Information on EC 1.1.1.254 - (S)-carnitine 3-dehydrogenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Agrobacterium

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
1.1.1.254
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
(S)-carnitine 3-dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY hide
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
(S)-carnitine + NAD+ = 3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
BRENDA Link
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
D-carnitine degradation I
-
-
carnitine metabolism
-
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(S)-carnitine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Specific for the (S)-enantiomer of carnitine, i.e., the enantiomer of the substrate of EC 1.1.1.108 carnitine 3-dehydrogenase
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY hide
169277-49-0
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
UNIPROT
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                       
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylaminobutyrate + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
(S)-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylaminobutyrate + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
(S)-carnitine + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
3-hydroxy-2-butanone + NAD+
2,3-butandione + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
enzyme specific for D-carnitine
-
?
carnitine + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
DL-4-amino-3-hydroxy-n-butyrate + NAD+
DL-4-amino-3-keto-n-butyrate + NADH
show the reaction diagram
additional information
?
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY
(Substrate) hide
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product) hide
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(R)-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylaminobutyrate + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
r
(S)-3-hydroxy-4-trimethylaminobutyrate + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
(S)-carnitine + NAD+
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
substrate is derived as a waste product from chemical production procedures of L(-)-carnitine
formation of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate as a storage product
-
?
additional information
?
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
Co2+
-
1 mM, increases activity up to 31%; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 5 mM, 31% increase in activity
Mg2+
-
D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 0.5 mM, 17% increase in activity, 1.0 mM 30% increase in activity, 5.0 mM, 35% increase in activity
Ni2+
-
5 mM, increases activity up to 31%; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 5 mM, 31% increase in activity
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoate)
-
D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 1 mM, complete inactivation
Ag+
-
D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 1 mM, complete inactivation
Carnitine amide
-
competitive inhibitor of (S)-carnitine oxidation
cetyltrimethylammoniumbromide
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, higher than 5 mM, 10% of initial activity
choline
-
competitive inhibitor of (S)-carnitine oxidation; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
crotonobetaine
-
competitive inhibitor of (S)-carnitine oxidation; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
DL-beta-hydroxybutyrate
-
D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
DL-carnitine amide
-
D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
EDTA
-
; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 20 mM, 25-70% inhibition
Fe2+
-
; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 1 mM, 25-70% inhibition
gamma-butyrobetaine
-
competitive inhibitor of (S)-carnitine oxidation; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
glycine betaine
-
competitive inhibitor of (S)-carnitine oxidation; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, competitive inhibition
Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide
-
above 5 mM, 90% loss of activity
L(-)-carnitine
-
competitive inhibitor of (S)-carnitine oxidation
L-carnitine
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, strong competitive inhibition
N-ethylmaleimide
-
D-carnitine dehydrogenase, 1 mM, 77% inactivation after 3 min
p-chloromercuribenzoate
SDS
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above 5 mM, 90% loss of activity; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, higher than 5 mM, 10% of initial activity
KM VALUE [mM]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
5.5
(S)-carnitine
-
-
0.8 - 1.2
3-dehydrocarnitine
3.1 - 5.5
D-carnitine
0.07 - 0.15
NAD+
0.047 - 0.06
NADH
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
14.15
-
; D-carnitine dehydrogenase
30.7
-
D-carnitine dehydrogenase
additional information
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
5.5 - 6.5
-
3-dehydrocarnitine + NADH; D-carnitine dehydrogenase, reduction of D-carnitine
6.5 - 7
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, reduction of 3-dehydrocarnitine
9 - 9.5
-
D-carnitine dehydrogenase, oxidation of D-carnitine; (S)-carnitine + NAD+
9.3
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase, oxidation of D-carnitine
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
37
-
; D-carnitine dehydrogenase
40
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D-carnitine dehydrogenase
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
SOURCE
additional information
-
organism is able to grow on synthetic D(+)-carnitine, but not on physiological L(-)-carnitine, as sole carbon and nitrogen source
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
28000
-
3 * 28000, D-carnitine dehydrogenase, SDS-PAGE; 3 * 28000, SDS-PAGE, laser-induced mass spectrometry
29000
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3 * 29000, D-carnitine dehydrogenase, SDS-PAGE
86000
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gel filtration, D-carnitine dehydrogenase
88000
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gel filtration; gel filtration, D-carnitine dehydrogenase
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
trimer
pH STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
6.5 - 9
-
D-carnitine dehydrogenase
285735
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
STORAGE STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
4C, pH 6-8, stable for at least 3 days
-
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
LITERATURE
; DEAE-Sepharose FF, TSK Butyl, Phenyl-Sepharose, Superose 12 HR, D-carnitine dehydrogenase
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DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B
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DEAE-Toyopearl, ammonium sulfate, Sephadex G-75, 5'-AMP-Sepharose 4B, Mono Q, TSK-gel G3000 SW, D-carnitine dehydrogenase
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APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
synthesis
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Agrobacterium radiobacter can be used for conversion of the waste product L(-)-carnitine to poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate valuable as a biodegradable and biocompatible plastic