Information on EC 1.1.1.B19 - xylitol dehydrogenase (NAD+)

for references in articles please use BRENDA:EC1.1.1.B19
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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria, Eukaryota

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.1.1.B19
preliminary BRENDA-supplied EC number
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
xylitol dehydrogenase (NAD+)
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REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
xylitol + NAD+ = L-xylulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
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SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
xylitol:NAD+ 2-oxidoreductase (L-xylulose-forming)
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ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
metabolism
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the cofactor imbalance between the NAD(P)H-dependent wild type XR and NAD+-dependent XDH can create an intracellular redox imbalance, leading to an accumulation of NADH and a shortage of NAD+ necessary for the XDH reaction. The likely increase in intracellular xylitol concentration favors xylitol excretion, which reduces the ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
D-arabitol + NADH + H+
D-ribulose + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
15% conversion in resting cell reaction
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-
?
D-iditol + NAD+
D-sorbose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
72% conversion in resting cell reaction
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-
?
D-talitol + NADH + H+
D-tagatose + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
15% conversion in resting cell reaction
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-
?
D-threitol + NAD+
erythrulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
48% conversion in resting cell reaction
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-
?
D-xylulose + NADH + H+
xylitol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
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-
-
?
ribitol + NADH + H+
D-ribulose + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
15% conversion in resting cell reaction
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-
?
xylitol + NAD+
L-xylulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
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no substrate: DL-rhamnitol, galactitol, allitol, DL-fucitol, L-iditol, L-threitol, DL-sorbitol, DL-mannitol, erythritol
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NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
xylitol + NAD+
L-xylulose + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
additional information
no activity with NADP+
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METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Ca2+
1 mM, 50.8% of the activity with Mn2+
Mg2+
1 mM, 36.9% of the activity with Mn2+
additional information
no significant stimulation by Na+, Cu2+, K+, Zn2+, Co2+
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
2.64
D-arabitol
pH 10.0, 40C
0.83
D-threitol
pH 10.0, 40C
1.27
L-xylulose
pH 10.0, 40C
0.034
NAD+
pH 10.0, 40C
2.06
xylitol
pH 10.0, 40C
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.695
D-arabitol
pH 10.0, 40C
2.75
D-threitol
pH 10.0, 40C
1.11
L-xylulose
pH 10.0, 40C
2.75
xylitol
pH 10.0, 40C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.26
D-arabitol
pH 10.0, 40C
3.31
D-threitol
pH 10.0, 40C
0.87
L-xylulose
pH 10.0, 40C
1.33
xylitol
pH 10.0, 40C
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
27333
x * 27333, calculated, x * 28000, SDS-PAGE
28000
x * 27333, calculated, x * 28000, SDS-PAGE
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
?
x * 27333, calculated, x * 28000, SDS-PAGE
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
40
1 h, 66% residual acitivity
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
recombinant enzyme
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
gene XYL2, recombinant expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain SCB7 resulting in strains SCF202 and SCF201, coexpression of XYL2 with XYL1, encoding a xylose reductase, and the endogenous XKS1, encoding a xylulokinase, all under the control of the TDH3 promoter in the chromosomal DNA, the recombinant strain efficiently grows in minimal medium containing xylose as the sole carbon source. An additional mutation of MTH1, encoding the endogenous negative regulator of the glucose-sensing signal transduction pathway, MTH1e32, and GRR1, encoding endogenous Grr1, an Fbox protein component of an SCF ubiquitineligase complex grr1e33, enable efficient growth in medium containing high xylose concentrations, subcloning in Escherichia coli strain DH10B
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ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
additional information
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
synthesis
production of L-xylulose from xylitol using a resting cell reaction leads to 35% L-xylulose within 24 h, starting from 5% xylitol as initial concentration