Information on EC 1.17.4.2 - ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota, Bacteria, Archaea, dsDNA viruses, no RNA stage

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.17.4.2
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O = ribonucleoside triphosphate + thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
requires a cobamide coenzyme and ATP
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
adenosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II
-
guanosine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II
-
Metabolic pathways
-
Purine metabolism
-
pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis II
-
Pyrimidine metabolism
-
superpathway of pyrimidine deoxyribonucleotides de novo biosynthesis (E. coli)
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
2'-deoxyribonucleoside-triphosphate:thioredoxin-disulfide 2'-oxidoreductase
Requires a cobamide coenzyme and ATP.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
2'-deoxyribonucleoside-triphosphate:oxidized-thioredoxin 2'-oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
class II ribonucleotide reductase
-
-
class II RNR
-
cf. EC 1.17.4.1
class II RNR
-
cf. EC 1.17.4.1
class II RNR
-
-
class III RNR
-
-
class III RNR
Escherichia coli JM109
-
-
-
class III RNR
-
-
nucleoside triphosphate reductase
-
-
ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase
-
-
-
-
ribonucleoside triphosphate reductase
-
-
ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase
-
-
ribonucleotide reductase
-
-
-
-
ribonucleotide reductase
P50651, Q9LSD0
-
ribonucleotide reductase
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
P50651, Q9LSD0
-
-
ribonucleotide reductase
-
-
ribonucleotide reductase
-
-
ribonucleotide reductase
-
-
RNR class Ia
-
-
RNR2
P50651, Q9LSD0
small subunit of RNR
RNR2
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
P50651, Q9LSD0
small subunit of RNR
-
additional information
-
ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase class Ia
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9068-66-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain 7119
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Anabaena sp. 7119
strain 7119
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
small subunit C of RNR, RNR2a
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
small subunit C of RNR, RNR2tso
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subunit R2 isoform RNR2B
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subunit R2 isoforms TSO2 and RNR2A
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
small subunit C of RNR, RNR2a
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
small subunit C of RNR, RNR2tso
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Astasia sp.
euglenoid flagellate
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain KM
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bacillus megaterium KM
strain KM
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
J-10-fl (ATCC 29366)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain R1, ATCC 13939
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain R1, ATCC 13939
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli JM109
JM109
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Z
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Euglena gracilis Z
strain Z
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Euglena sp.
euglenoid flagellate
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
adults with refractory acute leukemias and aggressive myeloproliferative disorders, MPD
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
human
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isozymes R2 and p53R2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
patients with advanced myeloid leukemia
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lactobacillus leishmanii
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mutant of strain ATCC 4797, produced during many years of transfers on litmus milk
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 4797
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain ATCC 7630
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
serovar Typhimurium, inside RAW264.7 macrophages or HeLa cells
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
industrial strain BMK
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MSB8 (DSM3109)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoplasma acidophilum
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermoplasma acidophilum MSB8
strain MSB8 (DSM3109)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MSB8 (DSM 3109)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain X1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain YT-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermus aquaticus X1
strain X1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermus aquaticus YT-1
strain YT-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Thermus sp. X-1
X-1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
physiological function
-
during anaerobic growth, Escherichia coli depends on a class III RNR for the synthesis of deoxyribonucleotides
physiological function
-
the enzyme is involved in ribonucleotide reduction, that provides deoxynucleotides for nuclear and mitochondrial DNA replication and DNA repair
physiological function
-
RNR is the rate-limiting enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, dNTP, biosynthesis, with important roles in nuclear genome maintenance. RNR is also essential for maintenance of mitochondrial DNA in mammals
physiological function
-
role of RNRs during infection of macrophages and epithelial cells, overview. Class II RNR is not responsible for deoxyribonucleotide production during invasion and proliferation inside macrophages and epithelial cells
metabolism
-
RNR is the rate-limiting enzyme in deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate, dNTP, biosynthesis
additional information
-
Cys290 in class III from bacteriophage T4 are the conserved cysteine residues that are the sites for generation of the thiyl radical
additional information
-
the class III RNR reaction involves deoxyadenosyl, glycyl, or cysteinyl radicals and requires anaerobic conditions; the class II RNR reaction involves deoxyadenosyl or cysteinyl radicals and is independent of oxygen. The thiyl radical in class II RNR is believed to be generated directly at the active site using the cofactor 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
additional information
-
the class II RNR reaction involves deoxyadenosyl or cysteinyl radicals and is independent of oxygen. The thiyl radical in class II RNR is believed to be generated directly at the active site using the cofactor 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
additional information
-
cycling fibroblasts from a patient with a lethal mutation in p53R2 contain a normal amount of mtDNA and show normal growth, ribonucleotide reduction, and deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) pools. However, when made quiescent by prolonged serum starvation the mutant cells strongly down-regulate ribonucleotide reduction, decrease their dCTP and dGTP pools, and virtually abolish the catabolism of dCTP in substrate cycles. mtDNA is not affected
additional information
-
RNRs are allosterically regulated on two levels, overall activity and substrate specificity. The substrate specificity is regulated by the binding of dNTPs to the specificity site, ATP and dATP upregulate the reduction of CDP and UDP, whereas dTTP upregulates GDP reduction and dGTP increases the rate of ADP reduction. This regulation is essential to maintain balanced dNTP pools for DNA synthesis and repairI
additional information
-
high-level overexpression of RNR subunits, Rrm1, Rrm2 and p53R2, separately or in different combinations, in mice does not result in mtDNA copy number elevation. Instead, simultaneous expression of two RNR subunits leads to imbalanced dNTP pools and progressive mtDNA depletion in the skeletal muscle, without mtDNA mutagenesis, overview
additional information
P50651, Q9LSD0
RNR2Tso2 is essential in Col-0
additional information
-
transcriptional regulation of RNR classes as well as their differential function during infection of macrophage and epithelial cells, overview
additional information
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
RNR2Tso2 is essential in Col-0
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ADP + reduced thioredoxin
dADP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP + reduced thioredoxin
dADP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ADP + reduced thioredoxin
dADP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP + reduced thioredoxin
dADP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ADP + reduced thioredoxin
dADP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
most active diphosphate substrate
-
-
?
ATP + reduced thioredoxin
dATP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + reduced thioredoxin
dATP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + reduced thioredoxin
dATP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + reduced thioredoxin
dATP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + reduced thioredoxin
dATP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + reduced thioredoxin
dATP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
ATP + reduced thioredoxin
dATP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + reduced thioredoxin
dATP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermus sp. X-1
-
-
-
-
?
ATP + reduced thioredoxin
dATP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis Z
-
-
-
-
?
CDP + dithiothreitol
?
show the reaction diagram
Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus megaterium KM
-
-
-
-
?
CDP + reduced thioredoxin
dCDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CDP + reduced thioredoxin
dCDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CDP + reduced thioredoxin
dCDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CDP + reduced thioredoxin
dCDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CDP + reduced thioredoxin
dCDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CDP + reduced thioredoxin
dCDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CDP + reduced thioredoxin
dCDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
poorly reduced
-
-
?
CDP + reduced thioredoxin
dCDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CMP + reduced thioredoxin
dCMP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CMP + reduced thioredoxin
dCMP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
poorly reduced
-
-
?
CTP + adenosylcobalamin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermus sp. X-1
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis Z
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
CTP + reduced thioredoxin
dCTP + thioredoxin disulfide
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli JM109
-
-
-
-
?
dATP + adenosylcobalamin
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GDP + reduced thioredoxin
dGDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GDP + reduced thioredoxin
dGDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
poorly reduced
-
-
?
GTP + reduced thioredoxin
dGTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + reduced thioredoxin
dGTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
GTP + reduced thioredoxin
dGTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + reduced thioredoxin
dGTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + reduced thioredoxin
dGTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + reduced thioredoxin
dGTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
GTP + reduced thioredoxin
dGTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + reduced thioredoxin
dGTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermus sp. X-1
-
-
-
-
?
GTP + reduced thioredoxin
dGTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis Z
-
-
-
-
?
IDP + reduced thioredoxin
dIDP + oxidized thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
nucleoside 5'-triphosphate + formate
2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
class III RNR
-
-
?
nucleoside 5'-triphosphate + thioredoxin
2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
class II RNRs
-
-
?
nucleoside 5'-triphosphate + thioredoxin
2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
class III RNR
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + 2-mercaptoethanol + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dihydrolipoate
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + lipoate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dihydrolipoate
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + lipoate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dihydrolipoate
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + lipoate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Anabaena sp. 7119
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dithioerythritol
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + ? + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dithioerythritol
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + ? + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dithioerythritol
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + ? + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dithioerythritol
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + ? + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Anabaena sp. 7119
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dithiothreitol
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + ? + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dithiothreitol
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + ? + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dithiothreitol
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + ? + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + dithiothreitol
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + ? + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Anabaena sp. 7119
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + GSSG
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + GSH + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Anabaena sp., Anabaena sp. 7119
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + NADP+
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + NADPH + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + R(SH)2
deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + RS2 + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Euglena sp.
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Astasia sp.
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermus sp. X-1, Thermus aquaticus YT-1
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Anabaena sp. 7119
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis Z
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus X1
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermoplasma acidophilum MSB8
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Euglena sp.
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Astasia sp.
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
physiological hydrogen donor is unknown
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes the rate-determining step in DNA biosynthesis
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme in the pathway of DNA biosynthesis in all organisms
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrogen donor is very likely thioredoxin or glutaredoxin
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus YT-1
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus X1
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermoplasma acidophilum MSB8
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP + reduced thioredoxin
dUDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UDP + reduced thioredoxin
dUDP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
poorly reduced
-
-
?
UMP + reduced thioredoxin
dUMP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UTP + reduced thioredoxin
dUTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UTP + reduced thioredoxin
dUTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
UTP + reduced thioredoxin
dUTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UTP + reduced thioredoxin
dUTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UTP + reduced thioredoxin
dUTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UTP + reduced thioredoxin
dUTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
UTP + reduced thioredoxin
dUTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
UTP + reduced thioredoxin
dUTP + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Euglena gracilis Z
-
-
-
-
?
ITP + reduced thioredoxin
dITP + oxidized thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
GMP and AMP are no substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the two-component class II RNR is primarily used for DNA repair and/or possibly DNA replication at low oxygen tension. It can support bacterial growth in the absence of class I RNR activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme also catalyzes the exchange of the C5'-hydrogens of adenosylcobalamin with solvent hydrogen, epimerization of the (5'S)-[5'-2H1]- and (5'R)-[5'-2H1]-isotopomers of adenosylcobalamin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
p53-dependent small enzyme subunit M2B may play an important role for initiating DNA replication in normal growth
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli is an essential enzyme required to supply the building blocks for DNA synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme produces deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates, dNTPs
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
class II RNRs convert nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside 5'-diphosphates, see also EC 1.17.4.1, to the correspondent 2'-deoxy products, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
class II RNRs convert nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside 5'-diphosphates, see also EC 1.17.4.1, to the correspondent 2'deoxy products, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
RTPR catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides requiring adenosylcobalamin as a cofactor, model of reaction mechanism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
RTPR catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides using adenosylcobalamin as a cofactor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P50651, Q9LSD0
the small subunit of RNR2 interacts in planta with the C-terminal section of signalosome protein complex COP9 subunit 7, CSN7, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
In class II a tyrosine radical is generated directly on alpha or alpha2 by cleavage of adenosylcobalamin. In class III a glycyl radical is generated on alpha2 when a radical SAM protein cleaves S-adenosylmethionine. In both cases, the radical is channeled to a cysteine in the active site of the alpha subunit to initiate catalysis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the class II RNR also uses nucleoside 5'-diphosphate as substrate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Thermus sp. X-1
-
GMP and AMP are no substrates
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
P50651, Q9LSD0
the small subunit of RNR2 interacts in planta with the C-terminal section of signalosome protein complex COP9 subunit 7, CSN7, overview
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
nucleoside 5'-triphosphate + formate
2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
class III RNR
-
-
?
nucleoside 5'-triphosphate + thioredoxin
2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
class II RNRs
-
-
?
nucleoside 5'-triphosphate + thioredoxin
2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
class III RNR
-
-
?
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Euglena sp.
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Astasia sp.
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
physiological hydrogen donor is unknown
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
catalyzes the rate-determining step in DNA biosynthesis
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme in the pathway of DNA biosynthesis in all organisms
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
hydrogen donor is very likely thioredoxin or glutaredoxin
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus YT-1
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermus aquaticus X1
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin + H2O
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Thermoplasma acidophilum MSB8
-
-
-
-
r
ribonucleoside triphosphate + thioredoxin
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + thioredoxin disulfide + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate + oxidized thioredoxin + H2O
ribonucleoside triphosphate + reduced thioredoxin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
additional information
?
-
-
the two-component class II RNR is primarily used for DNA repair and/or possibly DNA replication at low oxygen tension. It can support bacterial growth in the absence of class I RNR activity
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
p53-dependent small enzyme subunit M2B may play an important role for initiating DNA replication in normal growth
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli is an essential enzyme required to supply the building blocks for DNA synthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme produces deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates, dNTPs
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
class II RNRs convert nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside 5'-diphosphates, see also EC 1.17.4.1, to the correspondent 2'-deoxy products, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
class II RNRs convert nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside 5'-diphosphates, see also EC 1.17.4.1, to the correspondent 2'deoxy products, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
RTPR catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides requiring adenosylcobalamin as a cofactor, model of reaction mechanism, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
RTPR catalyzes the conversion of nucleoside triphosphates to deoxynucleotides using adenosylcobalamin as a cofactor
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
P50651, Q9LSD0
the small subunit of RNR2 interacts in planta with the C-terminal section of signalosome protein complex COP9 subunit 7, CSN7, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
P50651, Q9LSD0
the small subunit of RNR2 interacts in planta with the C-terminal section of signalosome protein complex COP9 subunit 7, CSN7, overview
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
-
class II enzymes
5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolycobamide
-
-
Coalpha-(aden-9-yl)-Cobeta-adenosylcobamide
-
-
Coalpha-(benzimidazolyl)-Cobeta-adenosylcobamide
-
-
Cobalamin
-
class II enzymes
coenzyme B12
-
adenosylcobalamin
coenzyme B12
-
adenosylcobalamin
coenzyme B12
-
adenosylcobalamin
coenzyme B12
-
adenosylcobalamin
coenzyme B12
-
required
NADPH
-
can utilize NADPH as hydrogen donor for ribonucleotide reduction
thioredoxin
-
-
thioredoxin
-
-
thioredoxin
-
class II enzymes
additional information
-
the class III enzymes contain 4Fe-4S clusters in the small beta-subunit. Cofactor specificity and binding, role in reaction, overview
-
additional information
-
cofactor specificity and binding, role in reaction, overview; the class III enzymes contain 4Fe-4S clusters in the small beta-subunit. Cofactor specificity and binding, role in reaction, overview
-
additional information
-
cofactor specificity and binding, role in reaction, overview
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
absolutely dependent on
Ca2+
-
markedly stimulates activity
Co2+
-
enzyme requires adenosylcobalamin as a cofactor, the Co ion is involved in the reaction
Co2+
-
class II enzymes contain cobalamin as cofactor
Cs+
-
activating effect
Fe2+
-
the class III enzymes contain 4Fe-4S clusters in the small beta-subunit
K+
-
activating effect
Li+
-
activating effect
Mg2+
-
stimulates enzyme activity
Mg2+
-
can stimulate the reaction
Mg2+
-
stabilized by
Mg2+
-
markedly stimulates activity
Mg2+
-
required
Mn2+
-
stimulates enzyme activity
Na+
-
activating effect
NH4+
-
activating effect
Rb+
-
activating effect
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate
-
complete inactivation of the enzyme by 1 equiv of 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxyCTP, F2CTP, in about 2 min proceeding via alkylation by the sugar of F2CTP and AdoCbl destruction. 0.47 equiv of a sugar moiety is covalently bound to RNR and 0.25 equiv of a cobalt(III) corrin is tightly associated, likely through a covalent interaction with C419 (Co-S) in the active site of RNR. Analysis of the relationship of the nonalkylative pathway for RNR inactivation relative to the alkylative pathway, overview
-
2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate
-
F2CTP, a clinically used anti-cancer drug, synthesis, overview. Causes rapid enzyme inactivation through covalent modification, mechanism of inactivation, analysis by mass spectrometry and radio- or deuterium-labeled compounds, overview. C119 is involved in the reaction
-
2'-chloro-2'-deoxy-UTP
-
-
-
2'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
-
-
3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexahydroxy-trans-stilbene
-
i.e. M8, a resveratrol analogue, inhibits the enzyme and causes an imbalance of intracellular dNTP pools, the dATP pool is eliminated, while the dCTP and dTTP pools are enlarged. M8 leads to complete growth inhibition of HT-29 cells at 0.015 mM within 7 days, overview
3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone
-
i.e.3-AP or triapine, in combination with the nucleoside analog fludarabine for patients with refractory acute leukemias and aggressive myeloprol, phase I study, detailed overview, the inhibitor inhibits the M2 subunit, and depletes intracellular deoxyribonculeotide pools, especially dATP
3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde-thiosemicarbazone
-
i.e. 3-AP, phase I study in combination with high dose cytarabine in patients with advanced myeloid leukemia, resulting in enhanced cytarabine cytotoxicity with possible methemoglobinemia, overview
3-isoadenosylcobalamin
-
-
-
adenosylcobalamin
-
-
Co2+
-
RNR activity chelates with copper leading to inactivation
dTTP
-
inhibits ATP reduction
dTTP
-
inhibits CTP, ATP and GTP reduction, reduction of UTP is unaffected by deoxyribonucleotides
dTTP
-
inhibits CDP reduction
dTTP
-
inhibits CDP reduction
Gallic acid
-
inhibition of enzyme activity and induction of dose-dependent apoptosis and attenuated progression from G0/G1 to S phase of cells cycle. Highly synergistic effects of simultaneous treatment of cells with gallic acid and enzyme inhibitor N',3,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzenecarboximidamide
gemcitabine
-
-
gemcitabine
-
i.e. 2',2'-difluoro-2'-deoxycytidine, dFdC, a deoxycytidine analogue, very active drug against solid tumors, the RNR inactivation is reductant-dependent for R1 subunit, but reductant-independent for the R2 subunit, R1 inactivation is the most favorable mechanism responsible for the drug's cytotoxicity, overview, binding and inhibition mechanism including the formation of a Cys225-Cys462 disulfide bridge, detailed overview
Hydroxyurea
-
20 mM, 20% inhibition
Hydroxyurea
-
inhibits the M2 subunit
isopropylideneadenosylcobalamin
-
-
N',3,4,5-tetrahydroxybenzenecarboximidamide
-
i.e. trimidox, highly synergistic effects of simultaneous treatment of cells with inhibitors gallic acid and trimidox
N-hydroxy-N'-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamidine
-
a resveratrol analogue, inhibits the enzyme in HL-60 cells showing synergistic effects with arabinofuranosylcytosine in antitumor activity, overview
nebularylcobalamin
-
-
signalosome protein complex COP9
P50651, Q9LSD0
i.e. CSN, is a negative regulator of RNR2 activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The pleiotropic regulator of plant development and contains eight-subunits, RNR2 binds to the C-terminus of subunit 7, CSN7; i.e. CSN, is a negative regulator of RNR2 activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. The pleiotropic regulator of plant development and contains eight-subunits, RNR2 binds to the C-terminus of subunit 7, CSN7
-
triapine
-
i.e. 3-AP, triapine enhances the cytotoxicity of gemcitabine and arabinoside cytosine in four non-small-cell-lung-cancer cell lines, e.g. in SW1573 cells, but not in H460 cells, multiple-drug-effect analysis, overview
triapine
-
a potent ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor, phase I and pharmacokinetic study in adults with advanced hematologic malignancies, detailed overview
tubercidylcobalamin
-
-
[3-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)propyl]cobalamin
-
-
[4-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)butyl]cobalamin
-
-
[5-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)pentyl]cobalamin
-
-
[6-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)hexyl]cobalamin
-
-
[7-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)heptyl]cobalamin
-
-
[omega-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)alkyl]cobalamin
-
-
Mg2+
-
strongly inhibitory in absence of ATP
additional information
-
no enzyme inhibition by arabinoside cytosine
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2',5'-dideoxyadenosylcobalamin anilide
-
-
2-mercaptoethanol
-
-
5'-deoxy-5'-adenosylcobalamin
-
-
5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
-
-
5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin
-
-
5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin anilide
-
-
5'-deoxyuridylcobalamin
-
-
ATP
-
stimulates CTP reduction
ATP
-
stimulates CDP reduction
cyanocobalamin anilide
-
-
cyanocobalamin dibasic acid
-
-
-
cyanocobalamin ethylamide
-
-
-
cyanocobalamin monobasic acid
-
-
-
dATP
-
stimulation of CTP reduction
dATP
-
specific activator for CTP reduction
dATP
-
specific activator for CTP reduction
dATP
-
specific activator for CTP reduction
dATP
-
specific activator for CTP reduction
dCTP
-
stimulation of UTP reduction
dCTP
-
specific activator for UTP reduction
dGTP
-
stimulation of ATP reduction
dGTP
-
specific activator for ATP reduction
dGTP
-
specific activator for ATP reduction
dGTP
-
specific activator for ATP reduction
dGTP
-
both epimerization and 5'-hydrogen exchange reactions are stimulated by the allosteric effector
dTTP
-
stimulation of GTP reduction
dTTP
-
specific activator for ITP reduction
dTTP
-
specific activator for GTP reduction
hydroxocobalamin methylamide
-
-
NADPH
-
stimulates reductase activity in crude extracts
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0003
-
adenosylcobalamin
-
presence of 1.0 mM CTP and 1 mM dATP
0.00045
-
adenosylcobalamin
-
presence of 0.1 mM CTP and 1 mM dATP
0.001
-
adenosylcobalamin
-
-
0.0055
-
adenosylcobalamin
-
presence of 2 mM CTP without activator
0.06
-
adenosylcobalamin
-
-
0.1
-
adenosylcobalamin
-
-
0.08
-
ADP
-
in presence of effector dGTP
0.015
-
ATP
-
immobilized enzyme
0.07
-
ATP
-
in presence of effector dGTP
0.22
-
ATP
-
presence of 1 mM dGTP
0.25
-
ATP
-
in presence of dTTP
1
-
ATP
-
at 70C
0.11
-
CDP
-
presence of effector dATP
0.01
-
CTP
-
immobilized enzyme
0.02
-
CTP
-
presence of 0.05 mM dATP
0.085
-
CTP
-
presence of effector dATP
0.09
-
CTP
-
in presence of dATP
0.13
-
CTP
-
presence of 1 mM dATP
0.15
-
CTP
-
in presence of dTTP
0.32
-
CTP
-
at 37C
1.4
-
CTP
-
at 70C
9.5
-
CTP
-
without ATP
20
-
dithiothreitol
-
-
0.09
-
GTP
-
immobilized enzyme
0.29
-
GTP
-
at 37C
0.99
-
GTP
-
at 70C
0.01
-
UTP
-
immobilized enzyme
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0143
-
cob(II)alamin
-
+ adenosine
0.0208
-
cob(II)alamin
-
-
0.0558
-
[3-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)propyl]cobalamin
-
-
0.0189
-
[4-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)butyl]cobalamin
-
-
0.0077
-
[5-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)pentyl]cobalamin
-
-
0.0246
-
[6-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)hexyl]cobalamin
-
-
0.0128
-
[7-(adenosin-5'-O-yl)heptyl]cobalamin
-
-
0.0426
-
cyanocobalamin
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
inhibition kinetics with gemcitabine
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.167
-
-
-
77.25
-
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7.8
8.4
-
-
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
70
-
-
-
TEMPERATURE RANGE
TEMPERATURE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
80
-
-
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
fibroblast cell, non-dividing cells expressing enzyme subunit p53R2, but not sunit R2 protein, have reduced dNTP levels if exposed to the enzyme--specific inhibitor hydroxyurea. After DNA damage, a slow, up to 4fold increase in p53R2 expression leads to 3fold increase in dNTP pools in G0/G1 cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
significant induction of subunit R2 following blood feeding
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
isozymes R2 and p53R2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6Y657
subunit R2 isoforms TSO2 and RNR2A
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
colon cancer cell. Cell line expresses subunit R2 in excess resulting in protection against DNA damage and replication stress
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
promyelocytic leukemia cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
oropharyngeal epidermal carcinoma cell line. At G1/S phase transition, level of p53-dependent small enzyme subunit M2B increases to maximum levles, and decreases with DNA synthesis. In response to DNA replication, subunit M2B redistributes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus earlier than small subunit M2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6Y657
cauline leaf, subunit R2 isoforms TSO2 and RNR2A
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
higest expression of subunit R2 in ovary of blood-fed or sugar-fed animals. Significant induction following blood feeding
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6Y657
subunit R2 isoform TSO2
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6Y657
subunit R2 isoforms TSO2 and RNR2A
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q6Y657
subunit R2 isoforms TSO2 and RNR2A
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
;
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
exponentialy grown cells predominantly express class I enzyme compared with class II enzyme, activity in stationary phase cells
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-, Q6Y657
expression of subunit isoform RNR2B in all tissues tested, but at low level; expression of subunit isoform RNR2B in all tissues tested, but at low level
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
RNR expression in small cell lung cancer cell lines, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
P50651, Q9LSD0
RNR2Tso2 is more prevalent than RNR2A throughout development and in most organs, suggesting that RNR2Tso2 is the predominant RNR2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. RNR2Tso2 levels are more varied than RNR2A levels in response to environmental changes and exposure to chemicals; RNR2Tso2 is more prevalent than RNR2A throughout development and in most organs, suggesting that RNR2Tso2 is the predominant RNR2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. RNR2Tso2 levels are more varied than RNR2A levels in response to environmental changes and exposure to chemicals
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
RNR2Tso2 is more prevalent than RNR2A throughout development and in most organs, suggesting that RNR2Tso2 is the predominant RNR2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. RNR2Tso2 levels are more varied than RNR2A levels in response to environmental changes and exposure to chemicals; RNR2Tso2 is more prevalent than RNR2A throughout development and in most organs, suggesting that RNR2Tso2 is the predominant RNR2 in Arabidopsis thaliana. RNR2Tso2 levels are more varied than RNR2A levels in response to environmental changes and exposure to chemicals
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
-
in response to DNA replication, subunit M2B redistributes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P50651, Q9LSD0
the subcellular localization of RNR2 is primarily nuclear in meristematic regions, and cytoplasmic in adult cells. RNR2 is constitutively nuclear in csn7 mutant seedlings; the subcellular localization of RNR2 is primarily nuclear in meristematic regions, and cytoplasmic in adult cells. RNR2 is constitutively nuclear in csn7 mutant seedlings
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
the subcellular localization of RNR2 is primarily nuclear in meristematic regions, and cytoplasmic in adult cells. RNR2 is constitutively nuclear in csn7 mutant seedlings; the subcellular localization of RNR2 is primarily nuclear in meristematic regions, and cytoplasmic in adult cells. RNR2 is constitutively nuclear in csn7 mutant seedlings
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
in response to DNA replication, subunit M2B redistributes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
P50651, Q9LSD0
the subcellular localization of RNR2 is primarily nuclear in meristematic regions, and cytoplasmic in adult cells. RNR2 is constitutively nuclear in csn7 mutant seedlings; the subcellular localization of RNR2 is primarily nuclear in meristematic regions, and cytoplasmic in adult cells. RNR2 is constitutively nuclear in csn7 mutant seedlings
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
the subcellular localization of RNR2 is primarily nuclear in meristematic regions, and cytoplasmic in adult cells. RNR2 is constitutively nuclear in csn7 mutant seedlings; the subcellular localization of RNR2 is primarily nuclear in meristematic regions, and cytoplasmic in adult cells. RNR2 is constitutively nuclear in csn7 mutant seedlings
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
69300
-
-
enzyme in 6 M guanidine-HCl, 0.1 M dithiothreitol, equilibrium ultracentrifugation
72000
-
-
gel filtration
72500
-
-
native enzyme in 0.1 M glycine buffer, pH 9.1, equilibrium ultracentrifugation
72600
-
-
maleated enzyme in 0.05 M phosphate buffer, equilibrium ultracentrifugation
74500
-
-
enzyme in 6 M guanidine-HCl, 0.1 M dithiothreitol, heated for 20 min at 60C, equilibrium ultracentrifugation
75300
-
-
native enzyme in 0.05 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, sedimentation equilibrium method
76000
-
-
gel filtration
78400
-
-
SDS-PAGE
80000
-
-
gel filtration
81800
-
-
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry
81850
-
-
predicted molecular weight based on the predicted amino acid sequence from the sequenced gene
90000
-
-
gel filtraton
90000
-
-
gel filtration
100000
-
-
size exclusion chromatography, SDS-PAGE
107000
-
-
deduced amino acid sequence
110000
-
-
sedimentation equilibrium analysis
140000
150000
-
-
200000
-
-
deduced protein sequence
240000
278000
-
-
240000
-
-
-
440000
-
-
gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
dimer
-
both subunits are required for catalytic activity
monomer
-
1 * 78400, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 76000
monomer
Anabaena sp. 7119
-
1 * 50000, SDS-PAGE
-
monomer or dimer
-
alpha or alpha2, class II RNRs
tetramer
-
4 * 100000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
RNR is a tetramer consisting of two non-identical homodimers. The two identical M2 subunits regulate the substrate specificity of the enzyme, while the other two identical M1 subunits are responsible for the activity by binding the ribonucleotides and allosteric effectors
tetramer
-
alpha2beta2 heterodimer with a regulatory, nucleotide binding site M1 subunit, and an inducible, catalytic M2 subunit which contains non-heme iron and a tyrosyl free radical, that are required for the enzymatic reduction of ribonucleotides
tetramer
-
2 * M1-subunit + 2 * M2-subunit
tetramer
-
alpha2beta2, class III RNRs
tetramer
Euglena gracilis Z
-
4 * 100000, SDS-PAGE
-
monomer or dimer
-
class II enzymes show a monomeric or dimeric structure
additional information
-
the enzyme is encoded by two consecutive open reading frames denated nrdJa and nrdJb and separated by 16 bp. The presence of both NrdJa and NrdJb subunits is absolutely essential for enzyme activity
additional information
-
structure comparisons of classI-III RNRs, model for the subunit organization of RNRs, overview
additional information
-
structures of the active holoenzymes of class I-III RNRs, structure comparisons, overview
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
enzyme in complex with dATP, DTTP, dGTP, dTTP-GDP, dGTP-ADP, dATP-CDP or dATP-UDP
-
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
fairly stable under conditions of storage, losing only about 23% of its activity in 15 months
-
extreme stability
-
immobilization stabilizes the enzyme substantially, compared with free enzyme, which has an inactivation half-life of less than 1 day, on immobilization the inactivation half-life is about 15 days
-
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
activity is not air-sensitive
-
437905
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-100C, may be stored as frozen paste for at least 3 months without significant loss of activity
-
-20C, crude extracts relatively unstable, most of the activity disappears within a few weeks
-
-65C, no detectable loss of enzyme has been observed during several years of storage of packed bacteria
-
0-4C, acetone and hydroxylapatite fractions are quite stable, at least 70-80% of their activities remain after 3 months
-
0-4C, crude extracts relatively unstable, most of the activity disappears within a few weeks
-
20C, 0.03 M dimethylglutarate buffer, pH 7.2, remains fully active on storage for 24 h
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
recombinant RNR2 from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants by affinity chromatography; recombinant RNR2 from transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants by affinity chromatography
P50651, Q9LSD0
wild-type and mutant enzymes
-
from overexpressing Escherichia coli cells
-
partially
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
subunit R2
-
two-hybrid interaction analysis of CSN7 and RNR2 expressing the vectors under control of the 35S promoter in Nicotiana benthamiana cells, transgenic expression of RNR2 in Arabidopsis thaliana plants; two-hybrid interaction analysis of CSN7 and RNR2 expressing the vectors under control of the 35S promoter in Nicotiana benthamiana cells, transgenic expression of RNR2 in Arabidopsis thaliana plants
P50651, Q9LSD0
cloned by PCR from peptide sequence information
-
the nrdDG promoter regulates transcriptional expression of the anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase of Escherichia coli, binding of the pleiotropic FNR, fumarate and nitrate reduction, transcriptional regulator to the nrdDG promoter region affects the transcription, the upstream FNR-2 site is essential for anaerobic activation of the nrdDG promoter. Although the FNR-1 site is not absolutely required, it allows maximal expression of this promoter, overview
-
gene encoding p53R2 genotyping, real-time RT-PCR expression analysis
-
cloning, sequencing and expression of the protein
-
overexpressed in Escherichia coli
-
high-level overexpression of RNR subunits, Rrm1, Rrm2 and p53R2, separately or in different combinations, in mice, simultaneous expression of two RNR subunits
-
sequence analysis, RNR gene discovered
-
chromosomal DNA containg RNR gene PCR amplified, gene cloned, completely sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli
-
cloned by PCR from peptide sequence information, nrdj gene sequenced completely and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
-
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
endogenous RNR transcripts are downregulated in response to large increases of mtDNA in mice, which is indicative of nuclear-mitochondrial crosstalk with regard to mtDNA copy number
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
C644A
-
mutant enzyme is devoid of significant activity
C647A
-
mutant enzyme displays 2% of wild-type activity
C662A
-
mutant enzyme is devoid of significant activity
C665A
-
mutant enzyme is devoid of significant activity
C644A
Escherichia coli JM109
-
mutant enzyme is devoid of significant activity
-
C647A
Escherichia coli JM109
-
mutant enzyme displays 2% of wild-type activity
-
C662A
Escherichia coli JM109
-
mutant enzyme is devoid of significant activity
-
C119S
-
site-directed mutagenesis
C408A
-
only wild-type enzyme catalyzes epimerization of the (5'S)-[5'-2H1]- and (5'R)-[5'-2H1]-isotopomers of adenosylcobalamin, no activity of mutant enzyme
additional information
-, Q6Y657
mutants in subunit R2 isoform tso2 show reduced deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate levels and developmental defects including callus-like floral organs and fasciated shoot apical stems. R2 isoforms tso2 single and tso2/rnr2a double mutants are more sensitive to UV-C light and double mutant seedlings exhibit increased DNA damage, massive programmed cell death, and release of transcriptional gene silencing
additional information
-
mutation cls8, i.e. crinkled leaves8, is a mutant of the large subunit R1 of ribonucleotide reductase. the mutation leads to abnormal leaf and flower morphology, reduced root growth and bleache leaf sections. Levels of dTTP and dATP are significantly reduced
additional information
P50651, Q9LSD0
construction of two T-DNA insertion mutants of the RNR2Tso2, inserted within the coding sequence of the second exon of RNR2Tso2. No plants homozygous for the T-DNA allele are detectable for either allele
additional information
Arabidopsis thaliana Col-0
-
construction of two T-DNA insertion mutants of the RNR2Tso2, inserted within the coding sequence of the second exon of RNR2Tso2. No plants homozygous for the T-DNA allele are detectable for either allele
-
C665A
Escherichia coli JM109
-
mutant enzyme is devoid of significant activity
-
additional information
-
fnr and arcA mutant strains are constructed by introducing the indicated mutation into strain IG40 by P1 transduction followed by selection for the appropriate drug resistance
additional information
-
in p53null cells, siRNA-mediated knockdown of about 80% of R2 subunits has no effect on proliferative growth but results in enhanced accumulation of gamma-H2Ax and delayed recovery from DNA lesions inflicted by exposure to cisplatin and Triapine. Level of R1 subunits is limiting since depletion of the R1 subunit directly activates the S phase checkpoint due to replication stress
additional information
-
isolation of a p53R2 mutant from skin fibroblasts, quiescent p53R2 mutant cells contain more isozyme R2, incorporate more BrdU into cell nuclei, and synthesize more DNA from dTMP than matched controls
C408S
-
only wild-type enzyme catalyzes epimerization of the (5'S)-[5'-2H1]- and (5'R)-[5'-2H1]-isotopomers of adenosylcobalamin, no activity of mutant enzyme
additional information
-
generation of RNR transgenic mice expressing one or more subunits of RNR, phenotypes, overview
additional information
-
cell lacking thioredoxins exhibit an elongated S phase and accumulate subunit R1 in its oxidized form. Cells also contain significantly decreased deoxyribonucleotide levels during the S phase. Overexpressing subunit R1 in these cells increases both the amount of R1 reduced form and the concentrations of deoxyribonucleotides and accelerates DNA replication