Information on EC 1.17.1.3 - leucoanthocyanidin reductase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Spermatophyta

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.17.1.3
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
leucoanthocyanidin reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O = 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O = 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
two-step catalytic mechanism involving the formation of an enzyme-bound quinone methide intermediate prior to reduction, overview. A concerted dehydration precedes an NADPH-mediated hydride transfer at C4. The dehydration step involves a Lys-catalyzed deprotonation of the phenolic OH7 through a bridging water molecule and a His-catalyzed protonation of the benzylic hydroxyl at C4. The resulting quinone methide serves as an electrophilic target for hydride transfer at C4. The role of the lysine is to promote the formation of this intermediate by catalyzing the deprotonation of a phenolic hydroxyl
Q4W2K4
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
2,3-trans-flavanols biosynthesis
-
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
-
Flavonoid biosynthesis
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(2R,3S)-catechin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
The enzyme catalyses the synthesis of catechin, catechin-4beta-ol (leucocyanidin) and the related flavan-3-ols afzelechin and gallocatechin, which are initiating monomers in the synthesis of plant polymeric proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins. While 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin is the preferred flavan-3,4-diol substrate, 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin and 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin can also act as substrates, but more slowly. NADH can replace NADPH but is oxidized more slowly.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
LAR
-
-
-
-
leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase
-
-
-
-
leucocyanidin reductase
-
-
-
-
reductase, leucoanthocyanidin
-
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
190337-34-9
-
93389-48-1
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
cv. Columbia, gene BANYULS
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. of Chinese origin, gene DkLAR
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. of Chinese origin, gene DkLAR; cv. of Japanese origin, gene DkLAR
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
cv. of Chinese origin, gene DkLAR
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
cv. of Chinese origin, gene DkLAR; cv. of Japanese origin, gene DkLAR
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
barley
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR1
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR2
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR1
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR2
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene BANYULS
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Othello, sainfoin
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
douglas fir
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Cabernet-Sauvignon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR1; isoform LAR1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR2
Swissprot
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isoform LAR2; isoform LAR2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
malfunction
-
ectopic expression of PtrLAR1 in poplar positively regulates the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidin, whereas the accumulation of anthocyanin and flavonol is significantly reduced in all transgenic plants compared to the control plants
malfunction
-
overexpression of PtrLAR3 in Chinese white poplar (Populus tomentosa Carr.) leads to a significant plant-wide increase in proanthocyanidin levels. In vitro assays show that crude leaf extracts from 35S:PtrLAR3 transformants are able to inhibit significantly the hyphal growth of Marssonina brunnea f.sp.multigerm tubi compared to the extracts from control plants. The transgenic 35S:PtrLAR3 poplar plants display a significant reduction in their disease symptoms compared with the control
malfunction
-
transgenic tobacco overexpressing TcLAR have decreased amounts of anthocyanidins and increased proanthocyanidins. Overexpressing TcLAR in Arabidopsis ldox mutant also results in elevated synthesis of not only catechin but also epicatechin
physiological function
Q4W2K4
leucoanthocyanidin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 2R,3S,4S-flavan-3,4-diols into 2R,3S-flavan-3-ols, a subfamily of flavonoids that is important for plant survival and for human nutrition
physiological function
-
leucoanthocyanidin reductase converts leucoanthocyanidin to (+)-catechin, a precursor of proanthocyanidins abundant in Japanese persimmon fruits
physiological function
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
-
leucoanthocyanidin reductase converts leucoanthocyanidin to (+)-catechin, a precursor of proanthocyanidins abundant in Japanese persimmon fruits
-
metabolism
-
leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase are involved in biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins or condensed tannins by producing (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, respectively, from leukoanthocyanidin
additional information
-
leucoanthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin reductase are co-regulated by abscisic acid, overview
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2R,3R)-dihydromyricetin + NADPH
gallocatechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
combined dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity
-
-
?
(2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
combined dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity, 2-step reaction
-
-
?
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
E4W4T1
-
-
-
r
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
E4W4T1
-
-
-
r
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoliflavan + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
flavan formation by combined flavanone 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity
-
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH
?
show the reaction diagram
-
flavan formation by combined flavanone 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84V83
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84V83
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme acts mainly on the 3,4-cis rather than the 3,4-trans isomer
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
proanthocyanidin biosynthesis
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
-
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin + NADPH
2,3-trans-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin + NADPH
2,3-trans-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84V83
-
no formation of 2,3-cis-epicatechin
-
?
3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84V83
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin + NADPH
2,3-trans-gallocatechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84V83
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84V83
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
substrate only for isoform LAR2
-
-
?
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin + NADPH
2,3-trans-afzelechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84V83
-
-
-
?
cyanidin + NADPH
(-)-epicatechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. (2R,3R)-3-cis-flavan-3-ol
-
?
cyanidin + NADPH
(-)-epicatechin + (-)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
(-)-epicatechin, i.e. (2R,3R)-3-cis-flavan-3-ol, is the major product, formation of (-)-catechin by nonenzymatic epimerization is possible
-
?
delphinidin + NADPH
(-)-epigallocatechin + (-)-gallocatechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
(-)-epigallocatechin is the major product, formation of (-)-gallocatechin by nonenzymatic epimerization is possible
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
dihydroquercetin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
double step reduction
-
?
leucodelphinidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
leucodelphinidin + NADPH
? + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
luteoforol + NADPH
luteoliflavan + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5
i.e. 3-deoxyleucocyanidin, both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
pelargonidin + NADPH
(-)-epiafzelechin + (-)-afzelechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
(-)-epiafzelechin is the major product, formation of (-)-afzelechin by nonenzymatic epimerization is possible
-
?
luteoforol + NADPH
luteoliflavan + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
i.e. 3-deoxyleucocyanidin, both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is important in biosynthesis of catchin, epigallocatechin, and anthocyanidins, flavonoid metabolism in tea leaves, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of condensed tannins in the flavonoid pathway converting anthocyanidins into 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q84V83
enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins 3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin, first committed step, anthocyanidin pathway overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate preference in descending order: cyanidin, pelargonidin, delphinidin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
substrate preference in descending order: delphinidin, pelargonidin, cyanidin
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
enzyme contributes to proanthocyanidin synthesis in fruit, and the tissue and temporal-specific regulation of the gene determines proanthocyanidin accumulation and composition during grape berry development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q4W2K4
leucoanthocyanidin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 2R,3S,4S-flavan-3,4-diols into 2R,3S-flavan-3-ols, the coenzyme and substrate binding pocket is preformed in the apoprotein and not markedly altered upon NADPH binding, ternary complex structure, substrate binding site structure, overview. Ordering of a short 3_10 helix associated with substrate binding, His122 and Lys140 act as acid-base catalysts
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
E4W4T1
-
-
-
r
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
E4W4T1
-
-
-
r
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84V83
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin + NADPH
(2R,3S)-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
proanthocyanidin biosynthesis
-
-
-
3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin + NADPH
2,3-trans-catechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
Q84V83
-
no formation of 2,3-cis-epicatechin
-
?
cyanidin + NADPH
(-)-epicatechin + NADP+ + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
i.e. (2R,3R)-3-cis-flavan-3-ol
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is important in biosynthesis of catchin, epigallocatechin, and anthocyanidins, flavonoid metabolism in tea leaves, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of condensed tannins in the flavonoid pathway converting anthocyanidins into 2,3-cis-flavan-3-ols, overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q84V83
enzyme is involved in the biosynthesis of condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins 3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin, first committed step, anthocyanidin pathway overview
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
enzyme contributes to proanthocyanidin synthesis in fruit, and the tissue and temporal-specific regulation of the gene determines proanthocyanidin accumulation and composition during grape berry development
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q4W2K4
leucoanthocyanidin reductase catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of 2R,3S,4S-flavan-3,4-diols into 2R,3S-flavan-3-ols
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NADH
Q84V83
30% the rate of NADPH
NADPH
-
dependent
NADPH
Q84V83
;
NADPH
-
preferred over NADH
NADPH
-
specific for, positive cooperativity
NADPH
-
slight preference for
NADPH
-
dependent on
NADPH
E4W4T1
;
NADPH
Q4W2K4
dependent on, binding site structure, overview
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
-
enzyme is not affected by Na+ at up to 400 mM
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(+)-catechin
-
-
2,3-cis-flavan-3,4-diol
Q84V83
slight inhibition
2,3-cis-flavan-3-ol
Q84V83
product inhibition
2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxychromenium
Q84V83
48% inhibition at 0.006 mM
3,4-trans-leucocyanidin
Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.12 mM
3,4-trans-leucopelargonidin
Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.46 mM
afzelechin
Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.014 mM
catechin
Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.012 mM
cyanidin
-
substrate inhibition at high concentration
delphinidin
Q84V83
97% inhibition at 0.06 mM
dihydroquercetin
Q84V83
60% inhibition at 0.01 mM
dihydroquercetin
-
-
epi-gallocatechin
Q84V83
50% inhibition at 1.4 mM
eriodictyol
Q84V83
53% inhibition at 0.01 mM
Na+
-
above 200 mM
NADP+
Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.5 mM; slight inhibition
pelargonidin
Q84V83
55% inhibition at 0.006 mM
pelargonidin
-
substrate inhibition at high concentration
gallocatechin
Q84V83
50% inhibition at 0.28 mM
additional information
Q84V83
overview: phenylpropanoids
-
additional information
-
no inhibition by (+)-catechin and dihydroquercetin
-
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.006
2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucocyanidin
Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C
0.006
3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin
Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C
0.005
3,4-cis-leucodelphinidin
Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C; pH 7.0, 30C
0.026
3,4-cis-leucopelargonidin
Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C; pH 7.0, 30C
0.06
NADH
Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C
0.0004
NADPH
Q84V83
pH 7.0, 30C
0.042
NADPH
-
pH 6.8, 30C
0.037
dihydroquercetin
-
pH 7.4
additional information
additional information
-
-
-
additional information
additional information
-
enzyme shows typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics for each substrate
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
additional information
Q84V83
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0005
-
crude extract of young leafs
8.7
Q84V83
; purified native enzyme, substrate 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-leucoanthocyanidin
additional information
-
activity of flavonoid metabolism enzymes in tea leaves
additional information
-
150 picokatal/g fresh weight, in floral buds; 22 picokatal/g fresh weight, in the exocarp at the beginning of berry growth
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.5 - 6
-
depending on the buffer system used
6
-
assay at, combined flavanone 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity
7
Q84V83
; broad optimum
7
-
assay at
7.5
-
assay at
7.6
-
combined dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductae activity
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6 - 7
Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
6 - 7
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
6 - 7.5
-
80% activity at pH 6 and pH 7.5
6.2 - 7.8
Q84V83
95% activity at pH 6.2 and pH 7.8; 95% of maximal activity at pH 76.2 and pH 7.8
6.4 - 8
-
no significant changes between pH 6.4 and pH 8.0
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
assay at
25
-
assay at
30
Q84V83
assay at
30
Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
-
30
-
assay at
37
Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
-
37
Q3S9L6, Q4W2K5
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2; both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
lower level of LAR2 expression than in seed
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
relationship of development of tannin cells and transcript level of the DkLAR gene, analysis of different cultivars, overview
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Diospyros kaki Luotian-tianshi
-
relationship of development of tannin cells and transcript level of the DkLAR gene, analysis of different cultivars, overview
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
young leaves, enzyme activity declines in mature phases of leaf development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
2 young leaves and bud
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q84V83
small unexpanded leaflets
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q5D7Y1, Q5D7Y2
both isoforms LAR1 and LAR2 show decreasing expression from early to late stages of leaf development
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
low level of LAR1 expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
lower level of LAR2 expression than in seed
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
steady-state levels of anthocyanidin reductase and leucoanthocyanidin reductase correlate with the levels of proanthocyanidins in wild-type and trasgenic plants
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
pod exocarp
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
high expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
preferrently expressed
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
highest expression of LAR2 in seed, with maximum expression at veraison
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
isoform LAR1 seed specific, with the highest expression occurring 2 weeks after flowering
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
berry skin, low level of LAR1 expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q4W2K5, Q4W2K6
berry skin, lower level of LAR2 expression than in seed
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low expression
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
52000
Q84V83
gel filtration; native enzyme, gel filtration
636457
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
Q4W2K4
x * 46943.3, recombinant enzyme, mass spectrometry
monomer
Q84V83
1 * 45000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
Q84V83
1 * 45000, native enzyme, SDS-PAGE
additional information
Q4W2K4
three-dimensional structure and structure comparisons, overview
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
near homogeneity
Q84V83
LAR1 in complex with or without NADPH and one of its natural products, (+)-catechin, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.75-2.72 A resolution
Q4W2K4
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
unstable in desalted extracts
-
only little loss of activity after freezing and thawing
-
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
4C, desalted extract, 40% loss of activity after 90 min
-
4C, desalted extract, only little loss of activity after 90 min
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli
-
native enzyme to near homogeneity from leaves, about 48500fold
Q84V83
recombinant enzyme from Escherichia coli
-
recombinant His-tagged LAR1 from Escherichia coli by nickel affinity chromatography
Q4W2K4
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
; determination of DNA and amino acid sequences, expression in Escherichia coli strain XL-1 Blue, Nicotiana tabacum, and Trifolium repens, plant transformations via Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection system
Q84V83
gene DkLAR, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genotyping and phylogenetic analysis. Expression of the DkLAR gene in Chinese pollination-constant non-astringent, PCNA, genotype is coincident with the tannin cell development, but is not in Japanese PCNA and Chinese pollination-variant astringent PCA genotypes; gene DkLAR, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, genotyping. Expression of the DkLAR gene in Chinese pollination-constant non-astringent, PCNA, genotype is coincident with the tannin cell development, but is not in Japanese PCNA and Chinese pollination-variant astringent PCA genotypes
E4W4T1
expression in Escherichia coli strain DH5alpha, expression as MBT-fusion protein followed by cleavage of the protein tag by Factor Xa protease
-
recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli
-
expression of His-tagged LAR1 in Escherichia coli
Q4W2K4
EXPRESSION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
leucoanthocyanidin reductase expression in cotton fiber is much higher than their competing enzymes acting on the same substrates (dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin synthase, respectively)
-
significantly up-regulated in brown fiber
-
highest expression in roots
-
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
A1XEF4, A1XEF7
isoform LAR1 gene produces active proteins upon expression in Escherichia coli and is affected by the same basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that promotes proanthocyanidin accumulation in cells of palisade and spongy mesophyll