Information on EC 1.1.1.202 - 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase

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The expected taxonomic range for this enzyme is: Bacteria

EC NUMBER
COMMENTARY
1.1.1.202
-
RECOMMENDED NAME
GeneOntology No.
1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase
REACTION
REACTION DIAGRAM
COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+ = 3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
REACTION TYPE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
oxidation
-
-
-
-
redox reaction
-
-
-
-
reduction
-
-
-
-
PATHWAY
KEGG Link
MetaCyc Link
glycerol degradation III
-
Glycerolipid metabolism
-
SYSTEMATIC NAME
IUBMB Comments
propane-1,3-diol:NAD+ 1-oxidoreductase
-
SYNONYMS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
(NADH)-linked 1,3-PD oxidoreductase
-
-
1,3-PD dehydrogenase
Q7WRJ3
-
1,3-PD oxidoreductase
-
-
1,3-PD oxidoreductase
-
-
1,3-PD oxidoreductase
Klebsiella pneumoniae Cu, Klebsiella pneumoniae KG1
-
-
-
1,3-PD:NAD+ oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
1,3-Pdiol dehydrogenase
-
-
1,3-Pdiol dehydrogenase
Clostridium butyricum VPI 3266
-
-
-
1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase
-
-
-
-
1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase
-
-
1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase
Escherichia coli SYU
-
-
-
1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase
Q7WRJ3
-
1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase
Klebsiella pneumoniae DSM2026, Klebsiella pneumoniae KG1, Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
-
-
1,3-propanediol-oxidoreductase
-
-
1,3-propanediol-oxidoreductase
Klebsiella pneumoniae DSM2026
-
-
-
1,3-propanediol:NAD oxidoreductase
-
-
-
-
3-hydroxypropionaldehyde reductase
-
-
-
-
ADH3
A0NIJ1
-
dehydrogenase, 1,3-propanediol
-
-
-
-
DhaT
P45513
gene name
DhaT
Q59477
gene name
DhaT
Klebsiella pneumoniae Cu
-
-
-
DhaT
A0NIJ1
gene name
DhaT
A0NIJ1
gene name
-
lr_0030
-
gene name
lr_1734
-
gene name
NADH-linked 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase
-
-
PDOR
Klebsiella pneumoniae KG1, Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
-
-
PDOR
Klebsiella pneumoniae TUAC01
A3RL85
-
-
YqhD
-
gene name
YqhD
Escherichia coli SYU
-
-
-
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
COMMENTARY
81611-70-3
-
ORGANISM
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
SEQUENCE CODE
SEQUENCE DB
SOURCE
LMG 1212t2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain VPI 3266
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium butyricum E5
E5
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium butyricum LMG 1212t2
LMG 1212t2
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium butyricum VPI 3266
strain VPI 3266
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Clostridium pasteurianum LMG 3285
LMG 3285
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain SYU 21132
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Escherichia coli SYU
strain SYU 21132
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene dhaT, strain DSM 2026
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain Cu, derivative of ATCC 200721
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DSM 2026, gene dhaT
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain DSMZ 2026
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain M5a1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
strain TUAC01, gene dhaT
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Klebsiella pneumoniae Cu
strain Cu, derivative of ATCC 200721
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Klebsiella pneumoniae DSM2026
DSM2026
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
strain M5a1
-
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Klebsiella pneumoniae TUAC01
strain TUAC01, gene dhaT
UniProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
gene TM0920, strain MSB8
SwissProt
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
GENERAL INFORMATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
physiological function
-
growth behaviour on glucose is comparable between the wild type and a mutant strain lacking ORF lr0030. On glucose plus glycerol, the exponential growth rate of the lr_0030 mutant is lower compared to the wild type. Glycerol addition results in decreased ethanol production in the wild type, but not in lr_0030 mutant. Activity measurements using 3-hydrxypropanal as a substrate reveal lower activity of lr_0030 mutant extracts from exponential growing cells compared to wild type. During biotechnological 3-hydroxypropanal production using non-growing cells, the ratio 3-hydroxypropanal to 1,3-propanediol is approximately 7 in the wild type and lr_0030 mutant; growth behaviour on glucose is comparable between the wild type and a ORF lr1734 deletion mutant. On glucose + glycerol, the exponential growth rate of the wild type and the deletion mutant are similar. Glycerol addition results in decreased ethanol production both in the wild type and mutant. During biotechnological 3-hydroxypropanal production using non-growing cells, the ratio 3-hydroxypropanal to 1,3-propanediol is approximately 7 in the wild type, whereas this ratio is 12.5 in the mutant lacking lr_1734
SUBSTRATE
PRODUCT                      
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
Reversibility
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,2-propanediol + NAD+
2-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
A0NIJ1, -
-
-
-
?
1,2-propanediol + NAD+
2-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
A0NIJ1
-
-
-
?
1,3-propanediol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1,3-propanediol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
A0NIJ1, -
activity with 1,3-propanediol is highly dependent on the presence of Ni2+
-
-
?
1,3-propanediol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
A0NIJ1
activity with 1,3-propanediol is highly dependent on the presence of Ni2+
-
-
?
1,4-butanediol + NAD+
4-hydroxybutanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1,4-butanediol + NAD+
4-hydroxybutanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
1,4-butanediol + NAD+
4-hydroxybutanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
1-butanol + NAD+
NADH + butanal
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-butanol + NAD+
NADH + butanal
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
1-butanol + NAD+
NADH + butanal
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-propanol + NAD+
NADH + propanal
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-propanol + NAD+
NADH + propanal
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
1-propanol + NAD+
NADH + propanal
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
1-propanol + NAD+
NADH + propanal
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
1-propanol + NAD+
NADH + propanal
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium butyricum E5
-
-
-
-
-
2,3-butanediol + NAD+
? + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
2-butanol + NAD+
NADH + butanone
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-butanol + NAD+
NADH + butanone
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
2-butanol + NAD+
NADH + butanone
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium butyricum E5
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae KG1
-
overexpression of PDOR does not affect the concentration of propane-1,3-diol, but it enhances the molar yield from 50.6 to 64.0% and reduces the concentration of by-products, among them, the concentrations of lactic acid, ethanol and succinic acid are decreased by 51.8, 50.6 and 47.4%, respectively. Activity of recombinant PDOR is 44fold higher than those of the wild-type. PDOR overexpression leads to a slower cell growth and lower productivity, and during the fed-batch fermentation in 3.7 l bioreactor, a growth stagnation is observed
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Q7WRJ3
-
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
A3RL85
-
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-, P45513
-
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-, Q7WRJ3
part of the conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol, not the limiting step
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
A3RL85
3-hydroxypropionaldehyde is an inhibitory intermediary metabolite in the 1,3-propanediol synthesis pathway during fermentation of raw material required for the synthesis of polytrimethylene terephthalate and other polyester fibers, accumulation of 3-hydroxypropanal in broth causes an irreversible cessation of the fermentation process
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
a key enzyme in the reductive pathway of anaerobic glycerol dissimilation converting glycerol to 1,3-propanediol in the human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
activity of PDOR in KG1 (pUC18K-dhaT) is 44fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. In the resting cell system, overexpression of 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase leads to faster glycerol conversion and propane-1,3-diol production. After a 12 h conversion process, it improves the yield of propane-1,3-diol by 20.4% and enhances the conversion ratio of glycerol into propane-1,3-diol from 50.8% to 59.8%
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
in the cell exponential growth phase, the reaction catalyzed by 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase is the rate limiting step in 1,3-propanediol production
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
level of PDOR activity of Klebsiella pneumoniae/pETPkan-dhaT (1.64 U/mg) shows an increase of 0.9fold in PDOR activity with respect to the wild-type Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.85 U/mg). The recombinant strain Klebsiella pneumoniae/pETPkan-dhaT improves propane-1,3-diol production by 16.5% with respect to the wild-type strain
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
overexpression of PDOR increases activity by 3.2fold, enzyme activity ratio of PDOR/GDHt (glycerol dehydratase) also is increased. 3-hydroxypropanal accumulation is successfully decreased and the risk of fermentation cease is reduced at the same time by overexpression of PDOR and GDH (glycerol dehydrogenase)
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Klebsiella pneumoniae Cu
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Klebsiella pneumoniae TUAC01
A3RL85
-, 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde is an inhibitory intermediary metabolite in the 1,3-propanediol synthesis pathway during fermentation of raw material required for the synthesis of polytrimethylene terephthalate and other polyester fibers, accumulation of 3-hydroxypropanal in broth causes an irreversible cessation of the fermentation process
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADPH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
improvement of propane-1,3-diol production by a novel propane-1,3-diol operon of three genes (dhaB1 and dhaB2 from Clostridium butyricum and YqhD from Escherichia coli) tandemly arrayed under the control of a constitutive, temperature-sensitive promoter in the vector pBV220 for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADPH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
-
NADPH is not substrate for wild-type, but for mutant D41G
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADPH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NADP+
show the reaction diagram
Escherichia coli SYU
-
improvement of propane-1,3-diol production by a novel propane-1,3-diol operon of three genes (dhaB1 and dhaB2 from Clostridium butyricum and YqhD from Escherichia coli) tandemly arrayed under the control of a constitutive, temperature-sensitive promoter in the vector pBV220 for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADPH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAPD+
show the reaction diagram
-
the Escherichia coli yqhD homolog can replace the function of DhaT in the Klebsiella pneumoniae AK mutant strain defective in 1,3-PD oxidoreductase activity (DhaT). The yqhD homolog restores propane-1,3-diol production and 1,3-PD oxidoreductase activity. Level of propane-1,3-diol production during batch fermentation in the recombinant strain is comparable to that of the parent strain
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropionaldehyde + NADH
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropionaldehyde + NADH
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium butyricum VPI 3266
-
recombinant mutant Clostridium acetobutylicum strain DG1(pSPD5) expressing the enzyme from an introduced plasmid
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropionaldehyde + NADH
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
-
-
-
?
ethanol + NAD+
NADH + ethanal
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
ethanol + NAD+
NADH + ethanal
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
ethylene glycol + NAD+
NADH + ?
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
glycerol + NAD+
glyceraldehyde + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
glycerol + NAD+
glyceraldehyde + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
glycerol + NAD+
glyceraldehyde + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
glycerol + NAD+
glyceraldehyde + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
glycerol + NAD+
glyceraldehyde + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium butyricum E5
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,2-diol + NAD+
2-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme of the 1,3-propanediol production pathway, high enzyme synthesis and activity in the anaerobic growth phase with increased use of glycerol
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Klebsiella pneumoniae DSM2026
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Klebsiella pneumoniae DSM2026
-
key enzyme of the 1,3-propanediol production pathway, high enzyme synthesis and activity in the anaerobic growth phase with increased use of glycerol
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium butyricum E5
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium pasteurianum LMG 3285
-
-
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium butyricum LMG 1212t2
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
glycerol + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-, the enzyme is important in vivo for convertion of glycerol into propane-1,3-diol
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-, P45513
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+ + H+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Q7WRJ3
-
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NADP+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADPH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
NADP+ is not substrate for wild-type, but for mutant D41G
-
-
r
glycerol + NADH
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium butyricum VPI 3266
-
-
-
-
?
additional information
?
-
A0NIJ1, -
enzyme additionally accepts ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-mercaptoethanol and their reduces their corresponding aldehydes. No substrates: methanol, 1-butanol, glycerol or 2-propanol
-
-
-
additional information
?
-
A0NIJ1
enzyme additionally accepts ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-mercaptoethanol and their reduces their corresponding aldehydes. No substrates: methanol, 1-butanol, glycerol or 2-propanol
-
-
-
NATURAL SUBSTRATES
NATURAL PRODUCTS
REACTION DIAGRAM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
(Substrate)
LITERATURE
(Substrate)
COMMENTARY
(Product)
LITERATURE
(Product)
REVERSIBILITY
r=reversible
ir=irreversible
?=not specified
1,3-propanediol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-, Q7WRJ3
part of the conversion of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol, not the limiting step
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
A3RL85
3-hydroxypropionaldehyde is an inhibitory intermediary metabolite in the 1,3-propanediol synthesis pathway during fermentation of raw material required for the synthesis of polytrimethylene terephthalate and other polyester fibers, accumulation of 3-hydroxypropanal in broth causes an irreversible cessation of the fermentation process
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
-
a key enzyme in the reductive pathway of anaerobic glycerol dissimilation converting glycerol to 1,3-propanediol in the human pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH + H+
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Klebsiella pneumoniae TUAC01
A3RL85
3-hydroxypropionaldehyde is an inhibitory intermediary metabolite in the 1,3-propanediol synthesis pathway during fermentation of raw material required for the synthesis of polytrimethylene terephthalate and other polyester fibers, accumulation of 3-hydroxypropanal in broth causes an irreversible cessation of the fermentation process
-
-
r
3-hydroxypropionaldehyde + NADH
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae M5a1
-
-
-
-
?
glycerol + NADH
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium butyricum VPI 3266
-
-
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
-
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
key enzyme of the 1,3-propanediol production pathway, high enzyme synthesis and activity in the anaerobic growth phase with increased use of glycerol
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
glycerol + NADH
show the reaction diagram
-
the enzyme is important in vivo for convertion of glycerol into propane-1,3-diol
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Klebsiella pneumoniae DSM2026
-
key enzyme of the 1,3-propanediol production pathway, high enzyme synthesis and activity in the anaerobic growth phase with increased use of glycerol
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium butyricum E5
-
-
-
-
r
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium pasteurianum LMG 3285
-
-
-
-
?
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
show the reaction diagram
Clostridium butyricum LMG 1212t2
-
-
-
-
r
COFACTOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
NAD+
A0NIJ1, -
-
NADH
-
overexpression of PDOR leads to enhanced NADH and production ratio of NADH/NAD+ exceeds after the inducement of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside for the constructed strain
NADH
-
the electrostatic energy is the major force discriminating NADH from NADPH. Residue Asp41 is the key residue responsible for the coenzyme specificity
NADH
A0NIJ1, -
-
NADPH
-
no substrate for wild-type, but substrate for mutant D41G
additional information
-
NADP+ has no coenzyme activity
-
additional information
A0NIJ1, -
no cofactor: NADPH
-
METALS and IONS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
Fe2+
Q9X022
-
K+
-
highest levels of activity in presence of 100 mM K+
Ni2+
A0NIJ1, -
located near active site, crystallization data. The activity with 1,3-propanediol is highly dependent on the presence of Ni2+
INHIBITORS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
1,10-phenanthroline
-
-
2,2'-dipyridyl
-
reactivation by Mn2+ or Fe2+
8-hydroxyquinoline
-
-
EDTA
-
50 mM is necessary to obtain a 50% inhibition of enzymatic activity
glycerol
-
at high concentration above 40 g/l, overview
imidazole
A0NIJ1, -
activity is reduced down to 32% in the presence of 1 mM imidazole and addition of 250 mM results in complete inactivity
additional information
-
with 100 mM Na+, Li+, Mg2+ or NH4+ in addition to K+: 13-23% decrease in activity
-
additional information
-
in LB media, almost no activity of PDOR in Klebsiella pneumoniae ACCC10082, while it is higher in fermentation medium
-
additional information
-
when the concentration of 3-hydroxypropanal increases to a higher level in medium (ac 10 mmol/L), the activity of 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase in cell decreases correspondingly, which leads to decrease of the 3-hydroxypropanal conversion rate, then the 3-hydroxypropanal concentration increasing is accelerated furthermore
-
ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
fumarate
-
25% activation of the enzyme, enhances the production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol and the glycerol consumption in vivo
glycerol
-
at concentrations around 16 g/l, regulation, overview
isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside
-
inducer of gene expression, results in the increased activity of PDOR in LB medium
isopropyl-D-thiogalactoside
-
DhaT activity in the AK strain harboring pBR-dhaT-orfWX remarkably increases in the presence of isopropyl-D-thiogalactoside, although the activity is not proportional to the concentration of the inducer
-
KM VALUE [mM]
KM VALUE [mM] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
11.5
-
1,2-Propanediol
A0NIJ1, -
pH 9.0, 60C
26.7
-
1,3-Propanediol
A0NIJ1, -
pH 9.0, 60C
10.05
-
3-hydroxypropanal
-, P45513
pH 8.0, 37C
26
-
glyceraldehyde
-
-
29
-
glyceraldehyde
-
-
300
-
glycerol
-
-
0.05
-
NAD+
A0NIJ1, -
pH 9.0, 60C
0.2
-
NAD+
-
wild-type, pH 7.4, 37C
0.21
-
NAD+
-
pH 9.5, 30C, recombinant enzyme
0.48
-
NAD+
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
0.015
-
NADH
-
wild-type, pH 7.4, 37C
0.2
-
NADH
A0NIJ1, -
pH 8.0, 60C
0.48
-
NADH
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
0.97
-
NADP+
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
0.14
-
NADPH
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
1.25
-
Propane-1,3-diol
-
-
1.28
-
Propane-1,3-diol
-, P45513
pH 10.5, 25C
2
-
Propane-1,3-diol
-
-
8.5
-
Propane-1,3-diol
-
pH 9.5, 30C, recombinant enzyme
14
-
Propane-1,3-diol
-
-
16.7
-
Propane-1,3-diol
-
-
18
-
Propane-1,3-diol
-
-
0.17
-
propionaldehyde
-
-
11
-
propionaldehyde
-
-
additional information
-
additional information
-
mathematical description and modelling of reaction and reaction kinetics, overview
-
TURNOVER NUMBER [1/s]
TURNOVER NUMBER MAXIMUM[1/s]
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
51.99
-
NAD+
-
wild-type, pH 7.4, 37C
82.33
-
NAD+
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
90.64
-
NADH
-
wild-type, pH 7.4, 37C
411.6
-
NADH
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
11.83
-
NADP+
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
187.4
-
NADPH
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1]
kcat/KM VALUE [1/mMs-1] Maximum
SUBSTRATE
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
0.01
-
1,2-Propanediol
A0NIJ1, -
pH 9.0, 60C
680
0.01
-
1,3-Propanediol
A0NIJ1, -
pH 9.0, 60C
727
4.9
-
NAD+
A0NIJ1, -
pH 9.0, 60C
14330
172
-
NAD+
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
14330
260
-
NAD+
-
wild-type, pH 7.4, 37C
14330
12.9
-
NADH
A0NIJ1, -
pH 8.0, 60C
14331
858
-
NADH
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
14331
6043
-
NADH
-
wild-type, pH 7.4, 37C
14331
12.2
-
NADP+
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
27497
1338
-
NADPH
-
mutant D41G, pH 7.4, 37C
27498
Ki VALUE [mM]
Ki VALUE [mM] Maximum
INHIBITOR
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
IMAGE
12.09
-
glycerol
-
pH 9.0, 25C
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY [µmol/min/mg]
SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
0.37
-
-
wild-type Clostridium butyricum strain VPI 3266
1.1
-
A0NIJ1, -
pH 9.0, 60C
1.2
-
-
recombinant enzyme in Clostridium acetobutylicum mutant strain DG1
3.8
-
-
native enzyme
9.6
-
-
recombinant enzyme
49.5
-
-, P45513
reduction of 3-hydroxypropanal, pH 8.0, 37C
77.9
-
-, P45513
oxidation of propane-1,3-diol, pH 10.5, 25C
additional information
-
-
nucleotide pools of wild-type Clostridium butyricum strain VPI 3266 and recombinant Clostridium acetobutylicum mutant strain DG1
pH OPTIMUM
pH MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6.2
-
-
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
7
-
-
propane-1,3-diol + NAD+
8
-
A0NIJ1, -
reduction of aldehydes
8
-
-, P45513
reduction of aldehyde
9
-
-
assay at
9
-
-
assay at
9
-
-
assay at
9
-
-
assay at
9
-
A0NIJ1, -
oxidation of alcohols
9.07
-
-
3-hydroxypropanal + NADH
9.5
-
-
recombinant enzyme
9.7
-
-
assay at
9.72
-
-
propane-1,3-diol + NADH
10.5
-
-, P45513
oxidation of alcohol
pH RANGE
pH RANGE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
7
8.5
-, P45513
more than 80% of maximum activity for reduction of aldehyde
7
-
-, P45513
less than 10% of maximum activity for oxidation reaction
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM
TEMPERATURE OPTIMUM MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
25
-
-, P45513
oxidation of alcohol
30
-
-
recombinant enzyme
37
-
-
assay at
37
-
-, P45513
reduction of aldehyde
50
60
A0NIJ1, -
-
pI VALUE
pI VALUE MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
5.2
-
A0NIJ1, -
calculated
5.9
-
-
sequence calculation
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
MOLECULAR WEIGHT MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
43000
-
-
gel filtration and PAGE
74000
-
A0NIJ1, -
gel filtration
180000
-
-
gel filtration
328000
-
-
gel filtration
331000
-
-
gel filtration, sedimentation coefficient
384200
-
-
gel filtration
415000
-
-
sequence analysis
446000
-
-
dynamic light scattering analysis of the purified protein in solution
SUBUNITS
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
?
-
x * 42000, recombinant enzyme, SDS-PAGE
?
-
x * 41544, sequence calculation
?
-, P45513
x * 42000, SDS-PAGE
decamer
-
crystallography or gel filtration
dimer
A0NIJ1, -
2 * 42200, calculated, 2 * 43000, SDS-PAGE of recombinant His-tagged protein
dimer
-
2 * 42200, calculated, 2 * 43000, SDS-PAGE of recombinant His-tagged protein
-
hexamer or octamer
-
6 * or 8 * 45000, SDS-PAGE
octamer
-
8 * 43400, SDS-PAGE
octamer
-
x * 42000 + x * 46000, SDS-PAGE
tetramer
-
4 * 42000, SDS-PAGE
monomer
-
1 * 43000, calculated
additional information
-
octamer or decamer of identical subunits
additional information
Q7WRJ3
determination of secondary enzyme structure, 3D-modeling
additional information
Clostridium butyricum E5
-
octamer or decamer of identical subunits
-
Crystallization/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
selenomethionine-labeled protein, to 2.4 A resolution. space group P32
-
by vapor diffusion in sitting drops at 20C, at 2.7 A resolution. The enzyme shows a decameric structure, formed by a pentamer of dimers, which is the catalytic form of the enzyme. Dimers are associated by strong ionic interactions that are responsible for the highly stable in vivo packing of the enzyme. The decameric arrangement is related to the cooperativity between monomers
-
homology modeling with cofactors NADH and NADPH
-
purified recombinant His-tagged enzyme, sitting-drop vapour diffusion, 22C, 0.0015 ml of 55 mg/ml protein in 50 mM HEPES, pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl, 1 mM MnCl2 and 2 mM DTT, is mixed with an equal volume of reservoir solution containing 0.1 M MES, pH 6.5, with 12% w/v PEG 20000, and 10 mM CaCl2, 8-24 h, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 2.7 A resolution
-
to 3.2 A resolution. The electron density map around the active site shows no sign of a bound co-factor, but the active site metal could be located and identified as Ni2+
A0NIJ1, -
purified recombinant His-tagged protein in 20 mM Tris, pH 7.9, 150 mM NaCl, 0.25 mM TCEP, by nandroplet vapour diffusion method, cyrstallization buffer contains 20% PEG 300, 5% w/v PEG 8000, 10% glycerol, and 0.1 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.5, X-ray diffraction structure determination and analysis at 1.3 A resolution, modeling of 2 enzyme molecules, residues 1-359, complexed with 2 molecules of NADP+, 2 ions of Fe2+, 2 molecules of Tris, and 895 water molecules
Q9X022
pH STABILITY
pH STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
6
7
A0NIJ1, -
most stable within this range
TEMPERATURE STABILITY
TEMPERATURE STABILITY MAXIMUM
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
50
-
A0NIJ1, -
60 min, inactivation
GENERAL STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
-20C, Mn2+-DTT-HEPES buffer, stable for 3 days, 82% loss of activity after 3 weeks
-
OXIDATION STABILITY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
inactivated by oxidation during aerobic metabolism
-
389488
Purification/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
recombinant protein
-
by centrifugation, nickel affinity column and gel filtration
-
recombinant His-tagged enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) by nickel affinity chromatography and gel filtration
-
recombinant soluble enzyme from Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
recombinant tagged selenomethionine-labeled enzyme from Escherichia coli by nickel affinity, ion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography and ultrafiltration
Q9X022
Cloned/COMMENTARY
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
LITERATURE
expression in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-, P45513
overexpression in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Clostridium acetobutylicum mutant strain DG1 from plasmid pSPD5, subcloning in Escherichia coli
-
expression in Escherichia coli
-
genes for the production of propane-1,3-diol in Clostridium butyricum, dhaB1 and dhaB2, which encode the vitamin B12-independent glycerol dehydratase DhaB1 and its activating factor, DhaB2, respectively, tandemly arrayed with the Escherichia coli yqhD gene, which encodes the 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase isoenzyme YqhD. Heterologous expression of the propane-1,3-diol operon under the control of the temperature-sensitive lambda phage PLPR promoter regulated by the cIts857 repressor, from plasmid pDY220, in Escherichia coli K-12 ER2925
-
plasmid including Escherichia coli yqhD introduced into Klebsiella pneumoniae AK mutant strain defective in in 1,3-PD oxidoreductase activity (DhaT)
-
all genes of the dha regulon, including the gene for 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase of Klebsiella pneumoniae mobilized by the plasmid RP4:mini Mu and transferred to Escherichia coli
-
gene dhaT, cloning from genomic DNA, DNA sequence determination, inducible high-level expression of the mostly soluble enzyme in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
gene dhaT, DNA and amino acid sequence determination and analysis, sequence comparisons
A3RL85
gene dhaT, expression of the N-terminally His-tagged in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3)
-
gene dhaT, high level co-expression of the 1,3-PD oxidoreductase with glycerol dehydratase, encoded by gene dhaB, and glycerol dehydratase reactivating factor, encoded by gene gdrAB, in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) using two incompatible plasmids, fed-batch fermentation of recombinant bacteria. The NADPH-linked alcohol dehydrogenase, which is encoded by yqhD, a gene from Escherichia coli, can non-specifically catalyze 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde converting to 1,3-propanediol with sufficient activity, overview
-
overexpression of gene dhaT encoding PDOR (from vector pETPkan-dhaT) and transformed into Klebsiella pneumoniae
-
plasmid pUC18K-dhaT transformed into Klebsiella pneumoniae KG1
-
plasmids pUC18 K-dhaT and pUC18 K-gdh, carrying the genes dhaT encoding PDOR and gdh encoding glycerol dehydrogenase, respectively, transformed into a propane-1,3-diol native producer Klebsiella pneumoniae KG1
-
recombinant plasmids containing dhaT expressed in Klebsiella pneumoniae Cu, and the mutant strains AK and AR
-
the dhaD gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) and dhaT gene encoding 1,3-propanediol oxidoreductase (PDOR) inserted into pTD plasmid and overexpressed in Klebsiella pneumoniae ACCC 10082
-
the dhaT gene coding for 1,3-PD dehydrogenase inserted into vector pET-YSBLIC and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)
-
expression in Escherichia coli
A0NIJ1, -
gene TM0920, expression of soluble N-terminally MGSDKIHHHHHH-tagged selenomethionine-labeled enzyme in Escherichia coli methionine auxotrophic strain DL41
Q9X022
ENGINEERING
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
nore
-
expression of the Clostridumm butyricum enzyme in Clostridium acetobutylicum strain DG1(pSPD5) leads to functional reduction of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol in a two-step process, the first step of glycerol reduction to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, which is then reduced to 1,3-propanediol, is performed by the B12-independent glycerol dehydratase
nore
Clostridium butyricum VPI 3266
-
expression of the Clostridumm butyricum enzyme in Clostridium acetobutylicum strain DG1(pSPD5) leads to functional reduction of glycerol to 1,3-propanediol in a two-step process, the first step of glycerol reduction to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, which is then reduced to 1,3-propanediol, is performed by the B12-independent glycerol dehydratase
-
D41A
-
mutation for relaxation of the coenzyme specificity, weakens the repulsion between Asp41 and the phosphate group esterified to the 2-hydroxyl group of the ribose at the adenine end of NADPH
D41G
-
mutation for relaxation of the coenzyme specificity, weakens the repulsion between Asp41 and the phosphate group esterified to the 2-hydroxyl group of the ribose at the adenine end of NADPH
additional information
A3RL85
engineering of a strain for optimized elimination of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, an inhibitory intermediary metabolite in the 1,3-propanediol synthesis pathway, from the broth during fermentation process of raw material required for the synthesis of polytrimethylene terephthalate and other polyester fibers, overview
additional information
-
Klebsiella pneumoniae mutant strain AK (dhaD and dhaK replaced with the lacZ promoter-apramycin resistance gene cassette, such that the lacZ promoter is inserted in front of dhaB) and mutant strain AR (deletion of the dhaR gene and replaced with the lacZ promoter-apramycin resistance gene cassette, defective in the oxidative branch and in the reductive branch due to the loss of the dhaT and orfWX). propane-1,3-diol is still produced at lower level in the mutant strains, even though dhaT is removed, thus a a putative oxidoreductase may catalyze the production of propane-1,3-diol at lower level compared to DhaT. Dramatic increase in the production of propane-1,3-diol in the recombinant strains harboring the plasmid pBR-dhaT or pBR-dhaT-orfWX, which contain dhaT. Amount of propane-1,3-diol produced is lower in the AK and AR strain, which is harboring pBR-dhaT-orfWX (5.2 g/l), than the corresponding Cu, which is harboring pBR-dhaT-orfWX (7.7 g/l). During fermentation, the production yield is higher in the AK strain (0.57 mol/mol) than the Cu strain (0.47 mol/mol) harboring pBR-dhaT-orfWX
additional information
-
Klebsiella pneumoniae AK mutant strain defective in 1,3-PD oxidoreductase activity (DhaT). The Escherichia coli yqhD homolog can replace the function of DhaT. The yqhD homolog restores propane-1,3-diol production and 1,3-PD oxidoreductase activity in the mutant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain defective in DhaT. Level of propane-1,3-diol production during batch fermentation in the recombinant strain is comparable to that of the parent strain
additional information
Klebsiella pneumoniae Cu
-
Klebsiella pneumoniae mutant strain AK (dhaD and dhaK replaced with the lacZ promoter-apramycin resistance gene cassette, such that the lacZ promoter is inserted in front of dhaB) and mutant strain AR (deletion of the dhaR gene and replaced with the lacZ promoter-apramycin resistance gene cassette, defective in the oxidative branch and in the reductive branch due to the loss of the dhaT and orfWX). propane-1,3-diol is still produced at lower level in the mutant strains, even though dhaT is removed, thus a a putative oxidoreductase may catalyze the production of propane-1,3-diol at lower level compared to DhaT. Dramatic increase in the production of propane-1,3-diol in the recombinant strains harboring the plasmid pBR-dhaT or pBR-dhaT-orfWX, which contain dhaT. Amount of propane-1,3-diol produced is lower in the AK and AR strain, which is harboring pBR-dhaT-orfWX (5.2 g/l), than the corresponding Cu, which is harboring pBR-dhaT-orfWX (7.7 g/l). During fermentation, the production yield is higher in the AK strain (0.57 mol/mol) than the Cu strain (0.47 mol/mol) harboring pBR-dhaT-orfWX
-
additional information
Klebsiella pneumoniae TUAC01
-
engineering of a strain for optimized elimination of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde, an inhibitory intermediary metabolite in the 1,3-propanediol synthesis pathway, from the broth during fermentation process of raw material required for the synthesis of polytrimethylene terephthalate and other polyester fibers, overview
-
APPLICATION
ORGANISM
UNIPROT ACCESSION NO.
COMMENTARY
LITERATURE
industry
-
development of an economical and eco-friendly biological process for the production of propane-1,3-diol from renewable resources by construction of a novel operon including YqhD
synthesis
-
expression of the yqhD gene, encoding 3-propanediol oxidoreductase isoenzyme from Escherichia coli and the dhaT gene, encoding 3-propanediol oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae individually and concomitantly in Klebsiella pneumoniae using the double tac promoter expression plasmid pEtac-dhaT-tac-yqhD. The three resultant recombinant strains show that the peak values for 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde production in broth of the three recombinant strains are less than 25% of that of the parent strain. Expression of dhaT reduces formation of by-products ethanol and lactic acid and increases molar yield of 1,3-propanediol slightly, while expression of yqhD does not enhance molar yield of 1,3-propanediol, but increases ethanol concentration in broth as NADPH participation in transforming 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde to 1,3-propanediol allows more cellular NADH to be used to produce ethanol. Co-expression of both genes therefore decreases by-products and increases the molar yield of 1,3-propanediol by 11.8%, by catalyzing 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde conversion to 1,3-propanediol using the two cofactors NADH and NADPH
industry
Escherichia coli SYU
-
development of an economical and eco-friendly biological process for the production of propane-1,3-diol from renewable resources by construction of a novel operon including YqhD
-
synthesis
-
Klebsiella pneumoniae is used for production of 1,3-propanediol by the enzyme which is utilized in plastic industry
synthesis
-
the enzyme is useful in 1,3-propanediol production from glycerol, a byproduct in biodiesel production, by an enzymatic bioconversion in a membrane reactor in which the NAD+ coenzyme can be regenerated, mathematical description and modelling of the system, overview
synthesis
-
constitutive overexpression of 1,3-PD oxidoreductase in Klebsiella pneumoniae leads to a nearly 3fold decrease in peak level of the intermediary metabolite 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and an increase of 16.5% in yield of 1,3-propanediol with respect to the wild-type strain
synthesis
-
expression of the yqhD gene, encoding 3-propanediol oxidoreductase isoenzyme from Escherichia coli and the dhaT gene, encoding 3-propanediol oxidoreductase from Klebsiella pneumoniae individually and concomitantly in Klebsiella pneumoniae using the double tac promoter expression plasmid pEtac-dhaT-tac-yqhD. The three resultant recombinant strains show that the peak values for 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde production in broth of the three recombinant strains are less than 25% of that of the parent strain. Expression of dhaT reduces formation of by-products ethanol and lactic acid and increases molar yield of 1,3-propanediol slightly, while expression of yqhD does not enhance molar yield of 1,3-propanediol, but increases ethanol concentration in broth as NADPH participation in transforming 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde to 1,3-propanediol allows more cellular NADH to be used to produce ethanol. Co-expression of both genes therefore decreases by-products and increases the molar yield of 1,3-propanediol by 11.8%, by catalyzing 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde conversion to 1,3-propanediol using the two cofactors NADH and NADPH
synthesis
-
genetic engineering of Klebsiella pneumoniae for production of 1.3-propanediol from glycerol. Constitutive expression of the dhaT gene alone gives the highest yield, fed-batch fermentation results in efficient production of 1,3-propanediol from either pure or crude glycerol, without by-product formation
synthesis
Klebsiella pneumoniae DSM2026
-
Klebsiella pneumoniae is used for production of 1,3-propanediol by the enzyme which is utilized in plastic industry
-