Information on EC 1.14.16.2 - tyrosine 3-monooxygenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.14.16.2
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
tyrosine 3-monooxygenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
L-tyrosine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2 = L-dopa + 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
betalamic acid biosynthesis
-
-
catecholamine biosynthesis
Isoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis
-
-
Metabolic pathways
-
-
rosmarinic acid biosynthesis II
-
-
Tyrosine metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
L-tyrosine,tetrahydrobiopterin:oxygen oxidoreductase (3-hydroxylating)
The active centre contains mononuclear iron(II). The enzyme is activated by phosphorylation, catalysed by EC 2.7.11.27, [acetyl-CoA carboxylase] kinase. The 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin formed can dehydrate to 6,7-dihydrobiopterin, both spontaneously and by the action of EC 4.2.1.96, 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin dehydratase. The 6,7-dihydrobiopterin can be enzymically reduced back to tetrahydrobiopterin, by EC 1.5.1.34 (6,7-dihydropteridine reductase), or slowly rearranges into the more stable compound 7,8-dihydrobiopterin.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
9036-22-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
albus
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
the unstriped Nile grass rat, female animals
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Drosophila melanogaster Canton S
strain Canton S
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 101
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain 101
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
GQ403009
GenBank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
GQ403011
GenBank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mus musculus C57BL/6J
C57BL/6J mice
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
GQ403010
GenBank
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ridibunda, frog; tyrosinase activity is modified to tyrosine hydroxylase activity via immobilization
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + 6,7-dimethyltetrahydropteridine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + tetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
4-bromo-L-phenylalanine + 6-methyltetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
low activity
-
-
?
4-chloro-L-phenylalanine + 6-methyltetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-fluoro-L-phenylalanine + 6-methyltetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methoxy-L-phenylalanine + 6-methyltetrahydropteridine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
4-methyl-L-phenylalanine + 6-methyltetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine + 6-methyltetrahydrobiopterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
L-tyrosine + 3-hydroxyphenylalanine + dihydropteridine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme prefers L-tyrosine as a substrate over L-phenylalanine by an order of magnitude
-
-
?
L-phenylalanine + tetrahydropteridine + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + dihydropteridine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-phenylalanine + tetrahydropteridine + O2
L-tyrosine + dihydropteridine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-tryptophan + 6-methyltetrahydrobiopterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
worst substrate
-
-
?
L-tryptophan + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme prefers L-tyrosine as a substrate over L-tryptophan by 25fold
-
-
?
L-Tyr + DL-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
significant activity at a concetration of DL-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterine: 1.5 mM
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + (6R)-L-erythro-1',2'-dihydroxypropyltetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + (6R)-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + (6RS)-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + (6S)-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6,7-dimethyltetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyltetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + 2-methyl-4-oxo-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
recombinant hTH1
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + 5,6,7,8,-tetrahydro-L-biopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + 4a-hydroxytetrahydro-L-biopterin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + 5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + 4a-hydroxytetrahydro-L-biopterin
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + 6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydopteridine + O2
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + ?
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + 6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydopteridine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + 6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + 6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + 6-methyl-tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + 6-methyl-4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + 6-methyltetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + 6-methyl-4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + 6-methyltetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + 6-methyldihydropteridine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
best substrate
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + 6-methyltetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + ascorbate + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + dihydroascorbate + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + DL-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + dihydrobiopterin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + dihydropteridine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + tetrahydrofolic acid + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + tetrahydropteridine + O2
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + dihydropteridine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + tetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
tyramine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
dopamine + 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
L-tyrosine + (6R)-L-erythro-1',2'-dihydroxypropyltetrahydropterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + (6R)-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
?
show the reaction diagram
-
probable regulatory role of cosubstrate for all 4 isoforms
-
-
?
L-tyrosine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + 4a-hydroxytetrahydrobiopterin
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + dihydrobiopterin + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + tetrahydrobiopterin + O2
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine + dihydropteridine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
L-tyrosine + tetrahydropteridine + O2
3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine + dihydropteridine + H2O
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin
-
-
(6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin
-
i.e. BH4, complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization, competitive inhibition
(RS)-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
-
5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin
6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydopteridine
-
strictly requirred
6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
-
-
6-Methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
6-methyl-tetrahydrobiopterin
-
-
6-methyltetrahydrobiopterin
-
-
tetrahydrobiopterin
additional information
-
a non-heme iron enzyme
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
-
activates the enzyme via retinol induction of extracellular Ca2+ influx, the activation is completely blocked by EGTA
Cu2+
-
slightly activating
Mn2+
-
activates
NaCl
-
activates
phosphate
Zn2+
-
0.13 mol per mol of subunit
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(6R)-L-erythro-1',2'-dihydroxypropyltetrahydropterin
-
80% inhibition when the enzyme is preincubated with (6R)-L-erythro-1',2'-dihydroxypropyltetrahydropterin. Inhibition was attenuated by simultanious addition of dopamine
(6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin
-
i.e. BH4, cofactor, complex regulation by the cofactor including both enzyme inactivation and conformational stabilization, competitive inhibition, synergistically with DTT
(6S)-L-erythro-1',2'-dihydroxypropyltetrahydropterin
-
80% inhibition when the enzyme is preincubated with (6S)-L-erythro-1',2'-dihydroxypropyltetrahydropterin
1,10-phenanthroline
1,2,3,4-tetrahydropapaveroline
-
50% inhibition at 7.5 microM
2,2'-dipyridyl
-
-
2,4-diamino-6-dihydroxypropyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
competitive against (6R)-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin
2-hydroxyestradiol-17beta
-
noncompetitive
2-methyl-L-tyrosine
-
-
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid
-
-
3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde
3,4-Dihydroxystyrene
-
-
3-iodo-L-tyrosine
3-iodotyrosine
-
-
5(N-phenylthiocarbamoyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
-
5-Deaza-6-methyltetrahydropterin
-
-
5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
competitive against (6R)-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin
5-[(3-azido-6-nitrobenzylidene)amino]-2,6-diamino-4-pyrimidinone
-
competitive against tetrahydrobiopterin
6-methyltetrahydropterin
-
80% inhibition when the enzyme is preincubated with 6-methyltetrahydropterin
6-[2-(4-benzoylphenyl)propionyloxymethyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
competitive against (6R)-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin
7-amino-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-8H-2-oxa-5,6,8,9b-tetraaza-cyclopenta[a]naphthalene-1,9-dione
-
competitive against (6R)-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin
8-methyl-6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
competitive against (6R)-L-erythro-tetrahydrobiopterin
adrenalin
-
competitive
adrenaline
alpha-methyl-4-tyrosine
-
in vivo injection into the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary gland, i.e. the intracerebro-ventricular and intra-arcuatus injection, leads to reduced synthesis of dopamine and DOPA, but not of norepinephrine, and leads to increased contents of pituitary prolactin, overview
-
alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine
alpha-Propyldihydroxyphenylacetamide
-
-
Ba2+
-
weak inhibition
Bathocuproine sulfonate
-
slightly
bathophenanthroline sulfonate
Catecholamines
CoCl2
-
0.1 mM CoCl2 results in more than 80% inhibition
dihydrobiopterin
-
L-dopa-oxidase activity
DL-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterine
-
3.0-4.5 mM
dopamine
dopamine quinone
-
covalent modification and inactivation
DTT
-
inactivates the enzyme, synergistically with tetrahydrobiopterin
endothelin-1
-
effects of long-term modulation at different concentrations, overview
endothelin-2
-
effects of long-term modulation at different concentrations, overview
epinephrine
estradiol-17beta
Fe3+
-
-
guanidine hydrochloride
-
no activity at guanidine hydrochloride concentrations exceeding 0.6 M
L-Dopa
L-erythro-7,8-dihydrobiopterin
-
competitive against tetrahydropterin
L-phenylalanine
L-tyrosine
Methylcatechol
-
-
Mn2+
-
50% inhibition at 0.01 mM
N-methyl-norsalsolinol
-
noncompetitive with respect to L-tyrosine, N-methyl-norsalsolinol and related tetrahydroisoquinolines accumulate in the nigrostriatal system of the human brain and are increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinsons disease
N-methyl-salsolinol
-
-
nociceptin/orphanin FQ-NOP receptor system
-
activation of nociceptin/orphanin FQ-NOP receptor system inhibits tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation, dopamine synthesis and dopamine D1 receptor signaling in rat nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatum, N/OFQ preferentially inhibits phosphoSer40-enzyme in nucleus accumbens shell, overview
-
Noradrenalin
-
competitive
noradrenaline
norepinephrine
norsalsolinol
-
N-methyl-norsalsolinol and related tetrahydroisoquinolines accumulate in the nigrostriatal system of the human brain and are increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Parkinsons disease
phenylalanine
salsolinol
-
50% inhibition at 35.4 microM and 4.1 microM when assayed at 6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydopteridine concentration of 0.5 mM or 0.25 mM, respectively
tetrahydrobiopterin
-
substrate inhibition at tyrosine and O2 concentrations higher than 0.1 mM and 2.2 mM, respectively
tyrosine
additional information
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,4-dithiothreitol
-
48% activity without dithiotreitol
1-methyl-3-isobutylxanthine
-
1.5 mM
20-hydroxyecdysone
7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene
-
tyrosine hydroxylase activity increases in the rat heart treated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene
8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
-
i.e. 8-CPTcAMP, tyrosine hydroxylase protein level and activity rate are increased in MN9D cells in response to treatment with 8-CPTcAMP, mechanism, overview
adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate
-
1 mM
bathocuproine sulfate
-
slight activation
-
Dextran sulfate
-
activates the enzyme in the crude extract, less effective with the purified enzyme
-
endothelin-1
-
effects of long-term modulation at different concentrations, overview
endothelin-2
-
effects of long-term modulation at different concentrations, overview
estradiol-17beta
forskolin
GTP cyclohydrolase I
-
as concentrations of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin are increased (0.025 and 0.1 mM), the specific activity of tyrosine hydroxylase is stimulated in the presence of GTP cyclohydrolase I isoform C
-
heparin
juvenile hormone-III
L-Dopa
-
L-DOPA treatment (20-200 microM) increases the levels of dopamine by 226%-504% after 3-6 h of treatment and enhances the activities of tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase
phosphatidyl-L-serine
phosphatidylinositol
Phospholipid
retinol
-
retinol activates tyrosine hydroxylase in vivo via two sequential non-genomic mechanisms: 1. retinol induces an influx in extracellular calcium, activation of protein kinase C and Ser40 phosphorylation, leading to tyrosine hydroxylase activation within 15 min, 2. the retinol-induced rise in intracellular calcium leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species, activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Ser31 phosphorylation and the maintenance of tyrosine hydroxylase activation for up to 2 h
RNA
-
below 0.015 mg/ml activation, rat brain enzyme contains RNA, about 10% of the total mass
SDS
-
0.01%, activates
theophylline
-
1.5 mM
thiols
-
activate the L-dopa activity
thyroxine
-
stimulatory effect is due to increased affinity of the enzyme for its cofactor 6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
additional information
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.023 - 0.051
(RS)-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
0.058
2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
-
-
-
0.0001 - 0.045
6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydopteridine
0.34
6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropteridine
-
30C
0.033 - 0.95
6-Methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
0.051 - 0.409
6-methyltetrahydropterin
0.056 - 0.146
L-Dopa
0.0016 - 5
L-phenylalanine
0.051 - 0.33
L-Tyr
0.00105 - 2.39
L-tyrosine
0.006
O2
-
below, recombinant enzyme
0.00125 - 0.3
phenylalanine
0.0041 - 0.507
tetrahydrobiopterin
0.01 - 0.63
Tetrahydropterin
1.1
tyramine
-
pH 7.0, 37C
0.0061 - 0.5
tyrosine
additional information
additional information
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.8 - 5.35
L-tyrosine
0.017 - 0.58
tetrahydrobiopterin
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1.7 - 89.3
tetrahydrobiopterin
Ki VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.07
(6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin
-
pH 7.0, 25C, versus (6R)-L-erythro-5,6,7,8-tetrahydrobiopterin
0.016
2,4-diamino-6-dihydroxypropyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
-
0.18 - 0.28
2-hydroxyestradiol-17beta
0.011 - 0.024
3-iodo-L-tyrosine
2.83
5(N-phenylthiocarbamoyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
-
0.063
5-methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
-
0.001
6-[2-(4-benzoylphenyl)propionyloxymethyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
-
0.138
7-amino-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydro-8H-2-oxa-5,6,8,9b-tetraaza-cyclopenta[a]naphthalene-1,9-dione
-
-
0.617
8-methyl-6,7-dimethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin
-
-
0.3 - 0.4
adrenaline
0.52 - 0.69
dopamine
0.07
L-erythro-7,8-dihydrobiopterin
-
-
0.103
L-phenylalanine
-
0-0.4 mM L-tyrosine, 0-0.2 mM L-phenylalanine, 1 mM 6,7-dimethyl-2-amino-4-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydopteridine, 200 mM Na-HEPES pH 7.0, 100 mM 2-mercaptoethanol, 0.2 mg/ml catalase, 37C
0.037 - 0.073
L-tyrosine
0.25 - 0.32
noradrenaline
additional information
additional information
IC50 VALUE [mM]
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.0022 - 0.0326
3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
0.05
3-iodo-L-tyrosine
Homo sapiens
-
pH and temperature not specified in the publication
0.0002 - 0.0136
dopamine
0.0003
N-methyl-norsalsolinol
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.004
N-methyl-salsolinol
Homo sapiens
-
-
0.01
norsalsolinol
Homo sapiens
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
0.00003
-
crude extract
0.0002
-
about, MN9D cells
0.00045
-
about, MN9D cells induced by forskolin or 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate
0.00368
-
activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, control level without treatment of L-DOPA in PC-12 cells
0.0054
-
crude enzyme, at pH 6.8 and 37C
0.0163
-
purified enzyme, at pH 6.8 and 37C
0.03 - 0.1
-
recombinant enzyme, cell lysate
0.04
-
purified enzyme
0.0447
-
activity in melanosomes
0.0916
-
purified enzyme from brain
0.16
-
purified recombinant isoform hTH3
0.18
-
purified enzyme from adrenal medulla
0.21
-
purified enzyme
0.29
-
purified recombinant isoform hTH2
0.33
-
purified recombinant isoform hTH1, tyrosine concentration is 0.2 mM
0.36
-
purified enzyme
0.41
-
purified enzyme
0.425
-
purified enzyme
0.78
-
purified enzyme
0.79
-
purified recombinant isoform hTH1, tyrosine concentration is 0.05 mM
0.82
-
pH 6.9, 37C
1
-
about, purified recombinant enzyme
1.6
-
purified enzyme
1.7
-
purified, recombinant enzyme
1.88
-
purified enzyme
2.5
-
purified enzyme, tyrosine concentration is 0.2 mM
3.46
-
purified enzyme, immobilized
20.7
-
purified enzyme, tyrosine concentration is 0.05 mM
101
-
L-tyramine, crude extract of mature leaves, pH 6.0, 37C
113
-
L-tyrosine, crude extract of mature leaves, pH 6.0, 37C
330
-
purified enzyme
1604
-
purified enzyme
68800
-
with 1 mM L-tyrosine, at pH 7.0 and 25C
555000
-
with 0.05 mM L-tyrosine, at pH 7.0 and 25C
additional information
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.4 - 5.5
-
crude extract
5.5 - 6
-
striatal homogenate
5.9
-
nonphosphorylated enzyme
6 - 7
-
4 isoforms
6
-
broad optimum pH 4.0-7.5
6 - 7.5
7.2
-
assay at
additional information
-
pH profile is affected by a variety of conditions: enzymatic phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and presence of polyanions
pH RANGE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5 - 8.5
-
4 isoforms
5.5 - 6.8
-
pH 5.0: less than 5% of maximal activity, pH 5.5-6.0: optimum, pH 6.8: about 30% of maximal activity, striatal homogenate
5.9 - 7.4
-
activity declines precipitously below pH 5.9 and above pH 7.4
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
25 - 30
-
assay at
25
-
assay at
pI VALUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.43
-
sequence calculation
5.81
-
predicted
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE