Information on EC 1.2.1.2 - formate dehydrogenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.2.1.2
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
formate dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
formate + NAD+ = CO2 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
formate oxidation to CO2
-
-
Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
Methane metabolism
-
-
Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
-
-
oxalate degradation III
-
-
purine nucleobases degradation I (anaerobic)
-
-
purine nucleobases degradation II (anaerobic)
-
-
reductive acetyl coenzyme A pathway
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
formate:NAD+ oxidoreductase
The enzyme from most aerobic organisms is devoid of redox-active centres but that from the proteobacterium Methylosinus trichosporium contains iron-sulfur centres, flavin and a molybdenum centre [3]. Together with EC 1.12.1.2 hydrogen dehydrogenase, forms a system previously known as formate hydrogenlyase.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9028-85-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Achromobacter parvulus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KNK607M
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KNK607M
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KM 62
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KM 62
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Candida methanolica
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain OX 1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CS105
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var Beeson
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
II J58/1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
II J58/1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kloeckera sp.
No. 2201
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kloeckera sp. 2201
No. 2201
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
IFP 206
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
NRRL Y-7556
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
RXM
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
RXM
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
methylotrophic bacterium
strain 1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
methylotrophic bacterium 1
strain 1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Enterobacter aerogenes
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
formerly Ogataea parapolymorpha
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 12-A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas methylica
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3A2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3ab
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
AM1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
M27
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KNK65MA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KNK65MA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis candida
NRRL Y-11419
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Torulopsis candida NRRL Y-11419
NRRL Y-11419
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 ferricyanide + NADH
2 ferrocyanide + NAD+ + H+
show the reaction diagram
4-(formyloxy)butyl acetate + NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
59% conversion
-
-
?
butyl formate + NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
41% conversion
-
-
?
CO2 + NADH
formate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
ethyl formate + NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
formate + 2,6-dichloroindophenol
CO2 + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
formate + 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
CO2 + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
formate + 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-NAD+
CO2 + 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
formate + benzyl viologen
CO2 + reduced benzyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
formate + benzyl viologen
CO2 + reduced benzyl viologen + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
formate + cytochrome c
CO2 + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
formate + dextran-NAD+
CO2 + dextran-NADH
show the reaction diagram
formate + FAD
CO2 + FADH2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
formate + ferricyanide
CO2 + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
formate + FMN
CO2 + FMNH2
show the reaction diagram
formate + methyl viologen
CO2 + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
formate + methylene blue
CO2 + reduced methylene blue
show the reaction diagram
formate + NAD+
CO2 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
formate + NAD+
CO2 + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
formate + NADP+
CO2 + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
formate + NADP+
CO2 + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
formate + nitrobluetetrazolium
CO2 + reduced nitrobluetetrazolium
show the reaction diagram
formate + O2
CO2 + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
formate + phenazine methosulfate
CO2 + reduced phenazine methosulfate
show the reaction diagram
formate + riboflavin
CO2 + reduced riboflavin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
glyoxylate + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
wild-type, low activity towards glyoxylate
-
-
?
methyl formate + NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
23% conversion
-
-
?
NADH + 2,6-dichloroindophenol
NAD+ + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
NADH + benzyl viologen
NAD+ + reduced benzyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
phenyl formate + NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
86% conversion
-
-
?
propyl formate + NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
39% conversion
-
-
?
S-formylglutathione + NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
S-formylthioglycolate + NAD+
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
CO2 + NADH
formate + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
formate + NAD+
CO2 + NADH
show the reaction diagram
formate + NADP+
CO2 + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
molybdopterin
-
the alpha-subunit contains a putative binding motif for the molybdopterin cofactor
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Fe2+
the enzyme activity is increased 49.4% over the control by 1 mM Fe2+
Iron
-
contains 5 mol nonheme iron per mol of enzyme. The beta-subunit contains a putative binding motif for an iron-sulfur cluster. The alpha-subunit contains at least one iron-sulfur cluster
K+
the enzyme activity is increased 6.7% over the control by 1 mM K+
Li+
the enzyme activity is increased 13.8% over the control by 1 mM Li+
Mg2+
the enzyme activity is increased 7.6% over the control by 1 mM Mg2+
Mn2+
the enzyme activity is increased 29.8% over the control by 1 mM Mn2+
Molybdenum
Tungsten
-
contains 1.8 mol tungsten per mol of enzyme
additional information
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,10-phenanthroline
1-chloro-2-oxopropane
-
20 mM, pH 6.5, 30C, 5 h, 76% loss of activity
1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate
-
adding more than 40% (v/v) of 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate inactivates formate dehydrogenase. In the presence of 30% (v/v) 1-methyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, the catalytic efficiency of the wild type enzyme is reduced by 2.8fold
-
2,3-Butanedione
Achromobacter parvulus
-
modification of 12 Arg residues per molecule results in complete inactivation. NAD+ protects
2-chloro-1-(3-pyridyl)-ethanone
-
20 mM, pH 6.5, 30C, 5 h, 10% loss of activity
4-hydroxybutyl acetate
-
IC50 of 15.6 vol%
-
5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitrobenzoic acid)
-
-
5-Nitro-8-hydroxyquinoline
-
-
ADP-beta-D-ribose
-
competitive with NAD+, mixed-type with formate
benzaldehyde
Candida methanolica
-
slight inhibition
bicarbonate
-
mixed-type inhibition of NAD+ and formate
cycloserine
-
weak
dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate
-
FDh is inactivated and unstable in the presence of high concentration (above 50%) of the water soluble dimethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate ionic liquid
-
Dithionitrobenzoate
EDTA
-
50 mM, slight inhibition
ethanol
-
IC50 of 4.8 vol%
ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate
-
the D221G mutant is extremely sensitive to ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate with half-lives shorter than 6 min
ethyl-4-chloroacetoacetate
-
wild-type, 7.43% residual activity at 20 mM
Fe3+
83.5% inhibition at 1 mM
Ferron
-
-
hydrazine
-
-
hydroxylamine
-
-
iodoacetamide
iodoacetate
-
strong inhibition
iodoacetic acid
-
weak
Isonicotinyl hydrazide
-
weak
Isopropanol
-
IC50 of 4.7 vol%
KF
-
1 mM, 80% inhibition
methanol
n-butanol
-
IC50 of 1.4 vol%
n-Propanol
-
IC50 of 2.5 vol%
Na2SO3
-
-
NADP+
-
strong inhibition
NaHSO3
-
-
o-nitrobenzaldehyde
Candida methanolica
-
slight inhibition
oxidized ADP
-
inactivates by specific reaction at the nucleotide binding site, with negative cooperativity between subunits accounting for appearance of two phases of inactivation, protection by NAD+, NADH and ADP
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
strong inhibition
p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid
-
-
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
Pb2+
Kloeckera sp.
-
-
Phenol
-
IC50 of 0.32 vol%
phenylmercuric acetate
-
-
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Candida methanolica
-
slight inhibition
Semicarbazide
-
-
Sodium azide
94% inhibition at 1 mM; 99% inhibition at 1 mM
sodium hypophosphite
-
1 mM, 80% inhibition
Thiosemicarbazide
-
-
Zincon
-
-
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
dioxane
-
increases maximal reaction rate
EDTA
the enzyme activity is increased 12% over the control by 1 mM EDTA
ethanol
-
increases maximal reaction rate
ethyl acetate
-
wild-type, 21% increase of activity
FAD
-
requirement for either FMN or FAD
formate
-
activates in a slow reaction of which the velocity is dependent on the concentration of formate
glycerol
-
increases maximal reaction rate
Isopropanol
-
increases maximal reaction rate
KCl
-
adding 5 mM NAD+ in 0.2 M KCl improves the FDH elution and increases the specific FDH activity by 1.38fold as compared to elution with 1 M KCl
methanol
-
increases maximal reaction rate
Propanol
-
increases maximal reaction rate
tert-butanol
-
increases maximal reaction rate
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.16
3-acetylpyridine-NAD+
-
-
0.19
3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-NAD+
-
-
0.1 - 2
benzyl viologen
30 - 50
CO2
0.54
deamino-NAD+
-
-
0.037 - 0.2
dichloroindophenol
4.1
ethyl formate
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.5, at 30C
0.46 - 0.69
ferricyanide
0.0033 - 1000
formate
2.6 - 7.5
glyoxylate
2.9
methyl formate
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.5, at 30C
0.0057 - 140
NAD+
0.05
NADH
in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 6.8), at 37C
0.037 - 38
NADP+
1.7
phenyl formate
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.5, at 30C
4.7
propyl formate
-
in 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer at pH 7.5, at 30C
0.45 - 1.1
S-formylglutathione
0.17
thio-NAD+
-
-
additional information
additional information
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.01 - 10
formate
0.007 - 0.36
glyoxylate
0.095 - 1300
NAD+
0.08
NADH
Clostridium carboxidivorans
E2IQB0
in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 6.8), at 37C
0.00004 - 7.89
NADP+
additional information
additional information
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.06 - 2.83
formate
73.3 - 20600
NAD+
1.6
NADH
Clostridium carboxidivorans
E2IQB0
in 0.1 M sodium phosphate (pH 6.8), at 37C
8
0.306 - 21
NADP+
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0228 - 0.0369
ADP-beta-D-ribose
0.000007 - 0.024
azide
0.053 - 5.6
bicarbonate
78.14
NAD+
-
at pH 7.5, 25C
0.06 - 0.1175
NADH
0.24
NADPH
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.0013
-
pH 7.5, 30C, enzyme from Sephadex G-15 desalted fraction
0.043
-
pH 7.5, 30C, enzyme from DE-52 chromatography
0.058
-
pH 7.5, 30C, mitochondrial enzyme
0.094
-
pH 7.5, 30C, heated DE-52-fraction
0.143
Kloeckera sp.
-
-
0.18
-
native enzyme in 200 mM sodium formate and 2 mM NAD+, at 25C, the specific activity of FDH is insensitive to changes in any of the two cultivation parameters
0.285
-
mutant C6S/C256S, pH 6.5, 30C
0.5
-
crude extract, at pH 7.4 and 25C
0.504
-
mutant C6S/C256V, pH 6.5, 30C
0.635
-
mutant C6S/C256A, pH 6.5, 30C
1
crude extract, in 30 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. at 25C
1.15
-
mutant C6A/C146A/C256V, pH 6.5, 30C
1.256
-
pH 7.5, 30C, enzyme expressed in tobacco
1.395
-
-
1.4
-
recombinant enzyme, in 200 mM sodium formate and 2 mM NAD+, at 25C
1.49
-
mutant C6A/C146V/C256V, pH 6.5, 30C
1.62
-
mutant C6V/C256S, pH 6.5, 30C
1.83
-
mutant C6A/C256V, pH 6.5, 30C
1.98
-
mutant C6A/C256S, pH 6.5, 30C
2.29
-
mutant C146S/C256V, pH 6.5, 30C
2.43
-
reaction with NAD+
2.58
-
mutant C256V, pH 6.5, 30C
2.63
-
after 5.5fold purification, at pH 7.4 and 25C
2.65
-
mutant C6A/C146S/C256V, pH 6.5, 30C
3.04
Pseudomonas methylica
-
-
3.24
-
wild-type, pH 6.5, 30C
4.09
-
-
4.4
recombinant enzyme, after 4.5fold purification, in 30 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. at 25C
4.55
-
reaction with ferricyanide
6.03
purified enzyme, in 100 mM Tris-HCl (pH 7.0), at 30C
7.52
Candida methanolica
-
-
11
methylotrophic bacterium
-
-
310
-
recombinant enzyme, at pH 7.5 and 30C
383.4
-
pH 6.5, 30C
439
-
native enzyme, at pH 7.5 and 30C
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.2 - 10.5
methylotrophic bacterium
-
-
5.7 - 6.5
-
-
6.5 - 9.5
Candida methanolica
-
-
6.5 - 7.5
6.5 - 9
-
-