Information on EC 1.17.1.3 - leucoanthocyanidin reductase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Spermatophyta

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.17.1.3
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
leucoanthocyanidin reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O = 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O = 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
two-step catalytic mechanism involving the formation of an enzyme-bound quinone methide intermediate prior to reduction, overview. A concerted dehydration precedes an NADPH-mediated hydride transfer at C4. The dehydration step involves a Lys-catalyzed deprotonation of the phenolic OH7 through a bridging water molecule and a His-catalyzed protonation of the benzylic hydroxyl at C4. The resulting quinone methide serves as an electrophilic target for hydride transfer at C4. The role of the lysine is to promote the formation of this intermediate by catalyzing the deprotonation of a phenolic hydroxyl
Q4W2K4
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
2,3-trans-flavanols biosynthesis
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
Flavonoid biosynthesis
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(2R,3S)-catechin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
The enzyme catalyses the synthesis of catechin, catechin-4beta-ol (leucocyanidin) and the related flavan-3-ols afzelechin and gallocatechin, which are initiating monomers in the synthesis of plant polymeric proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins. While 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin is the preferred flavan-3,4-diol substrate, 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin and 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin can also act as substrates, but more slowly. NADH can replace NADPH but is oxidized more slowly.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
anthocyanidin reductase
-
-
LAR
-
-
-
-
LAR
-, E4W4T1
-
LAR
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
-, E4W4T1
-
-
LAR
Q4W2K4
-
LAR1
Q4W2K4
-
leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase
-
-
-
-
leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase
-
-
leucoanthocyanidin reductase
-
-
leucoanthocyanidin reductase
Q4W2K4
-
reductase, leucoanthocyanidin
-
-
-
-
leucocyanidin reductase
-
-
-
-
additional information
Q84V83
enzyme is part of the isoflavone reductase group of the reductase-epimerase-dehydrogenase family of enzymes
additional information
Q4W2K4
LAR belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and to the PIP (pinoresinol-lariciresinol reductase, isoflavone reductase, and phenylcoumaran benzylic ether reductase) family
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
190337-34-9
-
93389-48-1
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
cv. Columbia, gene BANYULS
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. of Chinese origin, gene DkLAR
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. of Chinese origin, gene DkLAR; cv. of Japanese origin, gene DkLAR
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
cv. of Chinese origin, gene DkLAR
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
cv. of Chinese origin, gene DkLAR; cv. of Japanese origin, gene DkLAR
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
barley
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR1
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR2
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR1
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR2
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene BANYULS
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Othello, sainfoin
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
douglas fir
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR1; isoform LAR1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR2
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR2; isoform LAR2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
physiological function
-, E4W4T1
leucoanthocyanidin reductase converts leucoanthocyanidin to (+)-catechin, a precursor of proanthocyanidins abundant in Japanese persimmon fruits; leucoanthocyanidin reductase converts leucoanthocyanidin to (+)-catechin, a precursor of proanthocyanidins abundant in Japanese persimmon fruits
physiological function
Q4W2K4
leucoanthocyanidin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 2R,3S,4S-flavan-3,4-diols into 2R,3S-flavan-3-ols, a subfamily of flavonoids that is important for plant survival and for human nutrition
physiological function
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
-
leucoanthocyanidin reductase converts leucoanthocyanidin to (+)-catechin, a precursor of proanthocyanidins abundant in Japanese persimmon fruits; leucoanthocyanidin reductase converts leucoanthocyanidin to (+)-catechin, a precursor of proanthocyanidins abundant in Japanese persimmon fruits
-
metabolism
-
leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase are involved in biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins by producing (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, respectively, from leukoanthocyanidin
additional information
-
leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase are co-regulated by abscisic acid, overview
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2R,3R)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
gallocatechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
combined dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
combined dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity, 2-step reaction
-
-
?
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-, E4W4T1
-
-
-
r
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
-, E4W4T1
-
-
-
r
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoliflavan + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
flavan formation by combined flavanone 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity
-
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
flavan formation by combined flavanone 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-, ?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q84V83
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q84V83
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-, ?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme acts mainly on the 3,4-cis rather than the 3,4-trans isomer
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
proanthocyanidin biosynthesis
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6, -
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5, -
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin + NADPH
2,3-trans-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q84V83
-
no formation of 2,3-cis-epicatechin
-
?
3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q84V83
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin + NADPH
2,3-trans-gallocatechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q84V83
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q84V83
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5, -
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
substrate only for isoform LAR2
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
2,3-trans-afzelechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q84V83
-
-
-
?
cyanidin + NADPH
(-)-epicatechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. (2R,3R)-3-cis-flavan-3-ol
-
?
cyanidin + NADPH
(-)-epicatechin + (-)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
(-)-epicatechin, i.e. (2R,3R)-3-cis-flavan-3-ol, is the major product, formation of (-)-catechin by nonenzymatic epimerization is possible
-
?
delphinidin + NADPH
(-)-epigallocatechin + (-)-gallocatechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
(-)-epigallocatechin is the major product, formation of (-)-gallocatechin by nonenzymatic epimerization is possible
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
double step reduction
-
?
leucodelphinidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5, -
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
leucodelphinidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
luteoforol + NADPH
luteoliflavan + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5, -
i.e. 3-deoxyleucocyanidin, both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
pelargonidin + NADPH
(-)-epiafzelechin + (-)-afzelechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
(-)-epiafzelechin is the major product, formation of (-)-afzelechin by nonenzymatic epimerization is possible
-
?
luteoforol + NADPH
luteoliflavan + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
i.e. 3-deoxyleucocyanidin, both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is important in biosynthesis of catchin, epigallocatechin, and anthocyanidins, flavonoid metabolism in tea leaves, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of condensed tannins in the flavonoid pathway converting anthocyanidins into 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q84V83
enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins 3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin, first committed step, anthocyanidin pathway overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate preference in descending order: cyanidin, pelargonidin, delphinidin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate preference in descending order: delphinidin, pelargonidin, cyanidin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6, -
enzyme contributes to proanthocyanidin synthesis in fruit, and the tissue and temporal-specific regulation of the gene determines proanthocyanidin accumulation and composition during grape berry development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q4W2K4
leucoanthocyanidin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 2R,3S,4S-flavan-3,4-diols into 2R,3S-flavan-3-ols, the coenzyme and substrate binding pocket is preformed in the apoprotein and not markedly altered upon NADPH binding, ternary complex structure, substrate binding site structure, overview. Ordering of a short 3_10 helix associated with substrate binding, His122 and Lys140 act as acid-base catalysts
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-, E4W4T1
-
-
-
r
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
-, E4W4T1
-
-
-
r
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q84V83
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
proanthocyanidin biosynthesis
-
-
-
3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin + NADPH
2,3-trans-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-, Q84V83
-
no formation of 2,3-cis-epicatechin
-
?
cyanidin + NADPH
(-)-epicatechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. (2R,3R)-3-cis-flavan-3-ol
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is important in biosynthesis of catchin, epigallocatechin, and anthocyanidins, flavonoid metabolism in tea leaves, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of condensed tannins in the flavonoid pathway converting anthocyanidins into 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q84V83
enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins 3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin, first committed step, anthocyanidin pathway overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6, -
enzyme contributes to proanthocyanidin synthesis in fruit, and the tissue and temporal-specific regulation of the gene determines proanthocyanidin accumulation and composition during grape berry development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q4W2K4
leucoanthocyanidin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 2R,3S,4S-flavan-3,4-diols into 2R,3S-flavan-3-ols
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NADH
-, Q84V83
30% the rate of NADPH
NADPH
-
specific for, positive cooperativity
NADPH
-
slight preference for
NADPH
-
dependent on
NADPH
-, E4W4T1
;
NADPH
Q4W2K4
dependent on, binding site structure, overview
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-
enzyme is not affected by Na+ at up to 400 mM
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2,3-cis-flavan-3,4-diol
-, Q84V83
slight inhibition
2,3-cis-flavan-3-ol
-, Q84V83
product inhibition
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromenium
-, Q84V83
48% inhibition at 0.006 mM
3,4-trans-leucocyanidin
-, Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.12 mM
3,4-trans-leucopelargonidin
-, Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.46 mM
afzelechin
-, Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.014 mM
catechin
-, Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.012 mM
cyanidin
-
substrate inhibition at high concentration
delphinidin
-, Q84V83
97% inhibition at 0.06 mM
dihydroquercetin
-, Q84V83
60% inhibition at 0.01 mM
dihydroquercetin
-
-
epi-gallocatechin
-, Q84V83
50% inhibition at 1.4 mM
eriodictyol
-, Q84V83
53% inhibition at 0.01 mM
Na+
-
above 200 mM
NADP+
-, Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.5 mM; slight inhibition
pelargonidin
-, Q84V83
55% inhibition at 0.006 mM
pelargonidin
-
substrate inhibition at high concentration
gallocatechin
-, Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.28 mM
additional information
-, Q84V83
overview: phenylpropanoids
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by (+)-catechin and dihydroquercetin
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.006
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin
-, Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C
0.006
-
3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin
-, Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C
0.005
-
3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin
-, Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C; pH 7.0, 30C
0.026
-
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin
-, Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C; pH 7.0, 30C
0.06
-
NADH
-, Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C
0.0004
-
NADPH
-, Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C
0.042
-
NADPH
-
pH 6.8, 30C
0.037
-
dihydroquercetin
-
pH 7.4
additional information
-
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
enzyme shows typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics for each substrate
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
-
additional information
-, Q84V83
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0005
-
-
crude extract of young leafs
8.7
-
-, Q84V83
; purified native enzyme, substrate 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin
additional information
-
-
activity of flavonoid metabolism enzymes in tea leaves
additional information
-
-
150 picokatal/g fresh weight, in floral buds; 22 picokatal/g fresh weight, in the exocarp at the beginning of berry growth
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.5
6
-
depending on the buffer system used
6
-
-
assay at, combined flavanone 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity
7
-
-, Q84V83
; broad optimum
7
-
-
assay at
7.5
-
-
assay at
7.6
-
-
combined dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
7
-, Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
6
7
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5, -
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
6
7.5
-
80% activity at pH 6 and pH 7.5
6.2
7.8
-, Q84V83
95% activity at pH 6.2 and pH 7.8; 95% of maximal activity at pH 76.2 and pH 7.8
6.4
8
-
no significant changes between pH 6.4 and pH 8.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
-
assay at
25
-
-
assay at
30
-
-, Q84V83
assay at
30
-
-, Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
-
37
-
-, Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
-
37
-
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5, -
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
lower level of LAR2 expression than in seed
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, E4W4T1
relationship of development of tannin cells and transcript level of the DkLAR gene, analysis of different cultivars, overview; relationship of development of tannin cells and transcript level of the DkLAR gene, analysis of different cultivars, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
-
relationship of development of tannin cells and transcript level of the DkLAR gene, analysis of different cultivars, overview; relationship of development of tannin cells and transcript level of the DkLAR gene, analysis of different cultivars, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
young leaves, enzyme activity declines in mature phases of leaf development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q84V83
; small unexpanded leaflets
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
2 young leaves and bud
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
lower level of LAR2 expression than in seed; low level of LAR1 expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
A1XEF4, A1XEF7, -
steady-state levels of anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase correlate with the levels of proanthocyanidins in wild-type and trasgenic plants; steady-state levels of anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase correlate with the levels of proanthocyanidins in wild-type and trasgenic plants
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-, Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 show decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5, -
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
highest expression of LAR2 in seed, with maximum expression at veraison; isoform LAR1 seed specific, with the highest expression occurring 2 weeks after flowering
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
berry skin, lower level of LAR2 expression than in seed; berry skin, low level of LAR1 expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
52000
-
-, Q84V83
gel filtration; native enzyme, gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Q4W2K4
x * 46943.3, recombinant enzyme, mass spectrometry
monomer
-, Q84V83
1 * 45000, native enzyme, SDS-PAGE; 1 * 45000, SDS-PAGE
additional information
Q4W2K4
three-dimensional structure and structure comparisons, overview
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
near homogeneity
-, Q84V83
LAR1 in complex with or without NADPH and one of its natural products, (+)-catechin, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.75-2.72 A resolution
Q4W2K4
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
unstable in desalted extracts
-
only little loss of activity after freezing and thawing
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
4C, desalted extract, 40% loss of activity after 90 min
-
4C, desalted extract, only little loss of activity after 90 min
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli
-
native enzyme to near homogeneity from leaves, about 48500fold
-, Q84V83
recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli
-
recombinant His-tagged LAR1 from Escherichia coli by nickel affinity chromatography
Q4W2K4
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
; determination of DNA and amino acid sequences, expression in Escherichia coli strain XL-1 Blue, Nicotiana tabacum, and Trifolium repens, plant transformations via Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection system
-, Q84V83
gene DkLAR, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. Expression of the DkLAR gene in Chinese pollination-constant non-astringent, PCNA, genotype is coincident with the tannin cell development, but is not in Japanese PCNA and Chinese pollination-variant astringent PCA genotypes; gene DkLAR, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genotyping. Expression of the DkLAR gene in Chinese pollination-constant non-astringent, PCNA, genotype is coincident with the tannin cell development, but is not in Japanese PCNA and Chinese pollination-variant astringent PCA genotypes
-, E4W4T1
expression in Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha, expression as MBT-fusion protein followed by cleavage of the protein tag by Factor Xa protease
-
expression of His-tagged LAR1 in Escherichia coli
Q4W2K4
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
A1XEF4, A1XEF7, -
isoform LAR1 gene produces active proteins upon expression in Escherichia coli and is affected by the same basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that promotes proanthocyanidin accumulation in cells of palisade and spongy mesophyll