Information on EC 1.1.1.234 - flavanone 4-reductase

Please wait a moment until all data is loaded. This message will disappear when all data is loaded.
Specify your search results
Mark a special word or phrase in this record:
Select one or more organisms in this record:
Show additional data
Do not include text mining results
Include (text mining) results (more...)
Include results (AMENDA + additional results, but less precise; more...)


The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Magnoliophyta

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.1.1.234
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
flavanone 4-reductase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+ = (2S)-flavanone + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+ = (2S)-flavanone + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
enzyme acts as flavone 4-reductase as well as dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
-, Q9XES5
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+ = (2S)-flavanone + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
enzyme acts as flavone 4-reductase as well as dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
-
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+ = (2S)-flavanone + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
enzyme acts as flavone 4-reductase as well as dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
apigeninidin 5-O-glucoside biosynthesis
-
Flavonoid biosynthesis
-
luteolinidin 5-O-glucoside biosynthesis
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
(2S)-flavan-4-ol:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
Involved in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins from flavanones such as naringenin or eriodictyol.
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
115232-53-6
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
Columnea hybrida
strain 'Heklua'
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Columnea hybrida Heklua
strain 'Heklua'
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains M9 and Weirouge
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains Pyrodwarf, Conference and Abbe Fetel
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene SmDFR
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
syn. Rechsteineria cardinalis, strain ' Feuerschein'
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strains: Peterson Ac 1355 A-D (sm), al-line, and Pirat
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
evolution
A5Z0G1, -
the enzyme belongs to the plant DFR superfamily, phylogenetic analysis
metabolism
A5Z0G1, -
the DFR gene is a key gene late in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, overview. The enzyme posesses flavanone 4-reductase activity and also is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of anthocyanidins, proanthocyanidins, and other flavonoids
physiological function
A5Z0G1, -
the enzyme is of importance in plant development
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Columnea hybrida
-
-
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9XES5
-
-
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9XES5
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Columnea hybrida Heklua
-
-
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH + H+
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
A5Z0G1, -
-
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9XES5
-
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidines such as apigeninidin or luteolinidin, from (2S)-flavanones naringenin or eriodictyol
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Columnea hybrida
-
involved in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidines such as apigeninidin or luteolinidin, from (2S)-flavanones naringenin or eriodictyol
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9XES5
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Columnea hybrida Heklua
-
involved in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidines such as apigeninidin or luteolinidin, from (2S)-flavanones naringenin or eriodictyol
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Columnea hybrida
-
-
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-, Q9XES5
-
-
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Columnea hybrida Heklua
-
-
-
?
5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavanone + NADPH
5,7,3',4',5'-pentahydroxyflavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
-
as dihydroxyflavonols, such as dihydrokaempferol, dihydroquercetin and dihydromyricetin are substrates for the Sinningia enzyme preparation, too, the enzyme might be identical with dihydroflavonol-4-reductase
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
-
enzyme also acts on 5-deoxydihydroflavonols
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A5Z0G1, -
the enzyme also catalyzes the reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanins, SmDFR can readily reduce dihydroquercetin and dihydrokampferol, as a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, DFR, EC 1.1.1.219, but it cannot reduce dihydromyricetin
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
?
(2S)-eriodictyol + NADPH
luteoforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9XES5
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
involved in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidines such as apigeninidin or luteolinidin, from (2S)-flavanones naringenin or eriodictyol
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Columnea hybrida
-
involved in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidines such as apigeninidin or luteolinidin, from (2S)-flavanones naringenin or eriodictyol
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9XES5
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
-
?
(2S)-flavanone + NADPH
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Columnea hybrida Heklua
-
involved in the biosynthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidines such as apigeninidin or luteolinidin, from (2S)-flavanones naringenin or eriodictyol
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Q9XES5
-
-
-
?
(2S)-naringenin + NADPH + H+
apiforol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
reaction provides precursors for the synthesis of 3-deoxyanthocyanidins
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
A5Z0G1, -
the enzyme also catalyzes the reduction of dihydroflavonols to leucoanthocyanins, SmDFR can readily reduce dihydroquercetin and dihydrokampferol, as a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, DFR, EC 1.1.1.219, but it cannot reduce dihydromyricetin
-
-
-
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NADH
-
77% as active as NADPH
NADH
-
can partially replace for NADPH
NADPH
Columnea hybrida
-
required
NADPH
-, Q9XES5
-
NADPH
A5Z0G1, -
-
additional information
-
no cofactors are FAD, FMN or tetrahydropterin, with or without NADPH
-
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,10-phenanthroline
-
slight inhibition at 1 mM, 50-70% inhibition at 5 mM
Naringenin
-
above 0.1 mM
p-chloromercuribenzoate
-
0.5 mM
p-hydroxymercuribenzoate
-
complete inhibition at 1 mM
Sucrose
-
20% w/v, complete irreversible inactivation
glycerol
-
10% v/v, complete irreversible inactivation
additional information
-
no inhibition by KCN, EDTA, diethyl dithiocarbamate, phenanthroline or N-ethylmaleimide, 2 mM each
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.021
0.023
(2S)-naringenin
-
-
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.0009
-
Columnea hybrida
-
-
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.5
-
Columnea hybrida
-
-
5.8
-
-
-
6
-
-, Q9XES5
-
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
4.7
6.9
-
about half-maximal activity at pH 4.7 and 6.9
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
-, Q9XES5
native enzyme
25
-
-
native enzyme
25
-
-
-
40
-
-, Q9XES5
recombinant enzyme from yeast
40
-
-
recombinant enzyme from yeast
SOURCE TISSUE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SOURCE
A5Z0G1, -
a red callus line
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Columnea hybrida
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Columnea hybrida Heklua
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
-
low activity
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
additional information
A5Z0G1, -
expression level of SmDFR is higher in flowers compared with both leaves and roots
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
LOCALIZATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
GeneOntology No.
LITERATURE
SOURCE
Columnea hybrida
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Columnea hybrida Heklua
-
-
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
freezing fresh flowers in liquid nitrogen and storing them at -80°C enhances extractable activity compared to fresh flowers
-
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expressed in yeast strain InvSc1
-, Q9XES5
gene SmDFR, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, phylogenetic analysis, quantitative real-time PCR expression analysis, functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain INV Sc1
A5Z0G1, -
expressed in yeast and petunia
-