Information on EC 1.1.5.4 - malate dehydrogenase (quinone)

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.1.5.4
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
malate dehydrogenase (quinone)
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
(S)-malate + a quinone = oxaloacetate + reduced quinone
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
-
Citrate cycle (TCA cycle)
-
Metabolic pathways
-
Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
-
Pyruvate metabolism
-
TCA cycle I (prokaryotic)
-
TCA cycle III (helicobacter)
-
TCA cycle VII (acetate-producers)
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(S)-malate:quinone oxidoreductase
A flavoprotein (FAD). Vitamin K and several other quinones can act as acceptors. Different from EC 1.1.1.37 (malate dehydrogenase (NAD+)), EC 1.1.1.82 (malate dehydrogenase (NADP+)) and EC 1.1.1.299 (malate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+]).
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
FAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase
-
-
FAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase
Mycobacterium sp. Takeo
-
-
-
L-malate-quinone oxidoreductase
-
-
L-malate-quinone oxidoreductase
Pseudomonas putida Chester
-
-
-
malate dehydrogenase
Q1KSF3
MDH
malate dehydrogenase (acceptor)
O69282
-
malate-quinone oxidoreductase
-
-
malate-quinone oxidoreductase
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
-
-
malate-vitamin K reductase
-
-
malate: quinone oxidoreductase
-
-
malate: quinone oxidoreductase
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
-
-
malate:quinine oxidoreductase
-
-
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
-
-
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
O69282
-
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
-
encoded by the gene mqo (previously called yojH)
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
O24913
-
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
-
-
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
Q9HVF1
-
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
Q5ECC3
-
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
-
-
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
-
-
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
Q887Z4
-
malate:quinone oxidoreductase
Q1KSF3
-
malate:quinone reductase
-
-
menaquinone reductase
-
-
Mqo
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
;
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
71822-24-7
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
a mutant completely lacking Mqo activity grows poorly on several substrates tested
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
the L-lysine-producing mutant, Corynebacterium glutamicum B-6 carries a nonsense mutation in the mqo gene
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Takeo
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Mycobacterium sp. Takeo
strain Takeo
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
ATCC 17933
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene mqoB; strain PAO1, gene mqoB
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
isolated from the Guadalquivir River
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
several mqo genes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
isolated from the Guadalquivir River
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
several mqo genes
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas putida Chester
Chester
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
pv. tomato strain DC3000. Tn5 transposon insertion mutants (the Tn5 insertion disrupts the malate:quinone oxidoreductase gene) with reduced virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
physiological function
-
the enzyme is involved in cyanide degradation in association with the cyanide-insensitive electron-transfer chain
physiological function
-
the enzyme is a component of the electron transfer chain in Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 cells, overview
physiological function
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
the enzyme is a component of the electron transfer chain in Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 cells, overview; the enzyme is involved in cyanide degradation in association with the cyanide-insensitive electron-transfer chain
-
additional information
-
because of the differences in the redox potentials of NAD+ and quinones, the MQO-catalyzed reaction progresses spontaneously compared to the MDH-catalyzed reaction, EC 1.1.1.37
additional information
-
oxaloacetate reacts chemically inside the cyanide-insensitive cells to produce a cyanohydrin (2-hydroxynitrile), which is further converted to ammonium. The nitrile is transiently accumulated in cyanide-containing media
additional information
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
oxaloacetate reacts chemically inside the cyanide-insensitive cells to produce a cyanohydrin (2-hydroxynitrile), which is further converted to ammonium. The nitrile is transiently accumulated in cyanide-containing media
-
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(S)-malate + 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
oxaloacetate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
oxaloacetate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
show the reaction diagram
-, O69282
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
oxaloacetate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
show the reaction diagram
Mycobacterium sp. Takeo
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + 2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol
oxaloacetate + reduced 2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
-, Q5ECC3
assay in presence of 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
-
?
(S)-malate + 2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol
oxaloacetate + reduced 2,6-dichlorphenolindophenol
show the reaction diagram
Q9HVF1
assay in presence of 2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone
-
-
?
(S)-malate + a quinone
oxaloacetate + reduced quinone
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + acceptor
oxaloacetate + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
-, O69282
the enzyme takes part in the citric acid cycle. It oxidizes L-malate to oxaloacetate and donates electrons to ubiquinone-1 and other artificial acceptors or, via the electron transfer chain, to oxygen. NAD is not an acceptor and the natural direct acceptor for the enzyme is most likely a quinone. A mutant completely lacking Mqo activity grows poorly on several substrates tested. This enzyme might be especially important when a net flux from malate to oxaloacetate is required, but the intracellular concentrations of the reactants are unfavourable for the NAD-dependent reaction (EC 1.1.1.37)
-
-
?
(S)-malate + dimethyl naphthoquinone
oxaloacetate + dimethyl naphthoquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + duroquinone
oxaloacetate + duroquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + menaquinone-1
oxaloacetate + menaquinol-1
show the reaction diagram
-
menadione as the direct electron acceptor and dichloroindophenol, DCIP, as the final electron-acceptor
-
-
?
(S)-malate + oxidized 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
oxaloacetate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + oxidized 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
oxaloacetate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
show the reaction diagram
-, O24913
the route of electrons in this assay is unclear, but it probably leads from the enzyme either directly or via quinones to 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The malate-dependent 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol reduction rate catalyzed by Helicobacter pylori membranes could be stimulated by 30 to 50% by the addition of 60 mM ubiquinone-1. This suggests that quinones play, at least in part, an intermediary role in the reduction of the dye
-
-
?
(S)-malate + oxidized 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
oxaloacetate + reduced 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas putida Chester
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + quinone
oxaloacetate + quinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-, with dichlorophenolindophenol as terminal acceptor
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
-, with dichlorophenolindophenol as terminal acceptor
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone-0
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol-0
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas putida Chester
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone-1
oxaloacetate + reduced ubiquinone-1
show the reaction diagram
-, O69282
ubiquinone-1 is directly reduced by the enzyme
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone-1
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol-1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone-6
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol-6
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas putida Chester
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone-9
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol-9
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone-9
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol-9
show the reaction diagram
-
in the presence of both FAD and phospholipid the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of quinone by L-malate at rates equivalent to these obtained with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol as terminal acceptor
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone-9
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol-9
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas putida Chester
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone-9
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol-9
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas putida Chester
-
in the presence of both FAD and phospholipid the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of quinone by L-malate at rates equivalent to these obtained with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol as terminal acceptor
-
-
?
(S)-malate + vitamin K1
oxaloacetate + reduced vitamin K1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + vitamin K1
oxaloacetate + reduced vitamin K1
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + vitamin K1
oxaloacetate + reduced vitamin K1
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas putida Chester
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + vitamin K3
oxaloacetate + reduced vitamin K3
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-, O24913
the enzyme is part of both the electron transfer chain and the citric acid cycle
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q5ECC3
the enzyme is required for growth on acetate and linear terpenes such as citronellol and citronellic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9HVF1
the enzyme is required for growth on acetate and linear terpenes such as citronellol and citronellic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9HVF1
a mutant with an interrupted putative mqo gene, in which malate:quinone oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle/glyoxylate cycle, is defective, shows a severe growth defect on ethanol and is unable to grow on acetate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses two types of L-malate dehydrogenase, a membrane-associated malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO) and a cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37). MQO, MDH, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities are regulated coordinately in response to the carbon and energy source for growth. Compared to growth on glucose, these activities are increased during growth on lactate, pyruvate, or acetate, substrates which require high citric acid cycle activity to sustain growth. MQO is the most important malate dehydrogenase in the physiology of Corynebacterium glutamicum. A mutant with a site-directed deletion in the mqo gene does not grow on minimal medium. Growth can be partially restored in this mutant by addition of the vitamin nicotinamide. In contrast, a double mutant lacking MQO and MDH does not grow even in the presence of nicotinamide. MDH is able to take over the function of MQO in an mqo mutant, but this requires the presence of nicotinamide in the growth medium. It is shown that addition of nicotinamide leads to a higher intracellular pyridine nucleotide concentration, which probably enables MDH to catalyze malate oxidation. Purified MDH catalyzes oxaloacetate reduction much more readily than malate oxidation at physiological pH. In a reconstituted system with isolated membranes and purified MDH, MQO and MDH catalyze the cyclic conversion of malate and oxaloacetate, leading to a net oxidation of NADH. Evidence is presented that this cyclic reaction also takes place in vivo
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q887Z4
mutants lacking mqo function grow more slowly in culture than wild-type bacteria when dicarboxylates are the only available carbon source. Mqo may be required by DC3000 to meet nutritional requirements in the apoplast and may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the important, but poorly understood process of adaptation to the host environment
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) does not repress mqo expression. MQO and MDH are active at the same time in Escherichia coli. No significant role for MQO in malate oxidation in wild-type Escherichia coli. Comparing growth of the mdh single mutant to that of the double mutant containing mdh and mqo deletions indicates that MQO partly takes over the function of MDH in an mdh mutant
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the loss of malate:quinone oxidoreductase activity down-regulates the flux of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to maintain the redox balance and results in redirection of oxaloacetate into L-lysine biosynthesis
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the enzyme shows specificity towards ubiquinone, duroquinone, and dimethyl naphthoquinone in addition to menaquinone. And the enzyme also shows malate dehydrogenase activity, EC 1.1.1.37, overview
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(S)-malate + a quinone
oxaloacetate + reduced quinone
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + acceptor
oxaloacetate + reduced acceptor
show the reaction diagram
-, O69282
the enzyme takes part in the citric acid cycle. It oxidizes L-malate to oxaloacetate and donates electrons to ubiquinone-1 and other artificial acceptors or, via the electron transfer chain, to oxygen. NAD is not an acceptor and the natural direct acceptor for the enzyme is most likely a quinone. A mutant completely lacking Mqo activity grows poorly on several substrates tested. This enzyme might be especially important when a net flux from malate to oxaloacetate is required, but the intracellular concentrations of the reactants are unfavourable for the NAD-dependent reaction (EC 1.1.1.37)
-
-
?
(S)-malate + quinone
oxaloacetate + quinol
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(S)-malate + ubiquinone
oxaloacetate + ubiquinol
show the reaction diagram
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-, O24913
the enzyme is part of both the electron transfer chain and the citric acid cycle
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q5ECC3
the enzyme is required for growth on acetate and linear terpenes such as citronellol and citronellic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9HVF1
the enzyme is required for growth on acetate and linear terpenes such as citronellol and citronellic acid
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
Q9HVF1
a mutant with an interrupted putative mqo gene, in which malate:quinone oxidoreductase, an enzyme involved in the citric acid cycle/glyoxylate cycle, is defective, shows a severe growth defect on ethanol and is unable to grow on acetate
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
Corynebacterium glutamicum possesses two types of L-malate dehydrogenase, a membrane-associated malate:quinone oxidoreductase (MQO) and a cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37). MQO, MDH, and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities are regulated coordinately in response to the carbon and energy source for growth. Compared to growth on glucose, these activities are increased during growth on lactate, pyruvate, or acetate, substrates which require high citric acid cycle activity to sustain growth. MQO is the most important malate dehydrogenase in the physiology of Corynebacterium glutamicum. A mutant with a site-directed deletion in the mqo gene does not grow on minimal medium. Growth can be partially restored in this mutant by addition of the vitamin nicotinamide. In contrast, a double mutant lacking MQO and MDH does not grow even in the presence of nicotinamide. MDH is able to take over the function of MQO in an mqo mutant, but this requires the presence of nicotinamide in the growth medium. It is shown that addition of nicotinamide leads to a higher intracellular pyridine nucleotide concentration, which probably enables MDH to catalyze malate oxidation. Purified MDH catalyzes oxaloacetate reduction much more readily than malate oxidation at physiological pH. In a reconstituted system with isolated membranes and purified MDH, MQO and MDH catalyze the cyclic conversion of malate and oxaloacetate, leading to a net oxidation of NADH. Evidence is presented that this cyclic reaction also takes place in vivo
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-, Q887Z4
mutants lacking mqo function grow more slowly in culture than wild-type bacteria when dicarboxylates are the only available carbon source. Mqo may be required by DC3000 to meet nutritional requirements in the apoplast and may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the important, but poorly understood process of adaptation to the host environment
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
NAD-dependent malate dehydrogenase (MDH, EC 1.1.1.37) does not repress mqo expression. MQO and MDH are active at the same time in Escherichia coli. No significant role for MQO in malate oxidation in wild-type Escherichia coli. Comparing growth of the mdh single mutant to that of the double mutant containing mdh and mqo deletions indicates that MQO partly takes over the function of MDH in an mdh mutant
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
the loss of malate:quinone oxidoreductase activity down-regulates the flux of the tricarboxylic acid cycle to maintain the redox balance and results in redirection of oxaloacetate into L-lysine biosynthesis
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
FAD
-
Km: 0.0004 mM
FAD
-
the enzyme requires FAD and vitamin K for activity
FAD
O69282
is probably a tightly but non-covalently bound prosthetic group
FAD
-
in absence of FAD no reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol is observed
FAD
-
triple cofactor requirement for FAD, quinone and phospholipid. The formation of reduced forms of FAD is not detected, but in the presence of both FAD and phospholipid the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of quinone by L-malate at rates equivalent to the rate obtained with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol as terminal acceptor. Km-value for FAD is 0.0004 mM
FAD
-
noncovalently bound as a prosthetic group
menadione
-
triple cofactor requirement for FAD, quinone and phospholipid. Maximum rate when phosphatidylethanolamine is added to the enzyme before the quinone
ubiquinone
-
-
ubiquinone-0
-
triple cofactor requirement for FAD, quinone and phospholipid. Maximum activation rate when phosphatidylethanolamine is added to the enzyme before the quinone
ubiquinone-1
-, O24913
the route of electrons in this assay is unclear, but it probably leads from the enzyme either directly or via quinones to 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol. The malate-dependent 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol reduction rate catalyzed by Helicobacter pylori membranes could be stimulated by 30 to 50% by the addition of 60 mM ubiquinone-1. This suggests that quinones play, at least in part, an intermediary role in the reduction of the dye
ubiquinone-9
-
triple cofactor requirement for FAD, quinone and phospholipid. The formation of reduced forms of FAD is not detected, but in the presence of both FAD and phospholipid the enzyme catalyzes the reduction of quinone by L-malate at rates equivalent to the rate obtained with 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol as terminal acceptor. The quinone is identified as ubiquinone 9. Km-value for ubiquinone 9 is 0.0024 mM
vitamin K1
-
the enzyme requires FAD and vitamin K for activity
vitamin K1
-
with both vitamin K1 and ubiquinone-9, maximum rates are obtained by exposing the enzyme to phospholipid and quinone simultaneously, but, when phosphatidylethanolamine is added to the enzyme before either of these quinones, the rates are much lower
menaquinone
-
-
additional information
-
no spectral evidence for the presence of a flavin or quinone in the purified enzyme
-
additional information
-
the enzymeis active with duroquinone and dimethyl naphthoquinone
-
additional information
-
the enzyme is active with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(S)-malate
-
in the presence of polymyxin B, enzyme kinetics changes from the Michaelis-Menten type to substrate inhibition kinetics with the substrate inhibition constant Ksi of 57.4 microg/ml
CoCl2
-
79% inhibition at 1 mM
CuCl2
-
completely inhibits the enzyme at 0.01 mM
CuSO4
-
completely inhibits the enzyme at 0.1 mM
NaN3
-
65% inhibition at 1 mM
nanaomycin A
-
naphthoquinone derivative
NiSO4
-
67% inhibition at 1 mM
Polymyxin B
-
cationic decapeptide. Primary site of action is the quinone-binding site, amino acid sequence is examined and possible binding sites for L-malate and quinones are found
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
28% inhibition at 1 mM
Sodium amytal
-
1 mM, competitive with respect to phosphatidylethanolamine, noncompetitive with respect to FAD
MnCl2
-
86% inhibition at 1 mM
additional information
-
o-phenanthroline does not significantly affect activity
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
O69282
reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol by solubilized enzyme is activated significantly by addition of the quinones decylubiquinone, duroquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3), ubiquinone-0 and ubiquinone-1. Optimal activation is observed with ubiquinone-1
decylubiquinone
O69282
reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol by solubilized enzyme is activated significantly by addition of the quinones decylubiquinone, duroquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3), ubiquinone-0 and ubiquinone-1. Optimal activation is observed with ubiquinone-1
duroquinone
O69282
reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol by solubilized enzyme is activated significantly by addition of the quinones decylubiquinone, duroquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3), ubiquinone-0 and ubiquinone-1. Optimal activation is observed with ubiquinone-1
Lipid
O69282
activates
Phospholipid
-
activates
Phospholipid
-
activity of purified enzyme is dependent on added phospholipid
Phospholipid
-
in absence of either cardiolipin or vitamin K-3 the enzyme shows about 3% of maximal activity
Phospholipid
-
the nature of the phospholipid required to activate the enzyme depends on the nature of the quinone used in the assay system. When 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone is used, a wide variety of phospholipids, including all these isolated from the organism, will activate the enzyme, but when coenzyme Q9 is used the phospholipid specificity of the enzyme is much more restricted, and the most effective activator is the unsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine isolated from the organism
ubiquinone-0
O69282
reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol by solubilized enzyme is activated significantly by addition of the quinones decylubiquinone, duroquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3), ubiquinone-0 and ubiquinone-1. Optimal activation is observed with ubiquinone-1
ubiquinone-1
O69282
reduction of 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol by solubilized enzyme is activated significantly by addition of the quinones decylubiquinone, duroquinone, 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (vitamin K3), ubiquinone-0 and ubiquinone-1. Optimal activation is observed with ubiquinone-1
vitamin K3
-
in absence of either cardiolipin or vitamin K-3 the enzyme shows about 3% of maximal activity
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.45
-
(S)-malate
-
-
0.45
-
(S)-malate
-
pH 7.0, 20C
2.6
-
(S)-malate
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0024
-
ubiquinone 9
-
pH 7.0, 20C
0.015
-
ubiquinone-1
-
pH 7.4, 25C
0.0024
-
ubiquinone-9
-
-
3
-
vitamin K3
-
-
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
-
additional information
-
in the presence of polymyxin B, enzyme kinetics changes from the Michaelis-Menten type to substrate inhibition kinetics with the substrate inhibition constant Ksi of 57.4 microg/ml. Polymyxin B inhibits the malate-dependent reaction noncompetitively with the Ki value of 7.0 microg/ml
-
IC50 VALUE [mM]
IC50 VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
-
additional information
-
IC50 for polymyxin B is 4.2 microg/ml, IC50 for nanaomycin is 49 microg/ml
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7
-
-
assay at
7.4
-
-
assay at
7.5
-
Q9HVF1
assay at
7.5
-
-, Q5ECC3
assay at
7.5
-
-
-
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
-
-
assay at
30
-
Q9HVF1
assay at
30
-
-, Q5ECC3
assay at
45
-
-
-
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.9
-
-
isoelectric focusing, pH-range 6-8
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
-
expression of the mqo gene and, consequently, MQO activity are regulated by carbon and energy source for growth. In batch cultures, MQO activity is highest during exponential growth and decreases sharply after onset of the stationary phase
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
-
effect of the carbon source in the growth of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 with cyanide as a nitrogen source compared to ammonium, overview. Strain CECT5344 requires an additional carbon source for assimilating cyanide as a nitrogen source
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
effect of the carbon source in the growth of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344 with cyanide as a nitrogen source compared to ammonium, overview. Strain CECT5344 requires an additional carbon source for assimilating cyanide as a nitrogen source
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
O69282
a peripheral membrane protein that can be released from the membrane by addition of chelators
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
bound to the cell-wall membrane
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes CECT5344
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Pseudomonas putida Chester
-
bound to the cell-wall membrane; firmly bound to
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Q1KSF3
not in cytosol, all analysed enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle are localised in the mitochondrion
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
51000
55000
-
gel filtration, sucrose density gradient centrifugation
53000
-
-
monomeric enzyme form, gel filtration
92000
-
-
gel filtration
164000
-
-
aggregated form, gel filtration
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
dimer
-
2 * 50000, about, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 51000, at high salt concentrations the enzyme exists as a monomeric form which is more active than the aggregated form, SDS-PAGE
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
20
-
-
24 h, 85% loss of activity
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
when frozen, the activity is stable for several months
O69282
when stored on ice, the half-life is approximately 120 h, important stabilizing conditions for storage on ice are the presence of EDTA and EGTA. the presence of glycerol, and pH 6. The presence of Mg2+ and Ca2+ has a destabilizing effect
O69282
-20C, 0.3 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 6.6, about 20% loss of activity after 2 weeks
-
-15C, 24 h, 70% loss of activity
-
0C, 24 h, 50% loss of activity
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
native and His-tagged enzyme
O69282
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis
-
expression of the HP0086 sequence from a plasmid induces high MQO activity in mqo deletion mutants of Escherichia coli or Corynebacterium glutamicum
-, O24913
gene mqoB, DNA and amino acid sequence determination, analysis, and comparison, expression of mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli strain JM109
Q9HVF1
gene mqoB, DNA and amino acid sequence determination, analysis, and comparison, expression of mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli strain JM109
-, Q5ECC3
as c-myc-tag and pSag-S9-GFP-Cat, transfection into Toxoplasma gondii by electroporation
Q1KSF3
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
additional information
Q9HVF1
construction of mqoB mutants by Tn5-Tc transposon insertion, class I mutants show strongly reduced growth on citronellol and citronellic acid, class II mutants grow normally on citronellic acid but reduced on citronellol, class III mutants are auxotroph, overview
additional information
-, Q5ECC3
construction of mqoB mutants by Tn5-Tc transposon insertion, class I mutants show strongly reduced growth on citronellol and citronellic acid, class II mutants grow normally on citronellic acid but reduced on citronellol, class III mutants are auxotroph, overview
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
biotechnology
-
the disruption of the mqo gene results in increased L-lysine production. The mutation supports industrial levels of L-lysine production in Corynebacterium glutamicum