1.1.1.219: dihydroflavonol 4-reductase

This is an abbreviated version, for detailed information about dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, go to the full flat file.

Reaction

a (2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin
+
NADP+
=
a (2R,3R)-dihydroflavonol
+
NADPH
+
H+

Synonyms

BrDFR1, BrDFR10, BrDFR11, BrDFR12, BrDFR2, BrDFR3, BrDFR4, BrDFR5, BrDFR6, BrDFR7, BrDFR8, BrDFR9, CsDFR, DcDFR, DFR, DFR1, DFR2, DFR3, DFR4a, DFR4b, DFR5, DgDFR, DHM reductase, DHQ reductase, dihydroflavanol 4-reductase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, dihydroflavonol reductase, dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase, dihydromyricetin reductase, dihydroquercetin reductase, DnDFR, flavan-3-ol NADPH-dihydromycertin reductase, GbDFR1, GbDFR2, GbDFR3, IbDFR, McDFR, NADPH-dihydromyricetin reductase, NtDFR1, PAS_chr3_0449, PhDFR, reductase, dihydromyricetin, reductase, dihydroquercetin, RrDFR1, TaDFR, TaDFR-A, TaDFR-I, TRANSPARENT TESTA 3 protein

ECTree

     1 Oxidoreductases
         1.1 Acting on the CH-OH group of donors
             1.1.1 With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
                1.1.1.219 dihydroflavonol 4-reductase

Reference

Reference on EC 1.1.1.219 - dihydroflavonol 4-reductase

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REF.
AUTHORS
TITLE
JOURNAL
VOL.
PAGES
YEAR
ORGANISM (UNIPROT)
PUBMED ID
SOURCE
Stafford, H.A.; Lester, H.H.
Flavan-3-ol biosynthesis. The conversion of (+)-dihydromyricetin to its flavan-3,4-diol (leucodelphinidin) and to (+)-gallocatechin by reductases extracted from tissue cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga menziesii
Plant Physiol.
78
791-794
1985
Ginkgo biloba, Pseudotsuga menziesii
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Heller, W.; Forkmann, G.; Britsch, L.; Grisebach, H.
Enzymatic reduction of (+)-dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-cis-diols with flower extracts from Matthiola incana and its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis
Planta
165
284-287
1985
Matthiola incana
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Stafford, H.A.; Lester, H.H.
Enzymic and nonenzymic reduction of (+)-dihydroquercetin to its 3,4,-diol
Plant Physiol.
70
695-698
1982
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ishikura, N.; Murakami, H.; Fujii, Y.
Conversion of (+)-dihydroquercetin to 3,4-cis-leucocyanidin by a reductase extracted from cell suspension cultures of Cryptomeria japonica
Plant Cell Physiol.
29
795-799
1988
Cryptomeria japonica
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Stafford, H.A.; Lester, H.H.
Flavan-3-ol biosynthesis. The conversion of (+)-dihydroquercetin and flavan-3,4-cis-diol (leucocyanidin) to (+)-catechin by reductases extracted from cell suspension cultures of douglas fir
Plant Physiol.
76
184-186
1984
Pseudotsuga menziesii
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Singh, S.; McCallum, J.; Gruber, M.Y.; Towers, G.H.N.; Muir, A.D.; Bohm, B.A.; Koupai-Abyazani, M.R.; Glass, A.D.M.
Biosynthesis of flavan-3-ols by leaf extracts of Onobrychis viciifolia
Phytochemistry
44
425-432
1997
Onobrychis viciifolia
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Martens, S.; Teeri, T.; Forkmann, G.
Heterologous expression of dihydroflavonol 4-reductases from various plants
FEBS Lett.
531
453-458
2002
Callistephus chinensis (P51103), Dianthus caryophyllus (P51104), Gerbera hybrid cultivar (P51105), Matthiola incana, no activity in Escherichia coli, no activity in Nicotiana tabacum, no activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rosa hybrid cultivar (Q41158), Rosa hybrid cultivar Kardinal (Q41158), Solanum lycopersicum (P51107)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Xie, D.Y.; Jackson, L.A.; Cooper, J.D.; Ferreira, D.; Paiva, N.L.
Molecular and biochemical analysis of two cDNA clones encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase from Medicago truncatula
Plant Physiol.
134
979-994
2004
Medicago truncatula, Medicago truncatula (Q6TQT0), Medicago truncatula (Q6TQT1)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Takahashi, H.; Hayashi, M.; Goto, F.; Sato, S.; Soga, T.; Nishioka, T.; Tomita, M.; Kawai-Yamada, M.; Uchimiya, H.
Evaluation of metabolic alteration in transgenic rice overexpressing dihydroflavonol-4-reductase
Ann. Bot.
98
819-825
2006
Oryza sativa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Shimada, N.; Sasaki, R.; Sato, S.; Kaneko, T.; Tabata, S.; Aoki, T.; Ayabe, S.
A comprehensive analysis of six dihydroflavonol 4-reductases encoded by a gene cluster of the Lotus japonicus genome
J. Exp. Bot.
56
2573-2585
2005
Lotus japonicus
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lo Piero, A.R.; Puglisi, I.; Petrone, G.
Gene characterization, analysis of expression and in vitro synthesis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase from [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck]
Phytochemistry
67
684-695
2006
Citrus sinensis
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Tamura, K.; Huang, J.; Yu, L.H.; Kawai-Yamada, M.; Tezuka, T.; Uchimiya, H.
Enhanced dihydroflavonol-4-reductase activity and NAD homeostasis leading to cell death tolerance in transgenic rice
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA
102
7020-7025
2005
Oryza sativa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kim, S.; Yoo, K.S.; Pike, L.M.
Development of a PCR-based marker utilizing a deletion mutation in the dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene responsible for the lack of anthocyanin production in yellow onions (Allium cepa)
Theor. Appl. Genet.
110
588-595
2005
Allium cepa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Zhou, B.; Li, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yan, H.; Homma, S.; Kawabata, S.
Ultraviolet A-specific induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the swollen hypocotyls of turnip (Brassica rapa)
J. Exp. Bot.
58
1771-1781
2007
Brassica rapa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Petit, P.; Granier, T.; dEstaintot, B.L.; Manigand, C.; Bathany, K.; Schmitter, J.M.; Lauvergeat, V.; Hamdi, S.; Gallois, B.
Crystal structure of grape dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, a key enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis
J. Mol. Biol.
368
1345-1357
2007
Vitis vinifera
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Eungwanichayapant, P.D.; Popluechai, S.
Accumulation of catechins in tea in relation to accumulation of mRNA from genes involved in catechin biosynthesis
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
47
94-97
2009
Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (Q9S787)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Nakatsuka, A.; Mizuta, D.; Kii, Y.; Miyajima, I.; Kobayashi, N.
Isolation and expression analysis of flavonoid biosynthesis genes in evergreen azalea
Sci. Hortic.
118
314-320
2008
Rhododendron x pulchrum (A9ZMJ4)
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Trabelsi, N.; Petit, P.; Manigand, C.; Langlois d'Estaintot, B.; Granier, T.; Chaudiere, J.; Gallois, B.
Structural evidence for the inhibition of grape dihydroflavonol 4-reductase by flavonols
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. D
64
883-891
2008
Vitis vinifera
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Leonard, E.; Yan, Y.; Chemler, J.; Matern, U.; Martens, S.; Koffas, M.
Characterization of dihydroflavonol 4-reductases for recombinant plant pigment biosynthesis applications
Biocatal. Biotransform.
26
243-251
2008
Anthurium andraeanum (Q84L22), Arabidopsis thaliana (P51102), Fragaria x ananassa (O22617), Ipomoea nil (O24607), Lilium sp. (Q6UAQ7), Rosa hybrid cultivar (Q41158)
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Akhov, L.; Ashe, P.; Tan, Y.; Datla, R.; Selvaraj, G.
Proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in the seed coat of yellow-seeded, canola quality Brassica napus YN01-429 is constrained at the committed step catalyzed by dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Botany
87
616-625
2009
Brassica napus
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Cao, S.; Hu, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Lu, B.
Effect of BTH on anthocyanin content and activities of related enzymes in Strawberry after harvest
J. Agric. Food Chem.
58
5801-5805
2010
Fragaria x ananassa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Lee, W.; You, J.; Chung, H.; Lee, Y.; Baek, N.; Yoo, J.; Park, Y.
Molecular cloning and biochemical analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) from Brassica rapa ssp. pekinesis (Chinese cabbage) using a heterologous system
J. Plant Biol.
51
42-47
2008
Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (Q5DNA6)
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chemler, J.A.; Fowler, Z.L.; McHugh, K.P.; Koffas, M.A.
Improving NADPH availability for natural product biosynthesis in Escherichia coli by metabolic engineering
Metab. Eng.
12
96-104
2009
Anthurium andraeanum (Q84L22)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Singh, K.; Kumar, S.; Yadav, S.; Ahuja, P.
Characterization of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase cDNA in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze]
Plant Biotechnol. Rep.
3
95-101
2009
Camellia sinensis (Q6DT40), Camellia sinensis (Q9S787), Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze (Q6DT40)
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Zhang, Y.; Cheng, S.; De Jong, D.; Griffiths, H.; Halitschke, R.; De Jong, W.
The potato R locus codes for dihydroflavonol 4-reductase
Theor. Appl. Genet.
119
931-937
2009
Solanum tuberosum (Q8LL92), Solanum tuberosum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Yong, W.; Abdullah, J.; Mahmood, M.
Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Melastoma malabathricum and Tibouchina semidecandra with sense and antisense dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) genes
Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult.
96
59-67
2009
Torenia fournieri
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Jung, C.; Griffiths, H.; De Jong, D.; Cheng, S.; Bodis, M.; Kim, T.; De Jong, W.
The potato developer (D) locus encodes an R2R3 MYB transcription factor that regulates expression of multiple anthocyanin structural genes in tuber skin
Theor. Appl. Genet.
120
45-57
2009
Solanum tuberosum
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Li, H.; Qiu, J.; Chen, F.; Lv, X.; Fu, C.; Zhao, D.; Hua, X.; Zhao, Q.
Molecular characterization and expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene in Saussurea medusa
Mol. Biol. Rep.
39
2991-2999
2012
Saussurea medusa (A5Z0G1), Saussurea medusa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Huang, Y.; Gou, J.; Jia, Z.; Yang, L.; Sun, Y.; Xiao, X.; Song, F.; Luo, K.
Molecular cloning and characterization of two genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase from Populus trichocarpa
PLoS ONE
7
e30364
2012
Populus trichocarpa (B9GRL5), Populus trichocarpa (B9H4D5), Populus trichocarpa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Kumar, V.; Nadda, G.; Kumar, S.; Yadav, S.
Transgenic Tobacco overexpressing tea cDNA encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and anthocyanidin reductase induces early flowering and provides biotic stress tolerance
PLoS ONE
8
e65535
2013
Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis (Q6DT40)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Bulut, D.; Duangdee, N.; Groeger, H.; Berkessel, A.; Hummel, W.
Screening, molecular cloning, and biochemical characterization of an alcohol dehydrogenase from Pichia pastoris useful for the kinetic resolution of a racemic beta-hydroxy-beta-trifluoromethyl ketone
ChemBioChem
17
1349-1358
2016
Komagataella phaffii (C4R4L0), Komagataella phaffii GS115 (C4R4L0)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Chen, L.; Wang, T.; Guo, Q.; Zhang, X.; Song, L.
Analysis on cloning of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene in capitulum of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Hangju and its expression characteristics
Chin. Tradit. Herbal Drugs
47
1187-1192
2016
Chrysanthemum x morifolium
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Ahmed, N.U.; Park, J.I.; Jung, H.J.; Yang, T.J.; Hur, Y.; Nou, I.S.
Characterization of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) genes and their association with cold and freezing stress in Brassica rapa
Gene
550
46-55
2014
Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4D235), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4DRB9), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4DU26), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4DU27), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4DU28), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4E380), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4E7I9), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4E7J1), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4E7J2), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4ECU0), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4ES88), Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis (M4FB76)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Shin, D.; Choi, M.; Kang, C.; Park, C.; Choi, S.; Park, Y.
Overexpressing the wheat dihydroflavonol 4-reductase gene TaDFR increases anthocyanin accumulation in an Arabidopsis dfr mutant
Genes Genomics
38
333-340
2016
Triticum aestivum (Q75QJ0)
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Miyagawa, N.; Miyahara, T.; Okamoto, M.; Hirose, Y.; Sakaguchi, K.; Hatano, S.; Ozeki, Y.
Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase activity is associated with the intensity of flower colors in Delphinium
Plant Biotechnol.
32
249-255
2015
Delphinium cardinale (A0A0C6ENR6), Delphinium grandiflorum (A0A0C6EUC4), Delphinium nudicaule (A0A0C6E754)
-
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wendell, D.L.; Vaziri, A.; Shergill, G.
The gene encoding dihydroflavonol 4-reductase is a candidate for the anthocyaninless locus of rapid cycling Brassica rapa (fast plants type)
PLoS ONE
11
e0161394
2016
Brassica rapa, Brassica rapa DWRCBr76
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Hua, C.; Linling, L.; Shuiyuan, C.; Fuliang, C.; Feng, X.; Honghui, Y.; Conghua, W.
Molecular cloning and characterization of three genes encoding dihydroflavonol-4-reductase from Ginkgo biloba in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway
PLoS ONE
8
e72017
2013
Ginkgo biloba, Ginkgo biloba (I6XNY7)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Wang, H.; Fan, W.; Li, H.; Yang, J.; Huang, J.; Zhang, P.
Functional characterization of dihydroflavonol-4-reductase in anthocyanin biosynthesis of purple sweet potato underlies the direct evidence of anthocyanins function against abiotic stresses
PLoS ONE
8
e78484
2013
Ipomoea batatas
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Miosic, S.; Thill, J.; Milosevic, M.; Gosch, C.; Pober, S.; Molitor, C.; Ejaz, S.; Rompel, A.; Stich, K.; Halbwirth, H.
Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes encode enzymes with contrasting substrate specificity and show divergent gene expression profiles in Fragaria species
PLoS ONE
9
e112707
2014
Fragaria vesca (A0A0A0PTI9), Fragaria vesca (A0A0A0PTJ4), Fragaria vesca (A0A0A0PV90), Fragaria vesca (A0A0A0PVL2), Fragaria vesca (A0A0A0PVL5), Fragaria vesca (A0A0A0PXZ7), Fragaria vesca, Fragaria x ananassa (A0A0A0PTJ7), Fragaria x ananassa (A0A0A0PVL7), Fragaria x ananassa, Fragaria x ananassa (O22617), Fragaria x ananassa (Q5UL14)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Tian, J.; Han, Z.Y.; Zhang, J.; Hu, Y.; Song, T.; Yao, Y.
The balance of expression of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonol synthase regulates flavonoid biosynthesis and red foliage coloration in crabapples
Sci. Rep.
5
12228
2015
Malus hybrid cultivar (C3UZH2)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Viljoen, C.; Snyman, M.; Spies, J.
Identification and expression analysis of chalcone synthase and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase in Clivia miniata
South Afr. J. Bot.
87
18-21
2013
Clivia miniata (G4Y3X0)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Luo, P.; Ning, G.; Wang, Z.; Shen, Y.; Jin, H.; Li, P.; Huang, S.; Zhao, J.; Bao, M.
Disequilibrium of flavonol synthase and dihydroflavonol-4-reductase expression associated tightly to white vs. red color flower formation in plants
Front. Plant Sci.
6
1257
2015
Nicotiana tabacum (A3RK76), Nicotiana tabacum, Petunia x hybrida, Petunia x hybrida (Q9M5B1), Rosa rugosa (A0A097NUZ0), Rosa rugosa
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Li, Q.; Wang, J.; Sun, H.Y.; Shang, X.
Flower color patterning in pansy (Viola x wittrockiana Gams.) is caused by the differential expression of three genes from the anthocyanin pathway in acyanic and cyanic flower areas
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
84
134-141
2014
Viola x wittrockiana Gams. (A0A024CBV5)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team
Tian, J.; Han, Z.Y.; Zhang, J.; Hu, Y.; Song, T.; Yao, Y.
The balance of expression of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and flavonol synthase regulates flavonoid biosynthesis and red foliage coloration in crabapples
Sci. Rep.
5
12228
2015
Malus hybrid cultivar (C3UZH2)
Manually annotated by BRENDA team