
crude enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 22C
0.021
NADPH
-
-
0.021
NADPH
-
-
0.021
NADPH
-
-
0.021
NADPH
-
calf liver enzyme, pH 7.0, 30C
0.021
NADPH
-
purified enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 22C
0.025
NADPH
-
-
0.028
NADPH
-
isozyme GR-2
0.0323
NADPH
recombinant Glr1
0.033
NADPH
-
in 100 mM K2HPO4/KH2PO4 buffer, at pH 7.4
0.055
NADPH
-
-
0.056
NADPH
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), at 25C
0.061
NADPH
-
brain enzyme
0.063
NADPH
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.24
NADPH
-
recombinant enzyme
0.27
NADPH
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, at 37C
0.234
quinoline-5,8-dione
-
25C
0.363
quinoline-5,8-dione
-
25C
0.0562
quinoxaline-5,8-dione
-
25C
0.0595
quinoxaline-5,8-dione
-
25C
0.21
trypanothione
-
pH 7.5, mutant enzyme A18E/N21W/R22N/N101D/K105D/R319A
0.33
trypanothione
-
pH 7.5, mutant enzyme A18E/N21W/R22N/N101D/K105D
0.5
trypanothione
-
recombinant glutathione-trypanothione reductase-like enzyme
0.66
trypanothione
-
pH 7.5, mutant enzyme A18E/N21W/R22N
2
trypanothione
-
pH 7.5, wild-type enzyme
2.3
trypanothione
-
pH 7.5, mutant enzyme N101D/K105D
4.58
trypanothione
-
pH 7.5, mutant enzyme N21R
1
mixed disulfide of coenzyme A and glutathione
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
thermal dependency of Km
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
different isozymes, temperature-dependent, homo-glutathione
-
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
Km of wild-type and mutants
-
additional information
additional information
-
kinetics
-
additional information
additional information
-
kinetics, hysteretic behaviour
-
additional information
additional information
-
kinetics
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.34
(E)-ajoene
Homo sapiens
-
-
1.47
(E)-ajoene
Homo sapiens
-
+ GSH
2.6
(Z)-ajoene
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.11
1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
1
1,4-Naphthoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
1.08
1,4-Naphthoquinone
Homo sapiens, Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.1
1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
5
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25CpH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
1.1
2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.14
2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
1.2
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
Schistosoma mansoni
-
truncated recombinant enzyme (lacking the last two amino acids Sec597-Gly598), in 100 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 25C
16
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
Schistosoma mansoni
-
full length enzyme, in 100 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 25C
7
5,8-Dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
5.5
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.08
6,7-dimethylquinoline-5,8-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.11
6,7-dimethylquinoline-5,8-dione
Homo sapiens
-
25C
0.35
6-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
Homo sapiens, Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.13
7-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
Homo sapiens
-
25C
0.39
7-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.22
9,10-phenanthrene quinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.16
diallyl trisulfide
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.1
diethyl [2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diyl]biscarbamate
Plasmodium falciparum
-
kcat_Km above 0.8 1/sec*mM, pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25Ckcat above 0.1 1/sec, pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
2
glutathione disulfide
Plasmodium falciparum
-
mutant enzyme, pH 7.4, 25C
5
glutathione disulfide
Homo sapiens
-
mutant enzyme, pH 7.4, 25C
48.3
glutathione disulfide
Homo sapiens
-
reoxidation
50.14
glutathione disulfide
Ipomoea batatas
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), at 25C
120
glutathione disulfide
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.4, 25C
165
glutathione disulfide
Homo sapiens
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.19
GSSG
Schistosoma mansoni
-
truncated recombinant enzyme (lacking the last two amino acids Sec597-Gly598), in 150 mM potassium phosphate pH 7.0, at 37C
210
GSSG
Homo sapiens
-
-
210
GSSG
Homo sapiens
-
pH 7.5
317
GSSG
Euglena gracilis
-
-
538.3
GSSG
Escherichia coli
-
pH 7.5, mutant enzyme N21R
733.3
GSSG
Escherichia coli
-
pH 7.5, wild-type enzyme
32.5
NADH
Xanthomonas campestris
Q56S00
-
38
NADH
Anabaena sp.
-
recombinant enzyme
37.5
NADPH
Xanthomonas campestris
Q56S00
-
53.72
NADPH
Ipomoea batatas
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), at 25C
367
NADPH
Anabaena sp.
-
recombinant enzyme
463.3
NADPH
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
P41921
recombinant Glr1
900
NADPH
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
P41921
native Glr1
1.55
quinoline-5,8-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
2.23
quinoline-5,8-dione
Homo sapiens
-
25C
0.34
quinoxaline-5,8-dione
Homo sapiens
-
25C
0.35
quinoxaline-5,8-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.3
tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.2
trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.16
trypanothione
Homo sapiens
-
pH 7.5
20.8
trypanothione
Homo sapiens
-
recombinant glutathione-trypanothione reductase-like enzyme
85
trypanothione
Escherichia coli
-
pH 7.5, mutant enzyme N21R
101.7
trypanothione
Escherichia coli
-
pH 7.5, wild-type enzyme
0.16
menadione
Homo sapiens, Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
additional information
additional information
Plasmodium falciparum
-
-
-
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
3.2
1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
11244
5.2
1,4-Naphthoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
1083
0.4
1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
7508
0.1
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dimethylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
kcat_Km above 0.1 1/sec*mM, pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
18751
0.25
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
kcat_Km above 0.25 1/sec*mM, pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
15103
40
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
19328
6.5
2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
3260
1.8
2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
1950
430
5,8-Dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
5918
360
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
1344
4.2
9,10-phenanthrene quinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
6474
0.8
diethyl [2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diyl]biscarbamate
Plasmodium falciparum
-
kcat_Km above 0.8 1/sec*mM, pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
14415
439.8
glutathione disulfide
Ipomoea batatas
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), at 25C
973
4850
glutathione disulfide
Rattus norvegicus
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 4 mM EDTA, at 37C
973
959.3
NADPH
Ipomoea batatas
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0), at 25C
5
16800
NADPH
Rattus norvegicus
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 4 mM EDTA, at 37C
5
1
tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
7640
0.7
trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
13710
0.65
trimethyl-aziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
19377
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0174
(1R(S),2R(S),3S(R),4S(R))-2,3-dihydroxycyclo-hexane-1,4-diyl dinitrate
-
-
0.0184
(1R(S),2R(S),4R(S),5R(S))-2,5-dihydroxycyclo-hexane-1,4-diyl dinitrate
-
-
0.0215
(1S(R),2S(R),5R(S),6R(S))-5-bromo-9-oxabicyclo[4.2.1] nonan-2-yl nitrate
-
-
0.0179
(1S(R),3S(R),4S(R),6S(R))-4,6-dihydroxycyclo-hexane-1,3-diyl dinitrate
-
-
0.0117
(2R(S),7R(S))-7-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl nitrate
-
-
0.0131
(2S(R),7R(S))-7-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.1] heptan-2-yl nitrate
-
-
0.0188
(9R(S))-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methano-naphthalen-2R(S)-yl nitrate
-
-
0.15
1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
-
Ki above 0.15 mM, pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0013
1,4-Naphthoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0025
1,4-Naphthoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.035
1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.09
1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.022
1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.2
1-methyl-4-(2-methyl-1,3-dioxo-2,3,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-5(1H)-yl)pyridinium
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0032
11-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)undecanoic acid
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.057
11-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)undecanoic acid
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0005
2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonate
-
below, at 50% inhibition value, leading to oxidase activity
0.5
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.03
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dimethylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0025
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.012
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.002
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.5
2,5-bis(ethylamino)-3,6-di(aziridinyl)-1,4-benzoquinone
-
Ki above 0.5 mM, pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0028
2,6-dimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.5
2-Hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
Ki above 0.5 mM, pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.5
2-hydroxy-3-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
Ki above 0.5 mM, pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.028
2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.039
2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0005
2-methyl-5-(1-naphthyl)-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.011
2-methyl-5-(1-naphthyl)-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0025
2-methyl-5-pyridin-4-yl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.015
2-methyl-5-pyridin-4-yl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.016
3-[5-[8-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)octyl]-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]propanenitrile
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.16
3-[5-[8-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)octyl]-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]propanenitrile
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0006
5,8-Dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0025
5-(1-anthryl)-2-methyl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.2
5-(1-anthryl)-2-methyl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0061
5-(3alpha,12alpha-dihydroxy-5-beta-cholanamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide
-
-
0.0723
5-(3alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-cholanamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide
-
-
0.0006
5-(4-chlorophenyl)-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0054
5-(4-chlorophenyl)-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0004
5-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-fluoro-2-methyl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0059
5-(4-chlorophenyl)-8-fluoro-2-methyl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0019
5-(pentafluorophenyl)-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0025
5-(pentafluorophenyl)-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.00015
5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0014
8-azido-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-methyl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0062
8-azido-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-2-methyl-5a,9a-dihydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxaline-1,3(2H,5H)-dione
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0025
9,10-phenanthrene quinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.012
9,10-phenanthrene quinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
2.2 - 9
arsenite
-
at 50% inhibition value
3
arsenite
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.001
Cd2+
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.104
Cd2+
-
pH 8.0, 25C
0.113
Cd2+
-
with NADPH as the varied substrate, pH 7.4, 37C
0.221
Cd2+
-
with GSSG as the varied substrate, pH 7.4, 37C
0.25
Cd2+
-
-
0.745
cefodizime
-
pH 8.0, 25C
6.51
cefotaxime
-
pH 8.0, 25C
3.59
ceftazidime
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
3.71
ceftriaxone
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
23.5
cefuroxime
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
3.85
Chloramphenicol
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
0.35
chromate
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.35
chromate
-
-
0.001
Cu2+
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.117
Cu2+
-
pH 8.0, 25C
0.1116
dantrolene
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
23.97
diclofenac sodium
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.3
diethyl [2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diyl]biscarbamate
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0066
ethyl [5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxo-3,5,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-2(1H)-yl]acetate
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.013
ethyl [5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxo-3,5,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-2(1H)-yl]acetate
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0093
ethyl [5-(3-chlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxo-3,5,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-2(1H)-yl]acetate
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.0725
etomidate
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.05
FAD
-
-
0.004
FMN
-
-
28.84
gadopentetic acid
-
in 40 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
5
glutathione
-
competitive product inhibition regarding glutathione disulfide, at 30C and pH 7.5
10
glutathione
-
non-competitive product inhibition regarding NADPH, at 30C and pH 7.5
7.985
GSH
-
pH 7.4, 37C, GSSG as variable substrate at fixed NADPH concentration (0.1 mM)
8.506
GSH
-
pH 7.4, 37C, NADPH as variable substrate at fixed GSSG concentration
0.00033
Hg2+
-
-
0.18
hydroxymethylacylfulvene
-
at 25C, pH not specified in the publication
0.06
Imipenem
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
22.14
Ketoprofen
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.0008
ketotifen
-
in 40 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.01464
L-gamma-glutamyl-2-methyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine disulfide
-
in 100mM in potassium phosphate, pH 7.5, temperature not specified in the publication
-
0.42
lornoxicam
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.0091
Melarsen oxide
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.25
Melarsen oxide
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.0061
meloxicam
-
in 40 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.0165
morphine
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.0108
N-(2-cyanoethyl)-9-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)nonanamide
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0227
N-(2-cyanoethyl)-9-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)nonanamide
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.54
NADH-X
-
derivative, pH 6.8, with NADH
0.0072
NADP+
-
with NADH at pH 6.8
0.018
NADP+
-
with NADH at pH 6.05
0.028
NADP+
-
10 mM sodium phosphate
0.043
NADP+
-
pH 7.4, 37C, NADPH as variable substrate at fixed GSSG concentration
0.052
NADP+
-
competitive product inhibition regarding NADPH, at 30C and pH 7.5
0.055
NADP+
-
with NADPH at pH 6.8
0.06
NADP+
-
0.1 M sodium phosphate
0.07
NADP+
-
-
0.219
NADP+
-
pH 7.4, 37C, GSSG as variable substrate at fixed NADPH concentration (0.1 mM)
1
NADP+
-
non-competitive product inhibition regarding glutathione disulfide, at 30C and pH 7.5
10.17
NADP+
-
pH 8.0, 25C
0.022
NADPH-X
-
derivative, pH 6.8, with NADPH
0.313
Ni2+
-
with GSSG as the varied substrate, pH 7.4, 37C
0.932
Ni2+
-
with NADPH as the varied substrate, pH 7.4, 37C
0.03
nifurtimox
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.04
nifurtimox
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.001
Nitrofurantoin
-
at 50% inhibition value, enzyme partially purified from platelets
0.001
Nitrofurantoin
-
platelets
0.02
Nitrofurantoin
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.025
Nitrofurantoin
-
at 50% inhibition value, enzyme from erythrocytes
1.1
Nitrogen mustard
-
at 50% inhibition value
28.49
ornidazole
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
0.01
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
-
0.434
phenyramidol
-
in 40 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.418
propofol
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.02
riboflavin
-
-
0.275
rifamycin
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
0.03
S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)-glutathione
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.085
sulfanylacetamide
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
0.13
tenoxicam
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.16
tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.25
tetramethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.0437
trans-(1S(R),2S(R))-2-hydroxycyclohexyl nitrate
-
-
0.0219
trans-(1S(R),2S(R))-2-hydroxycyclooctyl nitrate
-
-
0.0351
trans-(1S(R),6S(R))-6-hydroxycyclohex-3-enyl nitrate
-
-
0.0443
trans-(1S(R),8S(R),Z)-8-hydroxycyclooct-4-enyl nitrate
-
-
0.0256
trans-(R(S))-2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl nitrate
-
-
0.0162
trimethyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.009
trimethyl-aziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.01
trimethyl-aziridinyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
15.11
Vancomycin
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
0.0008
Zn2+
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.005
Zn2+
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.0065
Zn2+
-
at 50% inhibition value
0.32
Zn2+
-
with GSSG as the varied substrate, pH 7.4, 37C
0.761
Zn2+
-
with NADPH as the varied substrate, pH 7.4, 37C
0.0072
[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxo-3,5,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-2(1H)-yl]acetic acid
-
pH 6.9, 25C
0.014
[5-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-dioxo-3,5,5a,9a-tetrahydropyrido[3,4-b]quinoxalin-2(1H)-yl]acetic acid
-
pH 6.9, 25C
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.00717
(1R(S),2R(S),3S(R),4S(R))-2,3-dihydroxycyclo-hexane-1,4-diyl dinitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.00871
(1R(S),2R(S),4R(S),5R(S))-2,5-dihydroxycyclo-hexane-1,4-diyl dinitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.011
(1S(R),2S(R),5R(S),6R(S))-5-bromo-9-oxabicyclo[4.2.1] nonan-2-yl nitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.0081
(1S(R),3S(R),4S(R),6S(R))-4,6-dihydroxycyclo-hexane-1,3-diyl dinitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.00681
(2R(S),7R(S))-7-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl nitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.00713
(2S(R),7R(S))-7-hydroxybicyclo[2.2.1] heptan-2-yl nitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.0103
(9R(S))-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,4-methano-naphthalen-2R(S)-yl nitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.0013
1,4-Naphthoquinone
Homo sapiens
-
25C
0.0022
1,4-Naphthoquinone
Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.0035
11-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)undecanoic acid
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.034
2,3-dimethylquinoxaline-5,8-dione
Homo sapiens
-
25C
0.085
2,3-dimethylquinoxaline-5,8-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.0024
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-bis[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.00004
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dimethylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.00001
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.00043
2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.295
3'-hydroxy-4'-O-methylisoscutellarein 7-O-[6'''-O-acetyl-beta-D-allopyranosyl-(1->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside
Bos taurus
-
in 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at 37C
-
0.0014
3-[5-[8-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)octyl]-1H-tetrazol-1-yl]propanenitrile
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.014
4,5-dichloro-N-octylisothiazol-3-one
Homo sapiens
-
cellular glutathione reductase
0.0045
5-(3alpha,12alpha-dihydroxy-5-beta-cholanamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.0471
5-(3alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-cholanamido)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-sulfonamide
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.009
5-chloro-N-methylisothiazol-3-one
Homo sapiens
-
cellular glutathione reductase
0.018
6,7-dimethylquinoline-5,8-dione
Homo sapiens
-
25C
0.025
6,7-dimethylquinoline-5,8-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.009
6-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
Homo sapiens
-
25C
0.011
6-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.0041
6-[2-(3-fluoromethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinolyl]hexanoic acid
Homo sapiens
-
IC50: 0.0041 mM, irreversible inhibition
0.0064
6-[2-(3-fluoromethyl)-1,4-naphthoquinolyl]hexanoic acid
Plasmodium falciparum
-
IC50: 0.0064 mM, at pH 6.9 and 25C in the presence of 1 mM GSSG, irreversible inhibition
0.0032
6-[2-(3-methyl)-1,4-naphthoquinolyl]hexanoic acid
Homo sapiens
-
IC50: 0.0032 mM, uncompetitive inhibitor
0.0045
6-[2-(3-methyl)-1,4-naphthoquinolyl]hexanoic acid
Plasmodium falciparum
-
IC50: 0.0045 mM, at pH 6.9 and 25C in the presence of 1 mM GSSG, uncompetitive inhibitor
0.013
7-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
Homo sapiens
-
25C
0.028
7-methylquinoline-5,8-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.871
acylfulvene
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
at 25C, pH not specified in the publication
0.804
Al3+
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
pH 8.0, 25C
0.1
allyl isothiocyanate
Homo sapiens
-
25C, 30 min preincubation
0.029
Benzyl isothiocyanate
Homo sapiens
-
25C, 30 min preincubation
0.071
carmustine
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
at 25C, pH not specified in the publication
0.027
Cd2+
Bos taurus
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0655
Cd2+
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
pH 8.0, 25C
0.08
Cd2+
Bos taurus
-
pH 7.4, 37C
2.476
ceftazidime
Homo sapiens
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
2.88
ceftriaxone
Homo sapiens
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
15.43
cefuroxime
Homo sapiens
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
2.36
Chloramphenicol
Homo sapiens
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
0.036
Co2+
Phaeodactylum tricornutum
-
at 30C and pH 7.5
0.0034
Cu2+
Phaeodactylum tricornutum
-
at 30C and pH 7.5
0.082
Cu2+
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
pH 8.0, 25C
0.0523
dantrolene
Homo sapiens
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
7.265
diclofenac sodium
Homo sapiens
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.0018
diethyl [2,5-bis(aziridin-1-yl)-3,6-dioxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1,4-diyl]biscarbamate
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.27
diethyldicarbonate
Setaria cervi
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, at 37C
0.0523
etomidate
Homo sapiens
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.797
Fe3+
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
pH 8.0, 25C
138
gadopentetic acid
Homo sapiens
-
in 40 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.509
Hg2+
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
pH 8.0, 25C
0.216
hydroxymethylacylfulvene
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
-
at 25C, pH not specified in the publication
0.177
hypolaetin 7-O-[6'''-O-acetyl-beta-D-allopyranosyl-(1->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside
Bos taurus
-
in 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at 37C
-
0.03
Imipenem
Homo sapiens
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
0.372
isoscutellarein 7-O-[6'''-O-acetyl-beta-D-allopyranosyl-(1->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside
Bos taurus
-
in 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at 37C
-
510
KCl
Trachemys scripta
-
IC50: 0.51 M
6.278
Ketoprofen
Homo sapiens
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.012
ketotifen
Homo sapiens
-
in 40 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.3
lornoxicam
Homo sapiens
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.029
meloxicam
Homo sapiens
-
in 40 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.0275
menadione
Homo sapiens
-
IC50: 0.0275 mM
0.042
menadione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
IC50: 0.042 mM, at pH 6.9 and 25C in the presence of 1 mM GSSG
0.0128
morphine
Homo sapiens
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.0015
N-(2-cyanoethyl)-9-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,4-dihydronaphthalen-2-yl)nonanamide
Plasmodium falciparum
-
pH 7.0, 0.1 M potassium phosphate, 1 mM EDTA, 25C
0.71
N-Acetylimidazole
Setaria cervi
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, at 37C
0.5
N-ethylmaleimide
Setaria cervi
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, at 37C
450
Na2SO4
Trachemys scripta
-
IC50: 0.45 M
550
NaCl
Trachemys scripta
-
IC50: 0.55 M
620
NH4Cl
Trachemys scripta
-
IC50: 0.62 M
0.534
Ni2+
Phaeodactylum tricornutum
-
at 30C and pH 7.5
0.8
Ni2+
Bos taurus
-
pH 7.4, 37C
0.8
Ni2+
Bos taurus
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
19.63
ornidazole
Homo sapiens
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
0.122
Pb2+
Oncorhynchus mykiss
-
pH 8.0, 25C
0.05
phenethyl isothiocyanate
Homo sapiens
-
25C, 30 min preincubation
0.99
phenyramidol
Homo sapiens
-
in 40 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.242
propofol
Homo sapiens
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.036
quinoxaline-5,8-dione
Homo sapiens
-
25C
0.037
quinoxaline-5,8-dione
Plasmodium falciparum
-
25C
0.146
rifamycin
Homo sapiens
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
770
Sodium acetate
Trachemys scripta
-
IC50: 0.77 M
0.59
sulfanylacetamide
Homo sapiens
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
0.045
sulforaphane
Homo sapiens
-
25C, 30 min preincubation
0.082
tenoxicam
Homo sapiens
-
in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer, pH 8.0, at 25C
0.021
trans-(1S(R),2S(R))-2-hydroxycyclohexyl nitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.0142
trans-(1S(R),2S(R))-2-hydroxycyclooctyl nitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.023
trans-(1S(R),6S(R))-6-hydroxycyclohex-3-enyl nitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.029
trans-(1S(R),8S(R),Z)-8-hydroxycyclooct-4-enyl nitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.016
trans-(R(S))-2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl nitrate
Homo sapiens
-
-
4.83
Vancomycin
Homo sapiens
-
at 25C, pH 8.0
0.0042
Zn2+
Phaeodactylum tricornutum
-
at 30C and pH 7.5
0.007
Zn2+
Cyprinus carpio
-
-
1
Zn2+
Bos taurus
-
pH 7.4, 37C
1
Zn2+
Bos taurus
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0014
[4-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)phenyl]acetic acid
Homo sapiens
-
IC50: 0.0014 mM
0.0077
[4-(3-methyl-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)phenyl]acetic acid
Plasmodium falciparum
-
IC50: 0.0077 mM, at pH 6.9 and 25C in the presence of 1 mM GSSG
0.002
[4-[3-(fluoromethyl)-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl]phenyl]acetic acid
Plasmodium falciparum
-
IC50: 0.002 mM, at pH 6.9 and 25C in the presence of 1 mM GSSG
0.0035
[4-[3-(fluoromethyl)-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl]phenyl]acetic acid
Homo sapiens
-
IC50: 0.0035 mM
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.009
-
chloroquine-sensitive strain D10, crude extract
0.009
-
hemolysate, at 25C, pH 8.0
0.0097
-
hemolysate, at 25C, pH 8.0
0.01
-
hemolysate, at 25C, pH 8.0
0.013
-
chloroquine-resistant strains 7G8 and FCR3, crude extract
0.022
-
chloroquine-resistant strain Dd2, crude extract
0.023
-
chloroquine-sensitive strain S106, crude extract
0.03
-
brain homogenate
0.033
-
chloroquine-sensitive strain 3D7, crude extract
0.035
-
chloroquine-sensitive strain HB3, crude extract
0.0362
-
purified enzyme, at pH 7.0 and 22C
0.039
using NADH as electron donor
0.045
using NADPH as electron donor
0.047
-
chloroquine-resistant strain K1, crude extract
0.11
-
crude liver homogenate, in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 4 mM EDTA, at 37C
0.119
-
crude supernatant of anoxic enzyme
0.331
-
purified enzyme
0.418
-
crude supernatant of aerobic enzyme
0.46
-
enzyme from soluble extract, at 30C and pH 7.5
1.07
-
in C6 glioma cells, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
1.18
Achromobacter starkeyi
-
-
1.44
-
anoxic enzyme after 109fold purification
1.5
-
enzyme from hemolysate, at pH 8.0 and 25C
2.9
-
purified enzyme
4.9
-
purified enzyme, substrate glutathione disulfide
5.03
-
purified enzyme
5.5
-
aerobic enzyme after 109fold purification
5.63
-
in HepG2 cells, pH and temperature not specified in the publication
7.16
-
homogenate, in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer pH 7.0, at 25C
18.6
-
using NADPH as substrate, in 50 mM phosphate buffer at pH 7.0
20.75
-
after 2139fold purification, at 25C, pH 8.0
23
-
2555fold purified enzyme, at 25C, pH 8.0
28
-
after 2800fold purification, at 25C, pH 8.0
34
-
purified enzyme, with NADH
42 - 60
-
purified enzyme
50.75
-
purified erythrocyte enzyme
62.5
-
purified enzyme from erythrocytes
73.3
-
after 161fold purification, at 30C and pH 7.5
86.9
-
purified enzyme
96
-
purified enzyme
114
-
purified enzyme
114
-
purified enzyme from erythrocyte
120
-
purified enzyme
120
-
purified enzyme from liver
125
-
-
139
-
purified in vitro-synthesized enzyme, 30C, 0.002 mM FAD
140
-
purified enzyme
145
-
purified enzyme from brain
147
-
purified enzyme from liver
180
-
purified liver enzyme
185.5
-
-