1.1.1.21: aldehyde reductase

This is an abbreviated version, for detailed information about aldehyde reductase, go to the full flat file.

Reaction

alditol
+
NAD(P)+
=
aldose
+
NAD(P)H
+
H+

Synonyms

17betaHSD5, 20-alpha-HSD, 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, AdhA, AKR1B, AKR1B1, AKR1B10, AKR1B13, AKR1B14, AKR1B3, AKR1C3, AKR4C7, aldehyde reductase, alditol/NADP+ oxidoreductase, alditol: NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase, alditol:NAD(P)+1oxidoreductase, alditol:NADP 1-oxidoreductase, alditol:NADP oxidoreductase, aldo-keto reductase, aldo-keto reductase family 1 member B7, aldoketo reductase 1C3, aldose reductase, aldose reductase 2, aldose reductase-like, aldose reductase-like protein, aldose xylose reductase, ALDRXV4, ALR, ALR1, ALR2, AR, ARI, BAR, Fibroblast growth factor regulated protein, FR-1 protein, GRE3, HAR, HRAR, isobutyraldehyde reductase, More, MVDP, NADPH-aldopentose reductase, NADPH-aldose reductase, polyol dehydrogenase (NADP2), RLAR, small intestine reductase, TPN-polyol dehydrogenase, VAS deferens androgen-dependent protein, YqhD

ECTree

     1 Oxidoreductases
         1.1 Acting on the CH-OH group of donors
             1.1.1 With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
                1.1.1.21 aldehyde reductase

Activating Compound

Activating Compound on EC 1.1.1.21 - aldehyde reductase

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ACTIVATING COMPOUND
ORGANISM
UNIPROT
COMMENTARY hide
LITERATURE
IMAGE
(NH4)2SO4
12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate
-
i.e. TPA, induces enzyme expression in A-549 cells and increases the enzyme activity, TPA is a potent tumor promoter, TPA-induced increase in mRNA level and promoter activity of the AR gene is significantly attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of protein kinase C, tyrosine kinase, or nuclear kinase and NF- kB, cycloheximide, actinomycin D, bisindolylmaleimide I, and genistein abolish enzyme induction by TPA
bovine serum albumin
-
10-15% increased activity
-
D-xylose
-
induces enzyme activity
DTT
-
activates the enzyme in healthy heart slightly, but slightly inhibits the ischemic heart enzyme
glutathione
-
ALR shows a high level of specificity towards glutathione conjugates and very little specificity towards trypanothione conjugates
methylglyoxal
-
up to 4.5fold induction of mRNA, activity and protein level, abolished in presence of cycloheximide or actinomycin D
N-(beta-glucopyranosyl)-N2-acetyl-S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine
-
2 mM, up to 7fold increase in activity, possibly due to nitrosation of Cys298
Na2SO4
NaCl
-
increased concentration
NADPH
-
in absence, loss of 60% of activity
peroxynitrite
-
peroxynitrite activates by oxidizing cysteine resiudes to sulfenic acid. C298 is the major site of sulfenic acid formation and oxidation of C298 is necessary and sufficient for enzyme activation by peroxynitrite
pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
-
2,5fold activity at 0,5 mM
SO42-
Sodium acetate
-
0.5 g/l in reaction medium, about 10% increase of activity
Sodium phosphate
-
at pH 5.0-5.8 and pH 7.2
sorbitol
-
600 mosmol per kg H2O, up to 2fold increase in activity
SP-600125
-
0.01 mM, about 50% increase of sorbitol-induced activity
sulfate
-
activates the enzyme in ischemic heart
Tween
-
Tween-20, Tween-80, Tween-100, each 0.1% (w/v)
additional information
-