Information on EC 1.14.18.1 - tyrosinase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.14.18.1
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
tyrosinase
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
betacyanin biosynthesis
-
Betalain biosynthesis
-
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
-
L-dopachrome biosynthesis
-
Metabolic pathways
-
Riboflavin metabolism
-
Tyrosine metabolism
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-tyrosine,L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase
A type III copper protein found in a broad variety of bacteria, fungi, plants, insects, crustaceans, and mammals, which is involved in the synthesis of betalains and melanin. The enzyme, which is activated upon binding molecular oxygen, can catalyse both a monophenolase reaction cycle (reaction 1) or a diphenolase reaction cycle (reaction 2). During the monophenolase cycle, one of the bound oxygen atoms is transferred to a monophenol (such as L-tyrosine), generating an o-diphenol intermediate, which is subsequently oxidized to an o-quinone and released, along with a water molecule. The enzyme remains in an inactive deoxy state, and is restored to the active oxy state by the binding of a new oxygen molecule. During the diphenolase cycle the enzyme binds an external diphenol molecule (such as L-dopa) and oxidizes it to an o-quinone that is released along with a water molecule, leaving the enzyme in the intermediate met state. The enzyme then binds a second diphenol molecule and repeats the process, ending in a deoxy state [7]. The second reaction is identical to that catalysed by the related enzyme catechol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1). However, the latter can not catalyse the hydroxylation or monooxygenation of monophenols.
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
AbPPO1
O42713
-
catalase-phenol oxidase
-
bifunctional enzyme
catalase-phenol oxidase
-
bifunctional enzyme, its major activity is the catalase-mediated decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, but it also catalyzes peroxide-independent phenol oxidation
catechol oxidase
-
-
-
-
catechol oxidase
-
-
catechol oxidase
-
-
catecholase
-
-
-
-
catecholase
-
-
catecholase
-
-
catecholase
-
-
chlorogenic acid oxidase
-
-
-
-
chlorogenic oxidase
-
-
-
-
cresolase
-
-
-
-
cresolase
-
-
cresolase
-
-
cresolase
-
-
cresolase
-
-
cresolase/monophenolase
-
-
deoxy-tyrosinase
-
-
dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
Diphenol oxidase
-
-
-
-
Diphenol oxidase
-
-
Diphenol oxidase
-
-
dopa oxidase
-
-
-
-
dopa oxidase
-
DOPA oxidase activity of murine tyrosinase
EC 1.10.3.1
-
-
related
-
Hc-derived phenoloxidase
-
-
Hc-phenoloxidase
-
-
hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase
-
-
L-DOPA:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
met-tyrosinase
-
-
monophenol dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
monophenol monooxidase
-
-
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monooxygenase
-
-
monophenol monoxygenase
-
-
monophenol oxidase
-
-
-
-
monophenol oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, 3,4-dihydroxy L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA):oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
monophenol, dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, dihydroxyphenylalanine:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
copper binding metalloenzyme
monophenol, L-Dopa: oxidoreductase
Q6RX65
-
monophenol, L-DOPA: oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase
B2Z3P7
-
monophenol, o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase
B2Z3P7
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:O2 oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxido-reductase
O42713
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
O42713
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
Q41428
-
monophenol, o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
monophenol, polyphenol oxidase
-
-
monophenol: dioxygen oxidoreductases, hydroxylating
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
monophenolase
-
-
mTyr
P11344
-
murine tyrosinase
-
from cultured B16 cells
N-acetyl-6-hydroxytryptophan oxidase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenol oxidase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenol oxidase
Helix vulgaris, Rapana venosa
-
-
o-diphenol oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenol oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
o-diphenol: oxidoreductase
-
-
o-diphenol:O2 oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenol:oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenolase
-
-
-
-
o-diphenolase
-
-
oxygen oxidoreductase
-
-
phenol oxidase
-
-
-
-
phenol oxidase
-
-
phenol oxidases
-
-
phenolase
-
-
-
-
phenolase
-
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
phenoloxidase
Q6RX65
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
phenoloxidase
P11344
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
phenoloxidase
-
-
polyaromatic oxidase
-
-
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
catalyzes both the hydroxylation of monophenols to diphenols and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones
polyphenol oxidase
O42713
-
polyphenol oxidase
Amorphophallus paeonifolius var. campanulatus
-
a binuclear copper containing metalloprotein
polyphenol oxidase
-
responsible for browning reaction in demaged plant tissues and fruits
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
acts like cresolase and catecholase
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
EC1.14.18.1, EC1.10.3.1
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Q45NF5
-
polyphenol oxidase
Q3YJ63
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Lolium sp.
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Ramonda serbica
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Q41428
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
Q84YH9, Q84YI0, Q84YI1
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase
-
-
polyphenol oxidase B
-
-
polyphenolase
-
-
-
-
polyphenoloxidase
-
-
polyphenoloxidase
-
-
polyphenoloxidase
-
-
polyphenoloxidase
-
-
polyphenoloxidase
-
-
PotPPO
Q41428
-
PPO
Q45NF5
-
PPO
Q3YJ63
-
PPO
-
enzyme catalyses two distinct reactions: the o-hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (acts like cresolase) (E.C. 1.14.18.1) and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (acts like catecholase) (E.C. 1.10.3.2)
PPO
Lolium sp.
-
-
PPO
Ramonda serbica
-
-
PPO
Q84YH9, Q84YI0, Q84YI1
-
PPO
-
-
PPO1
Q45NF5
-
PPO1
Q3YJ63
-
PPO1
Q84YI1
-
PPO2
O42713
-
PPO2
Q84YI0
-
PPO3
Q84YH9
-
pro-PO III
Q6RX65
-
prophenoloxidase III
Q6RX65
-
pyrocatechol oxidase
-
-
-
-
ST94
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
ST94t
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
the tyrosinase activity of ST94 is enhanced by proteolysis with trypsin to form a protein, termed ST94t
tryosinase
-
-
tryrosinase
-
-
tyr
P11344
-
TYR1
Q5DB10
isozyme
TYR2
Q5DHS0
isozyme
tyrA
B2Z3P7
has both monophenol oxidase and diphenol oxidase activity
tyrA
B2Z3P7
has both monophenol oxidase and diphenol oxidase activity
-
tyrosinase
-
-
-
-
tyrosinase
B2Z3P7
-
tyrosinase
B2Z3P7
-
-
tyrosinase
-
a real tyrosinase because it shows both diphenolase and monophenolase activities
tyrosinase
-
catalyzes two distinct reactions of melanin biosynthesis: the o-hydroxylation of the amino acid L-tyrosine to L-DOPA and subsequently the oxidation of L-DOPA to the corresponding o-dopaquinone
tyrosinase
-
copper-containing monooxygenase
tyrosinase
-
rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis
tyrosinase
O42713
-
tyrosinase
Amorphophallus paeonifolius var. campanulatus
-
-
tyrosinase
B2ZB02
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
this enzyme is able to catalyse two different reactions: the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase or cresolase activity, EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase or catechol oxidase activity, EC 1.10.3.1)
tyrosinase
Helix vulgaris
-
-
tyrosinase
-
plays a core role in melanogenesis
tyrosinase
-
this enzyme is able to catalyse two different reactions: the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase or cresolase activity, EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase or catechol oxidase activity, EC 1.10.3.1)
tyrosinase
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
this enzyme is able to catalyse two different reactions: the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase or cresolase activity, EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase or catechol oxidase activity, EC 1.10.3.1)
tyrosinase
P11344
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
Pseudomonas putida F6
-
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
Q5DB10, Q5DHS0
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase
Q41428
-
tyrosinase
-
binuclear copper enzyme
tyrosinase
-
this enzyme is able to catalyse two different reactions: the hydroxylation of monophenols to o-diphenols (monophenolase or cresolase activity, EC 1.14.18.1), and the oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones (diphenolase or catechol oxidase activity, EC 1.10.3.1)
tyrosinase
Streptomyces castaneoglobisporus HUT6202
-
-
-
tyrosinase
-
-
tyrosinase 2
-
-
tyrosinase diphenolase
-
-
tyrosine-dopa oxidase
-
-
-
-
monphenol mono-oxgenase
-
-
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
additional information
-
cf. EC 1.10.3.1
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
9002-10-2
not distinguished from EC 1.10.3.1
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
strain WS
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain WS
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agaricus bisporus (J.E.Lange) Imbach
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and delta-tyrosinase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
high enzyme content
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white button mushroom, enzyme protects a human lymphoma cell line, Raji cells, against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Agaricus hortensis
mushroom
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Amorphophallus paeonifolius var. campanulatus
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cherimoya fruit var. Concha Lisa
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. Kurstaki
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
common name Pupunha
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
red Swiss chard, subspecies Beta vulgaris cicla
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
spinach-beet
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. botrytis italica
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
smooth bromegrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
subsp. delileana
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. H1023
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Coffea guarini
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Gigante de Vranja, quince
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Abertop
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
orchardgrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
carrot
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
yam tubers
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white yam from Nigeria
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
quackgrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Emerita asiatica
Milne Edwards
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
L. 1767
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
common name Jucara
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
common name Acai
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tall fescue
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
meadow fescue
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Festuca sp.
tall fescue, soft leaf
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
expressed in retinal pigment epithelium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
soybean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Helix vulgaris
garden snail
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene tyr2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ilex argentinus
tyrosinase precursor 1
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ilex argentinus
tyrosinase precursor 2
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme is involved in sclerotisation, i.e., the hardening of the chitinous cuticle, and defense
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
iceberg lettuce
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. capitata L.
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
6 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
whiteleg shrimp
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lolium sp.
ryegrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
the Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) has a very short shelf life under ambient conditions due to skin colour loss and quality deterioration during storage
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
apple, var. red delicious
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tyrosinases A and B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
sago palm, isoenzymes I and III
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B16 melanoma cells
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B16 melanoma cells; high-mobility- and low-mobility tyrosinase
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
B16 melanoma cells; isoenzymes T1, T2, T3 and T4
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
melanocyte cell lines
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Musa cavendishii
banana
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
housefly
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mushroom
4 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mushroom
obtained from Sigma
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from armadillo
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
enzyme is synthesized as a precursur
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars Picual and FS-17
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
green olive
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
manzanilla cultivar (Olea europaea pomiformis)
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
european spiny lobsters from the Northern Atlantic Sea
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
opium, isoenzymes A and B
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
avocado
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
reed canarygrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
bush bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
; pinto bean, CDC Pintium and 1533-15
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
timothy grass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
3 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kentucky bluegrass
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Polyporus dichrous
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
black poplar
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
apricot, var Bergeron
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Prunus persica L. Cv. Catherina
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
F6 strain wild-type and 2 mutants overproducing melanin, F6-HDO with disrupted homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase gene and F6-TR with disrupted transcriptional regulator gene
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain F6, soil bacterium. The coexistence of this tyrosinase with a laccase in Pseudomonas putida F6 is reported and both activities characterised
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas putida F6
strain F6, soil bacterium. The coexistence of this tyrosinase with a laccase in Pseudomonas putida F6 is reported and both activities characterised
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
d'anjou pear, 3 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chinese pear, cultivar Nakai
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ramonda serbica
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Rana esculenta ridibunda
frog
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
frog, 2 probably identical enzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
marine snail
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mediterranean slipper lobster
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
type culture Humicola insolens, ATCC 16454
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
var. Naomi, Pizzutello, Rosa Maletto, and PO228, physicochemical properties of the different tomato varieties, overview
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
eggplant
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivar Rooster, rooster potato
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
tyrosinases from apple, potato, the white rot fungus Pycnoporus sanguineus, the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei and the edible mushroom Agaricus bisporus are compared for their biochemical characteristics
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gram-positive soil bacterium
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Streptomyces castaneoglobisporus HUT6202
HUT6202
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
intra- and extracellular enzymes are identical
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
KY-453, isolated from soil
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
REN-21, organic solvent resistant enzyme
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain MUCL 30555, strain MUCL 29375, strain MUCL 38480, strain MUCL 39533, strain MUCL 38466, strain MUCL 38467, strain I-937, strain ss3
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain CBS 357.63, strain CBS 614.73, strain G05, strain W006, strain W 006-2, strain W 3008, strain W28, strain G118, strain G66, strain H2180
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
white-rot basidomycete
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
water caltrop
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars Milvus and Lemmon
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Milvus, red clover
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PPO2, polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1) (EC 1.14.18.1)
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
PPO3, polyphenol oxidase (EC 1.10.3.1) (EC 1.14.18.1)
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cultivars CA 9632, PH82-2, Nongda 3291, Jing 9428, Nongda 152, Zhongyou 9507, Yumai 70, and Nongda 116
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 2-40 isolated from a salt marsh grass, related to Alteromonas
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
uncultured marine bacterium 2.40
strain 2-40 isolated from a salt marsh grass, related to Alteromonas
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
two isozymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
probably 3 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Vibrio tyrosinaticus
2 isoenzymes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
c.v. long pod, broad bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
mung bean
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
monastrell grape
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
cv. Arifiye
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
210
-
D-ascorbic acid
-
-
279645
1.81
-
D-Dopa
-
mutant enzyme R209H, in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.0, 0.01 mM CuSO4, 28C
20596
5.1
-
D-Dopa
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)
20596
5.29
-
D-Dopa
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.0, 0.01 mM CuSO4, 28C
20596
7.1
-
D-Dopa
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), with 30% (v/v) DMSO
20596
2.4
-
Gly-Gly-L-Tyr
-
in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 25C
282927
26.5
-
Gly-Gly-L-Tyr
-
in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 25C
282927
17.1
-
Gly-L-Tyr-Gly
-
in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 25C
282928
1.1
-
glycyl-L-tyrosylglycine
-
in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 25C
283693
340
-
L-ascorbic acid
-
-
12105
11.58
-
L-Dopa
-
mutant enzyme R209H, in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.0, 0.01 mM CuSO4, 28C
12168
26.47
-
L-Dopa
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.0, 0.01 mM CuSO4, 28C
12168
28.9
-
L-Dopa
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)
12168
29.2
-
L-Dopa
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), with 30% (v/v) DMSO
12168
0.5
-
L-Tyr-Gly-Gly
-
in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 25C
282929
19
-
L-Tyr-Gly-Gly
-
in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) at 25C
282929
1.72
-
L-tyrosine
-
mutant enzyme R209H, in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.0, 0.01 mM CuSO4, 28C
12450
32.9
-
L-tyrosine
-
in 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0)
12450
34.05
-
L-tyrosine
-
wild type enzyme, in 50 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.0, 0.01 mM CuSO4, 28C
12450
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4.1
-
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
isoelectric focusing; isoelectric focusing
4.9
-
-, B2Z3P7
isoelectric focusing
5.7
-
-
native isoelectric focusing identifies two acid isoforms of pI 5.7 and 5.8 for the soluble form and one isoform with pI 5.7 for the membrane-bound form
5.8
-
-
native isoelectric focusing identifies two acid isoforms of pI 5.7 and 5.8 for the soluble form and one isoform with pI 5.7 for the membrane-bound form
6.43
-
-
calculated
8.9
-
Q5DB10, Q5DHS0, -
isozyme TYR1, calculated from amino acid sequence
9
-
Q5DB10, Q5DHS0, -
isozyme TYR2, calculated from amino acid sequence
9.5
-
-
isoelectric focusing
additional information
-
-
isoelectric focusing shows 4 bands having regular spacing and containing decreasing amounts of proteins. Corresponding to isoforms or isoenzymes of pI values between 4.5 and 5
PDB
SCOP
CATH
ORGANISM
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using 10% (w/v) PEG 4000, 100 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 4.6 and 5 mM HoCl3
-
hanging drop vapor diffusion method
B2ZB02
hanging drop vapor diffusion method, using 18% (w/v) PEG 8000, 0.2 M zinc acetate, 0.1 M cacodylic acid pH 5.6-6.1, at 16C
-
sitting drop vapor diffusion method using 28% (w/v) PEG 1500, 100 mM bis-Tris buffer, pH 5.0, at 18C, and hanging drop vapor diffusion method using 24% (w/v) PEG 2000, 10 mM NaCl, 10 mM CaCl2, and 3% 6-aminocaproic acid in 100 mM bis-Tris buffer, pH 6.5, at 18C
-
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
2
10
-
PPO exhibits a gradual increase in activity from pH 2.0-4.5, PPO exhibits a gradual decline in activity at pH above 4.5 with a slight recovery at pH 10.0
2.5
3.5
-
the enzyme is most unstable at pH 2.5-3.5 retaining less than 10% of original activity after 2 h
3
10
-
partially purified enzyme, stable, 90% of maximal activity within this range
3
10
-
stable between pH 4.0 and 10.0 retaining more than 80% of its activity in the pH range of 5.0-9.0, PPO is rapidly inactivated by the pH below 5.0, the activity of recombinant PPO gradually increases with pH value in the range of 5-7, the activity decreases rapidly below and above pH 7.5, more than 70% of the optimal activity is kept between pH 7.5 and 10.0, after incubating at pH 11.0 for 1 h the recombinant PPO still retains 74% of its activity whereas at pH 3.0 it is left with only 39.4%
3
8
-
isozyme PPO III, 90% activity after 18 h at pH 3.0
3
9
-
the enzyme is extremely stable between pH 3.0 and 9.0 after 24 h incubation at 4C retaining at least 85% of its original activity
3
-
-
4C, 24 h, more than 80% loss of activity
3.5
4.5
-
optimal stability at pH 4.5, less stable above pH 6.0
4
-
-
4C, 24 h, stable
4
-
-
1 h, purified recombinant enzyme, complete loss of activity
5
10
-
isozyme PPO I, 90% activity after 18 h at pH 10.0
5
8
-
the soluble enzyme shows half-lives of about 11 min, 35 min, and 3 min at pH 5.0-5.5, pH 6.0, and pH 6.5-8.0, respectively. The cross-linked enzyme aggregates show half-lives of about 11 min, 35 min, and 1 min at pH 5.0-5.5, pH 6.0, and pH 6.5-8.0, respectively
5
-
-
1 h, purified recombinant enzyme, loss of 50% activity
5.5
9
-
most stable at pH 7.0, more than 90% of the initial activity remains after 24 h incubation at pH 7, catalase retains more than 60% of its activity at low (pH 5.5) and high (pH 9) values
6
7.5
-
more than 50% activity is retained during storage for 72 h at pH 6.0-7.5
6
8
-
enzyme is stable in the pH range of 6.0-8.0
6
9.5
-
80% activity after 1 h incubation
6
-
-
4 days at 2C, 70% inactivation
6
-
-
4C, 20 h, about 75% loss of activity below
6.5
11
Ilex argentinus
Q76DT9, Q76DU0
4C, 24 h, less than 10% loss of activity; 4C, 24 h, less than 10% loss of activity
6.5
7.4
-
partially purified enzyme, stable at
6.5
-
-
4C, 24 h, unstable
7
9.5
-
4C, 24 h, cuticle-bound enzyme is stable
7
-
-
stable at
8
11
-, B2Z3P7
TyrA exhibits optimal monophenol and diphenol oxidase activities under basic conditions (pH above 8.0), when the pH is higher than 10.0 the enzyme starts to lose its activity quickly, it loses nearly 50% of activity after 12 h at pH 11.0. Within the pH range of 4.0-10.0, unlike the endogenous enzyme, the recombinant enzyme shows good stability from neutral to moderately alkaline pH, while it is unstable at acidic conditions.
8.5
10
-
4C, 20 h, enzyme retains more than 70% of activity in the pH-range 8.5-10.0
11
-
-
4C, 20 h, about 75% loss of activity above
additional information
-
-
highest activity and stability within a neutral and alkaline pH range
additional information
-
-
PPO activity, as a function of pH, is determined under standard conditions using various buffers in the pH buffering range 2.0-12.0
ORGANIC SOLVENT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Acetone
-
no loss of activity after 20 h at 30C in 20% acetone
dimethyl sulfoxide
-
no loss of activity after 20 h at 30C in 20% dimethylsulfoxide
Ethanol
-
30% ethanol, 30C, pH 7.0, 17% loss of activity after 20 h