Information on EC 1.17.1.4 - xanthine dehydrogenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.17.1.4
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RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
xanthine dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O = urate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
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redox reaction
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reduction
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PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
adenosine nucleotides degradation I
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adenosine nucleotides degradation II
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caffeine degradation III (bacteria, via demethylation)
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guanosine nucleotides degradation I
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guanosine nucleotides degradation II
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guanosine nucleotides degradation III
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Metabolic pathways
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Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
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purine metabolism
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Purine metabolism
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purine nucleobases degradation I (anaerobic)
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purine nucleobases degradation II (anaerobic)
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theophylline degradation
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urate biosynthesis/inosine 5'-phosphate degradation
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Acts on a variety of purines and aldehydes, including hypoxanthine. The mammalian enzyme can also convert all-trans retinol to all-trans-retinoate, while the substrate is bound to a retinoid-binding protein [14]. The enzyme from eukaryotes contains [2Fe-2S], FAD and a molybdenum centre. The mammalian enzyme predominantly exists as the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC 1.17.1.4). During purification the enzyme is largely converted to an O2-dependent form, xanthine oxidase (EC 1.17.3.2). The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds [2,6,8,15] [which can be catalysed by EC 1.8.4.7, enzyme-thiol transhydrogenase (glutathione-disulfide) in the presence of glutathione disulfide] or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion. The conversion can also occur in vivo [2,7,15].
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9054-84-6
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene xdh
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
soybean
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
turkey
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Columba livia
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
no activity in Klebsiella sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Peptococcus sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mill cv. Hass
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC strain 15692
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 40
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 86
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
induction by application of abscisic acid and in water-stressed leaves and roots
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
wheat
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Veillonella sp.
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Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
malfunction
metabolism
physiological function
additional information
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1-methylhypoxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
1-methylxanthine + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
10% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
-
?
1-methylxanthine + ferricyanide + H2O
1-methylurate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
1-methylxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
1-methylurate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
1-methylxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
1-methylurate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
1-naphthaldehyde + NAD+ + ?
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
27.5% of the activity with xanthine
-
-
?
2 2-hydroxypurine + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O
xanthine + 2,8-dihydroxypurine + 2 NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
considerable activity
84% xanthine, 8% 2,8-dihydroxypurine formed
?
2 hypoxanthine + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O
xanthine + 6,8-dihydroxypurine + 2 NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
100% xanthine, 51% 6,8-dihydroxypurine formed
?
2,6-diaminopurine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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poor substrate
-
-
?
2,6-dithiopurine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
26% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
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?
2-amino-4-hydroxy-pterin + methylene blue + H2O
isoxanthopterin + reduced methylene blue
show the reaction diagram
2-amino-4-hydroxy-pterin + NAD+ + H2O
isoxanthopterin + NADH
show the reaction diagram
2-amino-4-hydroxypterin + NAD+ + H2O
isoxanthopterin + NADH
show the reaction diagram
2-amino-4-hydroxypterin + nitroblue tetrazolium + H2O
isoxanthopterin + reduced nitroblue tetrazolium
show the reaction diagram
2-hydroxy-6-methylpurine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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poor substrate
-
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?
2-hydroxypurine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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35% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine, purine not oxidized
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?
2-OH-purine + ferricyanide + H2O
? + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
2-thioxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
2-thiourate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
57% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
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?
2-thioxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
2-thiourate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
3 purine + 3 NAD+ + 3 H2O
hypoxanthine + 8-hydroxypurine + 2-hydroxypurine + 3 NADH + 3 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
2.3% hypoxanthine, 2.3% 8-hydroxypurine and traces of 2-hydroxypurine formed
?
3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
3,4-dihydroxybenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
3-methylxanthine + ferricyanide + H2O
3-methylurate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
4-aminoimidazole-5-carboxamide + NADP+ + H2O
? + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
38% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine-NADP+
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?
4-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-dimethylaminobenzoate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
0.3% activity compared to xanthine
-
-
?
4-hydroxybenzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
4-hydroxybenzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
4-hydroxypyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine + ferricyanide + H2O
4,6-dihydroxypyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
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i.e. allopurinol
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?
4-hydroxypyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine + methyl viologen + H2O
4,6-dihydroxypyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
4-hydroxypyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine + NAD+ + H2O
4,6-dihydroxypyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine + NADH
show the reaction diagram
4-hydroxypyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine + nitroblue tetrazolium + H2O
4,6-dihydroxypyrazolo(3,4-d)pyrimidine + reduced nitroblue tetrazolium
show the reaction diagram
5-aminoimidazol-4-carboxamide + methyl viologen + H2O
? + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
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1.1% of the activity compared to xanthine
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?
6,8-dihydropurine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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50% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
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?
6,8-dihydroxypurine + NAD+ + H2O
urate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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-
18% urate formed
?
6,8-dihydroxypurine + O2
? + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
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?
6,8-dihydroxypurine + O2 + H2O
? + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
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-
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?
6-mercaptopurine + methyl viologen + H2O
? + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
-
9.5% of the activity compared to xanthine
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?
6-thioxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
6-thiourate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
63% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
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?
6-thioxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
6-thiourate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
effective substrate
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?
6-thioxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
good substrate
-
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?
8-azahypoxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
8-azaxanthine + NADH
show the reaction diagram
8-azaxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
8-aza-urate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity
-
?
9-methylhypoxanthine + O2
9-methylxanthine + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
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?
abscisic aldehyde + NAD+ + ?
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
28.9% of the activity with xanthine
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?
acetaldehyde + 2,6-dichloroindophenol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
acetaldehyde + ferricyanide + H2O
acetic acid + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
-
5% of the activity compared to xanthine
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?
acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
acetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
acetaldehyde + nitroblue tetrazolium + H2O
acetic acid + reduced nitroblue tetrazolium
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity
-
?
adenine + ferricyanide + H2O
urate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
-
12% of the activity compared to xanthine
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?
adenine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
adenine-N1-oxide + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
3.4% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
-
?
benzaldehyde + 2 ferricyanide + H2O
benzoate + 2 ferrocyanide + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
4% of the activity compared to xanthine
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?
benzaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
benzoate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
benzaldehyde + nitroblue tetrazolium + H2O
benzoate + reduced nitroblue tetrazolium
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity
-
?
benzaldehyde + O2
benzoate + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
glyceraldehyde + 2,6-dichloroindophenol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
guanine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
81.3% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
-
?
heptaldehyde + NAD+ + ?
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
12.5% of the activity with xanthine
-
-
?
hypoxanthine + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O
urate + 2 NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + 2,6-dichorophenolindophenol + H2O
xanthine + ?
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + cytochrome c + H2O
xanthine + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
-
2.1% of the activity compared to NAD+
-
?
hypoxanthine + ferricyanide
xanthine + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
hypoxanthine + ferricyanide + H2O
xanthine + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + methyl viologen + H2O
xanthine + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + methylene blue + H2O
xanthine + reduced methylene blue
show the reaction diagram
-
39% of the activity compared to NAD+ as electron acceptor
-
?
hypoxanthine + NAD+ + H+ + O2- + H2O
xanthine + NADH + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
urate + ? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
149% activity compared to xanthine
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-
?
hypoxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
xanthine + NADH
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
xanthine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + NADH
? + NO2- + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
0.1% of the xanthine oxidation rate
-
?
hypoxanthine + NADP+ + H2O
xanthine + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + nitroblue tetrazolium
xanthine + ?
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + O2
xanthine + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + O2 + H2O
xanthine + O2-
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + phenazine methosulfate + H2O
urate + ?
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + thio-NAD+ + H2O
xanthine + thio-NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
hypoxanthine + urate
xanthine + 6,8-dihydroxypurine
show the reaction diagram
-
oxygen-free assay
-
r
hypoxanthine + ureic acid immine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
uric acid in its 2-electron oxidized form is able to act as an artificial electron acceptor from XDH in an electrochemically driven catalytic system
-
-
?
indole-3-acetaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
indole-3-acetate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
and similar aldehydes, 2-3% of the activity with xanthine
-
-
?
indole-3-carboxaldehyde + NAD+ + ?
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
31.3% of the activity with xanthine
-
-
?
inosine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
?
isoguanine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
7.3% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
-
?
N-methylnicontinamide + NADP+ + H2O
? + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity, only a substrate at pH values above 8.0
-
?
NAD(P)H + H+ + oxidized 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
NAD(P)+ + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
NADH + electron acceptor + H2O
NAD+ + reduced electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
NADH + O2 + H+
NAD+ + O2- + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
-
xanthine dehydrogenase catalyzes NADH oxidation leading to the formation of one O2- radical and half a H2O2 molecule, at rates three times those observed for xanthine oxidase. NADH efficiently oxidizes xanthine dehydrogenase, but only a great excess of NADH reduces xanthine oxidase
-
-
?
NADH + reduced phenazine methosulfate + cytochrome c
NAD+ + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
no activity for the mutant E89K
-
?
NADPH + electron acceptor + H2O
NADP+ + reduced electron acceptor
show the reaction diagram
-
electron acceptors: 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, methyl viologen, benzyl viologen, methylene blue
-
?
NADPH + nitroblue tetrazolium + H2O
NADP+ + reduced nitroblue tetrazolium
show the reaction diagram
NADPH + O2
NADP+ + O2- + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
high NADPH oxidase activity
-
?
NADPH + phenazine methosulfate + cytochrome c
NADP+ + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
phthalazine + NAD+ + H2O
1-(2H)-phthalazinone + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
0.4% activity compared to xanthine
-
-
?
propionaldehyde + NAD+ + H2O
propionic acid + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
?
pterin + 2,6-dichloroindophenol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
pterin + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
purine + 2,6-dichloroindophenol + H2O
?
show the reaction diagram
purine + ferricyanide + H2O
urate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
-
108% of the activity compared to xanthine
-
?
purine + methyl viologen + H2O
? + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
-
2% of the activity compared to xanthine
-
?
purine + NAD+ + ?
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
10.3% of the activity with xanthine
-
-
?
purine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
purine + NADP+ + H2O
? + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
-
60% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
-
?
purine + nitroblue tetrazolium
?
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
purine + O2 + H2O
8-hydroxypurine + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
quinazoline + NAD+ + H2O
4-(3H)-quinazolinone + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
2% activity compared to xanthine
-
-
?
salicylaldehyde + ferricyanide + H2O
salicylate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
-
2% of the activity compared to xanthine
-
?
salicylaldehyde + O2
salicylate + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
theobromine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
very low activity
-
?
theophylline + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
?
urate + NADH
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
xanthine + 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol + H2O
urate + ?
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide+ + H2O
urate + 3-acetylpyridine-adenine dinucleotide(H)
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + benzyl viologen + H2O
urate + reduced benzyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + cytochrome c + H2O
urate + reduced cytochrome c
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + DCIP + H2O
urate + reduced DCIP
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
xanthine + FAD + H2O
urate + FADH2
show the reaction diagram
-
35% of the activity compared to methylene blue as electron acceptor
-
?
xanthine + ferredoxin + H2O
urate + reduced ferredoxin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
xanthine + ferricyanide + H2O
urate + ferrocyanide
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + FMN + H2O
urate + FMNH2
show the reaction diagram
-
44% of the activity compared to methylene blue as electron acceptor
-
?
xanthine + iodonitrotetrazolium + H2O
urate + reduced iodonitrotetrazolium
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
xanthine + methyl viologen + H2O
urate + reduced methyl viologen
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + methylene blue + H2O
urate + reduced methylene blue
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + myoglobin + H2O
urate + reduced myoglobin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O
urate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O
urate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + NAD+ + O2 + H2O + H+
urate + NADH + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + NADP+ + H2O
urate + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + nitroblue tetrazolium + H2O
urate + ?
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + O2
hypoxanthine + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
dismutation reaction
-
?
xanthine + O2 + H2O
urate + O2- + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + p-benzoquinone + H2O
hypoxanthine + hydroquinone
show the reaction diagram
-
electron donor only for oxidase type
-
?
xanthine + p-benzoquinone + H2O
p-benzosemiquinone + urate
show the reaction diagram
-
electron acceptor p-benzoquinone for both dehydrogenase and oxidase types
-
?
xanthine + phenazine methosulfate + cytochrome c + H2O
urate + ?
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + phenazine methosulfate + H2O
urate + ?
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + pyridinealdehyde-NAD+ + H2O
urate + pyridinealdehyde-NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
53% of the activity compared to NAD+, low reverse activity
-
r
xanthine + riboflavin + H2O
urate + reduced riboflavin
show the reaction diagram
-
41% of the activity compared to methylene blue as electron acceptor
-
?
xanthine + thio-NAD+ + H2O
urate + thio-NADH
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + trinitrobenzenesulfonate + H2O
urate + ?
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + ureic acid immine
?
show the reaction diagram
-
uric acid in its 2-electron oxidized form is able to act as an artificial electron acceptor from XDH in an electrochemically driven catalytic system
-
-
?
xanthopterin + NAD+ + H2O
leucopterin + NADH
show the reaction diagram
xanthosine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
15.1% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
2 2-hydroxypurine + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O
xanthine + 2,8-dihydroxypurine + 2 NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
considerable activity
84% xanthine, 8% 2,8-dihydroxypurine formed
?
2 hypoxanthine + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O
xanthine + 6,8-dihydroxypurine + 2 NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
preferred substrate
100% xanthine, 51% 6,8-dihydroxypurine formed
?
2-amino-4-hydroxy-pterin + NAD+ + H2O
isoxanthopterin + NADH
show the reaction diagram
3 purine + 3 NAD+ + 3 H2O
hypoxanthine + 8-hydroxypurine + 2-hydroxypurine + 3 NADH + 3 H+
show the reaction diagram
-
poor substrate
2.3% hypoxanthine, 2.3% 8-hydroxypurine and traces of 2-hydroxypurine formed
?
6,8-dihydroxypurine + NAD+ + H2O
urate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
18% urate formed
?
6,8-dihydroxypurine + O2
? + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
guanine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
81.3% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
-
?
hypoxanthine + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O
urate + 2 NADH + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + NAD+ + H+ + O2- + H2O
xanthine + NADH + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
xanthine + NADH
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + NAD+ + H2O
xanthine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + NADH
? + NO2- + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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0.1% of the xanthine oxidation rate
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?
hypoxanthine + NADP+ + H2O
xanthine + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + O2
xanthine + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
hypoxanthine + urate
xanthine + 6,8-dihydroxypurine
show the reaction diagram
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oxygen-free assay
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r
NADPH + O2
NADP+ + O2- + H+
show the reaction diagram
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high NADPH oxidase activity
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?
purine + NAD+ + H2O
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
purine + NADP+ + H2O
? + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
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60% of the activity compared to hypoxanthine
-
?
purine + O2 + H2O
8-hydroxypurine + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O
urate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O
urate + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + NAD+ + O2 + H2O + H+
urate + NADH + H2O2
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + NADP+ + H2O
urate + NADPH
show the reaction diagram
xanthine + O2
hypoxanthine + ?
show the reaction diagram
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dismutation reaction
-
?
xanthine + O2 + H2O
urate + O2- + 2 H+
show the reaction diagram
xanthopterin + NAD+ + H2O
leucopterin + NADH
show the reaction diagram
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regulation of the pteridine pathway by competitive inhibition of reaction products and the precursor of xanthopterin, 7,8-dihydroxanthopterin
-
?
additional information
?
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